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Domestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge Vol1 | by A. F. M. Willich



As the nature and practical tendency of the Domestic Encyclopaedia have, in some measure, been anticipated, partly in the prefixed Title-page, and partly in the foregoing Dedication, a few remarks on the origin and composition of this Work, will suffice to convince the indulgent Reader, that it has not been undertaken with a view merely to increase the number of voluminous works already extant, and of a similar complexion. It has been generally supposed, that the rapid succession of Cyclopaedias, and Encyclopaedias, which have appeared within the last twenty years, and which often are more distinguished by their alluring title-pages than by their intrinsic merit, affords so many proofs of the progress of Science and Literature, as well as of the increasing spirit of inquiry. This conjecture, however, is extremely doubtful, if not totally unfounded...

TitleDomestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge Vol1
AuthorA. F. M. Willich
PublisherB. McMillan
Year1802
Copyright1802, B. McMillan
AmazonThe domestic encyclopaedia; or, A dictionary of facts, and useful knowledge: Comprehending a concise view of the latest discoveries, inventions, and improvements, ... numerous engravings and cuts in five volumes

Domestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge: Comprehending A Concise View Of The Latest Discoveries, Inventions, And Improvements, Chiefly Applicable To Rural And Domestic Economy; Together With Descriptions Of The Most Interestlng Objects Of Nature And Art; The History Of Men And Animals, In A State Of Health Or Disease; And Practical Hints Respecting The Arts And Manufactures, Both Familiar And Commercial.

Illustrated With Numerous Engravings And Cuts.

In Four Volumes.

Volume First.

By A. F. M. Willich, M. D.

Author Of The Lectures On Diet And Regimen, etc. etc.

London:

Printed For Murray And Highley, 32, Fleet-Street; Vernor And Hood, Poultry; G. Kearsley, Fleet-Street; H. D. Svmonds, And Thomas Hurst; Paternoster-Row ; And The Author.

MDCCCII

Printed by B. McMillan, Bow Street, Covent-Garden.

-To The King
Sir, Animated by the gracious approbation, with which Your Majesty was pleased to receive the outline of the present Work, the Editor was encouraged to solicit the Royal Sanction, and to avail him...
-Preface
As the nature and practical tendency of the Domestic Encyclopaedia have, in some measure, been anticipated, partly in the prefixed Title-page, and partly in the foregoing Dedication, a few remarks on ...
-Abdomen
Abdomen, or the lower belly, is one of the most important regions of the human body, not only on account of its various contents, but also from its exposed situation. Although, to give a strictly a...
-Ablution
Ablution, in its literal signification, implies washing, and is usually confined to purification by the aid of water; but may also be applied to cleansing, or washing with any other pure liquid. It is...
-Abortion
Abortion, or miscarriage, is, in modern times, justly considered as a misfortune; though the detestable and unnatural vice of procuring it by art, was connived at by the ancient Romans; whose disgrace...
-Abraum
Abraum, in natural history, a term given by some writers ies of red clay found in the Isle of Wight, and used by our artizans to impart a fine red colour to new mahogany wood. ...
-Abridgement
Abridgement, is the art of compressing any .species of literary composition, so as to convey its full and complete tenor in a sm compass than the original. The talent of abridging the labours o...
-Abscess
Abscess is a soft, circumscribed tumor, containing matter, generally attended with fluctuation, and some-times, though not always, with considerable pain. It is the consequence of some previous inflam...
-Abstinence
Abstinence may be defined, the habit of refraining from what is either useful, agreeable, or pernicious ; and may be divided into general and particular. In the former sense, it may signify a certain ...
-Acacia
Acacia, in botany, Egyptian thorn; according to LinnAEUs, is a species of mimosa, growing in Egypt. It is also to be found in North America, and is there called the locust-tree. Its culture is not dif...
-False Acacia
Acacia, the False, or Robinia Pseudo-Acacia, L. is a native of North America, and the northern parts of Asia. This beautiful and valuable tree flourishes best in sandy soils, mixed with light black ea...
-Acids
Acids are obtained from vegetable and mineral substances, either by fermentation or distillation. The vegetable acids, however, such as the juice of limes and lemons, are frequently procured withou...
-Acorns
Acorns, or the seeds of the oak, though not at present an article of human subsistence, yet, if we may credit the testimony of ancient writers, formed no small part of the diet of the ancient Germans ...
-Acre
Acre, a denomination used in the measurement of land: an acre consists of four square roods, each containing 40 perches, or poles. In different countries i( varies, accord-to the length.of the pole, w...
-Acute Diseases
Acute Diseases are such as are either attended with inflammation, or other urgent symptoms, which bring on an early crisis, and render them dangerous in their consequence : hence they are opposed to c...
-Adder
Adder, in zoology, a name for the viper. As this reptile is well known in most parts of England, a particular description of it is unnecessary ; but as accidents frequently happen by its bite, we shal...
-Adulteration
Adulteration is the corruption, or debasement by an improper mixture, of any substance that was originally in a pure state. This art, though not unknown to the ancients, has in modern times been carri...
-Advebtisement
Advebtisement, generally, signifies any information given to who are interested in a common concern. It more particularly alludes to a short account of an affair inserted in a public newspaper. We sho...
-Aether
Aether, a term formerly used to signify a thin subtle matter, finer than air, and completely filling the whole space of the firmament. Various opinions have been held respecting its precise nature:...
-Affliction
Affliction, as opposed to a state of joy and prosperity, cannot be called a disease, though when indulged to excess, it may be productive of many mental and bodily affections. For whatever tend., to e...
-Agaric of the Oak
Agaric of the oak, or the Agaricus Quercimus, L. is well known as a styptic, when applied to external wounds. M. Adouillet, an eminent French surgeon, has employed it, instead of ligature...
-Age
Ageb> signifies any period of duration. It is indiscriminately used to express many objects and situations, but is more frequently applied to the latter of advanced periods of human life ; and, i...
-Agitation
Agitation is the art of shaking a body, or tossing it backwards and forwards. In physics, this term is often used for a commotion of the parts of a natural body. Fermentation and effervescence are att...
-Agony
Agony is a term used to signify an extreme degree of pain, or the last pangs of death. The terror of death appears, in a great degree, occasioned by the contortions and convulsions with which the agon...
-Agriculture
Agriculture is the art of cultivating the earth, so that it may produce the vegetables we desire in their greatest perfection. It may be divided into two branches : namely, theory and practice. The fo...
-Common Agrimony
Common Agrimony; or Agrimonia Eupatoria, L. is an indigenous plant, Which grows in elevated situations, and is frequently met with about hedges and roads. It is represented in the 6th and 7th plates o...
-Hemp 3 Agrimony
Hemp 3 Agrimony, or Eupa-torium cannalinum, L. is likewise a native plant, and grows chiefly on the banks of rivulets, and near hedges. A representation of it may be seen in Sowerby's English Botany, ...
-Ague
Ague is a general term for those fevers which have periodical intermissions, and are. specifically denominated quotidian, Urtian, quartan, according to the various periods at which the febrile paroxys...
-Air
Air, in a pure state, is a colourless, transparent, compressible and elastic fluid; and one of the most important elements, whether we consider its application to purposes general economy, or its effe...
-Air-Bath
Air-Bath, in its general acceptation, implies a contrivance for the reception of fresh air. AH persons, but especially children, ought to resort, at least for a short time, every day to this method o...
-Air-Jacket
Air-Jacket, a dress made of leather, in which are contained several bags or bladders, composed of the same materials, and communicating with with other. These are filled with air blown through a le...
-Alabaster
Alabaster, is a species of stone, the basis of which is calcareous earth. Mixed with any acid, no effervescence takes place ; in this respect it differs from marble, but in its chemical properties it ...
-Alarum
Alarum, a term employed to signify any instrument, or contrivance, for the purpose of awakening persons from sleep, at a certain hour, or of alarming them when exposed to danger. In the former sense, ...
-Albumen
Albumen, properly signifies the white of an egg, but has lately been used in chemistry, to denote likewise one of those elementary constituents of vegetable bodies. which, in its colour and properties...
-Alchemy
Alchemy is the art of transmuting metals into gold, or changing the inferior into more precious ores. It was formerly much cultivated, and held in high estimation by fanatics, as well as by many learn...
-Alcohol
Alcohol, in chemistry, signifies spirit of wine, in a more ardent and purified state, obtained by distillation. Its specific gravity is to that of distilled water, as 315 to 1000. When diluted, in the...
-Alder-Tree
Alder-Tree, or the Betula of Linnaeus, is so well known by the name of common birch, as to require no particular description. There are three species, 1. the alba, or common ;2. the nana, or dwarf; an...
-Ale
Ale, a fermented liquor, extracted from malt by the process of brewing. It diners from beer, in having; a less proportion of hops. This beverage was first made in Egypt, and used as a substitute in th...
-Ale-House
Ale-House, a public place o for drinking ale or beer. Houses of this description are licensed fey justices of the peace, who recognizance of the landlord, and sureties in ten pounds each, that ...
-Aliment
Aliment. By this term is understood the nutritive quality of such substances as are dissolved and mixed in the stomach, and converted into chyle, by the digestive process. It may be considered rather ...
-Alkalies
Alkalies, in chemistry, signify those substances which possess the following properties : viz. they are 1. incombustible; 2. capable of converting a vegetabable blue to a green colour; 3. they manifes...
-Evergreen Alkanet
Evergreen Alkanet, or Bugloss; the Anchusa sempervirens: L. of eight species, the only one which is indigenous: it is represented in SowErby's Engl.Bot. 45, The Anchusa officinalis, or great...
-Clown's All-Heal
Clown's All-Heal, or Marsh Woundwort, the Stachys palustris, L. is an indigenous plant, growing on the sides of rivers and lakes, in low, moist grounds, and sometimes in corn fields. It is represented...
-Linnaeus
Linnaeus, the illustrious author of the prevailing system of botany, informs us, in his account of esculent plants, that the creeping roots of the all-heal are sought after with avidity by hogs; and t...
-Pimento Allspice
Pimento Allspice, or Jamaica pepper. The berry, in its smell, resembles a mixture of cinnamon, nutmegs, and cloves, whence it has derived its name. It is milder than the East India pepper, and, when e...
-Almanack
Almanack, a term derived from two Arabic words, at and ma-nack, a diary; and is, as its name imports, a table or register containing calendar of days and months, the rising and setting of the sun, the...
-Almond
Almond, a tree, eminent both for its fruit, and for the ornament which it affords to a shrubbery. It is the original of the ancient genus amygdalus, and by the botanic characters of the flowers, compr...
-Alms
Alms, or charitable donations to the poor. In the early ages of Christianity, this term was employed in a more general sense, and signified as well those donations which were given for the subsistence...
-Alms-Houses
Alms-Houses are asylums for the support and maintenance of a certain number of poor, aged, or infirm persons during their lives. When these institutions are of a private nature, and limited in their e...
-Aloe
Aloe is a beautiful exotic plant, the flowers of which grow in umbels on the tops of the stalks, are of an elegant red colour, and appear in the months of August and September. It consists often sp...
-Alum
Alum is a concrete salt, transparent, and of a very austere and astringent taste. It is in general a chemical preparation, being rarely found in a natural state, or freed from other ingredients. In Eg...
-Amber
Amber (Succinum) is a hard, bituminous substance, possessing a resinous taste, and a fragrant aromatic smell. It is the production of many countries, but the best sort is that which is found in variou...
-Alvibury
Alvibury, in farriery signifies a tumour, or wart which is soft to the touch. and full of extravasated blood. It is a disorder incident to horses, and may be cured by the following method. Tie a st...
-Ammonia
Ammonia of which there are two sorts, the native and the factitious. The former, described by Pliny and. Dioscorides, was generated from the urine of camels, in the inns, or caravanseras, where the pi...
-Ammoniac
Ammoniac is a concrete, gummy - resinous juice, usually brought from the East Indies in large masses composed of lumps or tears of a milky colour, but on exposure to the air, it quickly acquires a yel...
-Amphibious Animals
Amphibious Animals are so called, on account of their living partly on land, and partly in water. We cannot, consistently with our plan, enter into a disquisition re-ting their nature and funct...
-Amputation
Amputation is a term in surgery, and signifies the cutting: off a limb from the body. It is sometimes rendered necesssary when a part is so diseased as either to be or ...
-Amusements
Amusements, may be divided into public and private; and they are either of an active or sedentary nature. The former usually consist of bails, plays, entertainments, etc.; the latter, of the various d...
-Ancient Languages
Ancient Languages are those which are 110 longer spoken by a living people, such as the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin : they generally form a part of the education of those students who are intended for th...
-Shakespeare
Shakespeare. us hirellng; Mil-. divine poem lay long neglect for a song. Ot-way lived . | in a days in po-y and a living proach to , - and the first or English philos...
-Ancient Times
Ancient Times are those which refer to remote periods of antiquity. The degeneracy and corruption of modern times, as opposed to those of the ancients, have afforded a fruitful source of peevish in...
-Anemometer
Anemometer signifies a mechanical instrument for ascertaining the power and velocity of the wind. Successful methods have discovered to determine, with in, the various properties of the air, its ...
-Anemone
Anemone, or Wind-Flower, is the name of a plant d on account of thai flowers', which, by Greeks, were supposed not to open till the wind blows ; whence it received its original name. Lin-n...
-Anemoscope
Anemoscope, a mechanical instrument for determining the course and velocity of the wind. That part which exhibits the former, or shews from what point of the compass the wind blows, consists of an ind...
-Aneurism
Aneurism, in surgery, signifies a throbbing tumor, occasioned by the dilatation or rupture of an. artery : it consists of* three kinds. viz. the true or encysted, the false or diffused; and the varico...
-Angelica
Angelica, is a plant of which there are seven species, though, only two of them may be ranked among the indigenous. 1. Angelica Archangclica, L. or the Garden Angelica, is a large umbelliferous pla...
-Anger
Anger may be defined to be a violent passion of the poind, aris from a sense of personal injury, and attended with an ardent desire of It is either deliberative or instinctive; in the latter case, ...
-Angling
Angling, among sportsmen, is the art of fishing with a rod, to which are fitted a line, hook, and bait. The season for this amusement commences about the month of June, and the proper hours are, at th...
-Animal
Animal, in natural History, signifies an organized, living body, capable of voluntary motion, and endowed with sensation. The most powerful instinct of animals is, that of self-preservation, and th...
-Animalcule
Animalcule, in its general acceptation, merely signifies a little animal, but is usually applied to those living objects, which are invisible to the naked eye, and can be discoverable only by the assi...
-Animal Flower
Animal Flower (Actinia Sociata) from its supposed property of stinging-, was formerly called Sea-Nettle, or Sea- Anemone, but by late English writers has received its present name. This singular anima...
-Animal Kingdom
Animal Kingdom, an expression which includes all organized living bodies capable of sensation and voluntary motion : and essentially differing from plants and minerals, which have neither organs of se...
-Animal Life
Animal Life is that organized principle which distinguishes animals from vegetables, and is susceptible of sensation and reflection. Various conjectures have, at different periods, and ...
-Animal Magnetism
Animal Magnetism, or the art of curing diseases by the magnet, was invented by a German philosopher, named Father Hehl, of Vienna, who first applied it to medicine : but the noted MesmERi, a physician...
-Animal Motion
Animal Motion : various conjectures have been broached with a view to account for the origin of this important function in the animal economy: but, like most other springs of action, arising from a .f...
-Animal Economy
Animal Economy, in its more extensive sense, implies an accurate and physiological knowledge of the use, structure, and component parts of all animal bodies j but is here intended, to signify only suc...
-Animal Spirits
Animal Spirits are supposed to consist of a fine and subtle fluid, secreted in the cortical substance of the brain, and spinal marrow, which passes through the medullary part, and is conveyed through ...
-Animation
Animation, is that property which distinguishes living from dead or inanimate matter, and is frequently used to denote the principle of lite itself. Strictly speaking, however, it is that which im-par...
-Anise
Anise, or Pimpinelln, in bo, is an annual, umbelliferous and aromatic plant, of which there are ten species, though scarcely three of them are indigenous, name1. The Common Burnet Saxifrage, or t...
-Annealing
Annealing, by artificers called Heating, is a part of the process of making, or finishing, glass ; and consists in placing bottles and other vessels, while hot, in a kind of oven or furnace, where the...
-Annuity
Annuity implies a sum of money payable yearly, half-yearly, or quarterly, to continue for a certain number of years, for life, or for ever. An annuity is called an arrear, when it continues unpaid ...
-Anodyne
Anodyne, is a term applied to medicines which have a tendency to assuage pain. This desirable purpose may be attained in three different ways: 1. By pare-gorics, or such remedies as are calculated to ...
-Ant
Ant, or Formica, in zoology, is a genus of insects belonging to the sixth class of the animal kingdom. The characters of this are, that there is a small scale tween the breast and belly ; the joi...
-Ant-Hills
Ant-Hills are so well known, that they require no additional description to that given under the article Ant.They are very injurious to dry pastures, not only by wasting the extent of soil whic...
-Antidotes
Antidotes, are medicines which prevent or cure the effect deleterious substances, either taken into the stomach, or externally applied to the human body. Of those poisons which generally prove mo...
-Antimony
Antimony is a heavy, brittle semi-metal, composed of long bright streaks, resembling needles, of a dark lead colour, and without taste or smell. It is found in Germany, France, and also in Eng-j but...
-Antipathy
Antipathy, in physiology, is used to express the natural aversion which an animated or sensitive being feels at the real or ideal presence of any particular object. Such are the reciprocal hostilities...
-Antiquities
Antiquities is a term signifying those testimonies, or authentic records of the early ages, which are transmitted to posterity by tradition. The study of antiquities forms a very extensive science,...
-Antiscorbutics
Antiscorbutics signify those applications and medicines which are found useful in the cure of the scurvy, such as pure air, gentle exercise, milk, vegetables, fruit, etc.See Scurvy. ...
-Antiseptics
Antiseptics, a term applied to those substances which resist or check putrefaction. Prior to the experiments made by Sir John Pringle, for the purpose of ascertaining in what manner bodies are reso...
-Anxiety
Anxiety is that state of the mind in which it is uneasy about some future event; either from an apprehension of danger, or a solicitude of being relieved from suspense. The causes of anxiety may be...
-Ape
Ape, in zoology, an animal of which we find more than fifty species : it is more remarkable on account of its peculiar instinct, bodily structure, and habits of life, than from either its dangerous or...
-Aperients
Aperients, in medicine, signify those substances which possess a gentle, purgative quality, and facilitate the circulation of the fluids, by removing obstructions.See Laxatives. ...
-Aphorism
Aphorism is a term used to denote either an unconnected maxim, or a short pointed sentence, comprising much in a few words. It is at present chiefly used in medicine, and law : thus we say, the Aphori...
-Apoplexy
Apoplexy is a disease in which the patient is suddenly deprived of sensation, and incapable of voluntary motion. Although nosologists have included several other affections of the head, under this den...
-Apothecary
Apothecary, is an appellation given to persons who vend and compound medicinal drugs ; though most of them likewise prescribe tor diseases, and attend patients, as well in slight as in the most danger...
-Appetite
Appetite, in general, signifies the natural instinctive desire, by which the animal is led to pursue the gratifications of sense. In the present instance, however, we shall confine its meaning to the ...
-Apple-Tree
Apple-Tree, the common, or Pyr us malus, L. is too well known in this country, to require a minute description. It frequently grows to the height of twenty or thirty, feet, and produces a considerable...
-Application
Application, in a general sense, signifies the art of bringing things together, in order to discover their mutual agreement or relation to each other. It is also familiarly used to express the study o...
-Apprenticeship
Apprenticeship, is the binding of a person by covenant, to serve his master for a limitted period, on condition of being instructed in his trade, or occupation. Its usual duration is for the term of s...
-Apricot-Tree
Apricot-Tree, the Primus Armeniaca, L. is a species of the plum, or cherry-tree. Although Linnjeus has reduced these different trees to one genus, which he calls Prunus, yet we shall in this place enu...
-Aqua Fortis
Aqua Fortis, the nitrous acid of a certain strength, and so called from its dissolving power; but, when in a concentrated and smoking state, it is denominated spirit of nitre. It is made by distilling...
-Aqua Regia
Aqua Regia is a compound of the nitrous and marine acids, in different proportions, according to the purpose for which it is required; and usually made, by dissolving sal ammoniac, or common salt, in ...
-Aqua Vitae
Aqua Vitae is usually understood to signify either brandy, or spirit of wine, prepared simply, or with aromatics. Some, however, make a distinction; appropriating the term brandy to what is drawn from...
-Arable Lands
Arable Lands, in general, are those naturally fit for tillage, or which may, by proper means, be prepared for the production of grain. The just proportion between arable and pasture. lands, has in ...
-Arbour
Arbour, in gardening, is a kind of shady bower, formerly in great esteem, but of late almost generally abandoned, on account of the damp and unwholesome shelter it affords. Arbours are principally ...
-Arcanum
Arcanum, strictly speaking, signifies any thing which is involved in mystery; but, in physic, it more usually denotes a remedy, the preparation of which is industriously concealed, either to enhance i...
-Archery
Archery is the art, or exercise, of shooting with a bow and arrow. Among: ancient nations, the bow was the principal instrument of war; and the. skill of the archer often decided the fate of battle...
-Architecture
Architecture, a term which denotes the art of building in general, though chiefly applied to the construction of edifices ap propriated to the purposes of civil life, such as houses, churches, halls, ...
-Argument
Argument, when applied to logic, signifies an inference drawn from premises, the truth of which is either indisputable, or highly probable. In matters of literature, it denotes the abridgement, or hea...
-Arithmetic
Arithmetic, is a science which teaches the method of computing numbers, and explains their nature and peculiarities. At what time it was invented, is altogether unknown ; though the four first fundame...
-Aromatic
Aromatic, an epithet given to such substances as yield a strong fragrant smell, and impart a warm taste. In this class are included the various spices, such as nutmegs, cloves, cinnamon, mace, &G.. So...
-Arquebusade Water
Arquebusade Water, a medicinal preparation, which has received this name, from its great efficacy in healing gun-shot wounds, though it is, at present, with more propriety, applied to bruises, tumors ...
-Arrack
Arrack, Arac, or Rack, is a spirituous liquor imported from the East Indies, and used either as a cordial, or an ingredient in punch. It is obtained by distillation from rice, or sugar, fermented with...
-Arrangement
Arrangement, a term which denotes a distribution of the various component parts of any whole, in a certain order, or proportion: and refers either to sub-stance, time, or place. In the first instance,...
-Arrow
Arrow, is a missive weapon of defence, used by archers. Its form is slender, pointed, and barbed. Arrow-makers were denominated fletchers ; men of considerable importance in the state. Arrow...
-Arrow-Grass
Arrow-Grass, is a plant of which there are three species ; but two only are natives of Britain, namely, the Triglochin palustre, or Marsh, and the maritimiuni, or Sea Arrow-grass. The former is fre-qu...
-Arrow-Head
Arrow-Head, Common, the Sagittaria sagittifolia, L. is one of those neglected plants, which, though growing wild in many parts of England, especially on the banks of rivers, are not converted to any ...
-Arrow-Root
Arrow-Root, Indian, or the Marania, a plant of which there are three species, the arundinacea, galanga, and comosa; all of them are herbaceous, perennial exotics of the Indies, and kept in our hot-hou...
-Arsenic
Arsenic, an heavy, opaque, crystalline substance, which, on fracture, resembles sal ammoniac in a concrete state. Most of the metallic ores contain it in greater or less proportion, especially those o...
-Arts
Arts as defined by Lord Bacon, is. a properdisposal of natural objects, by human thought and experience ; so as to answer the several purposes of mankind; in which sense the word Art stands oppose...
-Artery
Artery, or a pulsating blood-vessel, is a cylindrical canal, conveying the blood immediately from the heart to all the parts of the body. On examining the structure of the largest of these vessels, su...
-Artichoke
Artichoke, or the Cynara, L. though an exotic, is a plant well known and much cultivated in this country. There are four species, but only two are reared for use, viz. the scolymus, or garden artichok...
-Jerusalem Artichoke
Jerusalem Artichoke, is a plant of the same genus as the sun-flower. It produces bulbs at its roots, has been long cultivated in gardens, as an esculent vegetable, and, except that it is watery and of...
-Articulation
Articulation, in language, is the divsion of sounds into distinct, syllables; and consists in giving every letter its due proportion of sound, so that the hearer may perceive and determine their numb...
-Artificer
Artificer is a person employed in manufacturing any kind of goods or wares, such as those of iron, brass, wool, See . Of this description are smiths, braziers, and weavers. They are distinguished from...
-Artist
Artist is an appellation given to a person skilled in some particular art, such as that of watch-making, engraving, etc. Evelyn informs us, that a privilege is granted to artists at Vi-cenza, simil...
-Arvenusly
Arvenusly, or Pinus Cem-bra, L. is a species of pine, which is principally found in Siberia, and on the Alpine mountains. Its branches resemble those of the pitch-tree, which is commonly called spruce...
-Asafcetida
Asafcetida, a gum-resin, so called on account of its offensive smell. It is obtained from the Ferula asafuetida, L. an umbelliferous plant, growing wild in Persia; the root of which, on cutting it, ex...
-Asarabacca
Asarabacca, in botany, the Asarum Europoem, L. is an English, though rare* plant, growing in the northern woody parts of this island. A good representation of it is given in Dr. Woodville's '. Bot. P1...
-Ascarides
Ascarides, in zoology, belong to the order of vermes, and are divided into two species : 1. the vermiculaiis, distinguished by a transverse mouth, and faint annular rugae, or folds. It is about a quar...
-Ash
Ash, or the Fraxinus, L. is a genus of which there are six species. Of these, the most useful is the common indigenous ash, or Fraxi-?uts excelsior, L. which is well known to every rural economist. ...
-Ashes
Ashes, generally speaking, are the remains of bodies reduced by fire. There are vegetable, animal, and mineral ashes: but the first strictly entitled to that appellation. We understand, that the Frenc...
-Asparagus
Asparagus, also called Spa-ragus, Sperage, or Sparrow-grass, is an esculent plant, which is reared with great attention, and much esteemed on account of its delicate flavour. There are ten species, bu...
-Asphodel
Asphodel, or King's Spear, the Asphodelus, L. is an exotic plant, of which there are five species 5 namely, four growing wild in the southern parts of Europe, and one only, the Nartheczuvt ossifra-gum...
-Ass
Ass, by naturalists, is classed as a species of horse, or Equus. The tame, or domestic Ass, is an animal remarkable for his meek-tience, and tranquillity. He submits with firmness to chasti...
-Assembly
Assembly, in general, signifies a meeting of several persons in the same place, and for a common purpose. Without entering into a history of the assemblies that were customary among the ancients, or t...
-Assimilation
Assimilation, inanimal economy, is that hidden natural process by which living beings are enabled to convert such bodies as have a certain affinity to them, or at least after having undergone some pre...
-Asthma
Asthma, is a spasmodic disease of the organs of respiration, attended with cough, difficulty of breathing, wheezing, etc. There are two distinct species of this disorder, each of which requires a d...
-Astringents
Astringents are those medicinal substances which act upon the simple elementary fibres, by contracting them, and increasing the force of cohesion, so as to re-lieve that degree of which depends on the...
-Astrology
Astrology, a conjectural science, the professors of which pretend to judge of the effects and influence of the planets ; and to foretell future events; by the situation and different aspects of the he...
-Astronomy
Astronomy is considered as the most sublime of all the sciences, and implies a knowledge of the heavenly bodies, with regard to their respective magnitude, motions, distances, etc. ; and of the natura...
-Athletic Habit
Athletic Habit, a term which implies a strong of body. Among the , it signified a robust and corpulent such as the athtetae endeauvoured to acquire. The athletic habit is cor ...
-Atmosphere
Atmosphere, a term derived from the greek words vapour and sphere, whence it has been generally applied, to signify that surrounding mass of air which consists of aqueous and other vapours, the electr...
-Attenuants
Attenuants, or attenuating medicines, in humoral pathology are such as have a tendency to subtilize or resolve the humours into finer parts. And though this defi nition may not satisfy the plurality o...
-Auction
Auction, a public sale for the disposal of household goods, books, plate, landed estates, etc. By this method of sale, the highest bidder is always the purchaser. The origin of sales by auction is ver...
-Autumn
Autumn is computed the third season of the year ; and with respect to the animal body, is doubtless the most unhealthy. Hence Tertuelian calls it merest of valetudinarians ; but the ancient G...
-Avarice
Avarice, is that restless and insatiable desire of accummulating riches, which is the surest indication of a contracted and, generaih , depraved mind. As the governing passions of the brute creatio...
-Avens
Avens, or Geum, L. a genus of plants comprehending eleven species, of which, however, only two are natives of Britain, viz. 1. Common Avens ; the Geum urranum, L. (also called great; flowered Areas...
-Bachelor
Bachelor, a word of doubtful origin ; though, in the political economy of nations, when a plurality of persons apparently glory in that appellation, its practice cannot fail to be attended with effect...
-Bacon
Bacon, the flesh of swine, salted, dried, and, generally, smoked in a chimney. As the history and customs relative to this savoury dish, would furnish but little instruction, we shall proceed to state...
-Badger
Badger, an nnimal resembling in its external characters, both a dog and a hog: it is now seldom met with in England, though formerly it afforded great sport. The unequal length of its legs has introdu...
-Bag
Bag, in commerce, is a term for a sack, or pouch, containing a certain quantity or weight of some particular commodity. Thus a bag of almonds is about three hundred pounds ; of aniseed, from three to ...
-Bagnio
Bagnio, a term adopted from the Italian, and signifying a lath : in English, it denotes a house for bathing, sweating, and cleansing the body; but sometimes also for worse purposes, The ...
-Baiting
Baiting, a practice derived from the barbarous ages, and one of those amusements which degrade the human character. Thus we hear of the baiting of bulls, or bears, by mastiffs, or bull-dogs with short...
-Baker
Baker, a person whose business is that of baking and selling bread. The origin of this useful profession is not ascertained, though it is certain that the first public bakers appeared in the Fast, and...
-Baking
Baking is the art of converting flour, or other farinaceous substances, into bread. - As we propose to treat more fully on this subject, under the article Bread, we shall here only explain what relate...
-Balance
Balance, one of the six simple powers in mechanics, principally used for determining the equality or difference of weights in such bodies as are liable to this computation. There are two kinds of w...
-Baldness
Baldness, a defect of hair chiefly on the forepart of the head. Among the pre-disposing causes of baldness, indulgence i-i sensualgratifications, and paxti-Alarly in wine and spir...
-Ball
Ball, in a general sense, is ;a round or spherical body, whether formed by nature or art. Thus the terraqueous globe which we inhabit, appears to have assumed that form. in consequence of the ...
-Balls
Balls, in the polished circles of society, are those nocturnal assemblies devoted chiefly to the entertainment of dancing. Whether public or private, the institution of balls appears to have been orig...
-Balm
Common Balm, or Melissa officinalis, L. is an exotic plant, though much cultivated by our gardeners, on account of its pleasant aromatic smell, resembling that of the lemon, and its fragrant, thou...
-Balsam
Balsam, or Native Balsam, an oily-resinous fluid, oozing out of certain plant, either spontaneously, or by incision. There are a variety of balsams, denominated according to the sub-stances from wh...
-Balsamics
Balsamics, a term used in an indefinite manner, but literally signifying mitigating substance and often applied to medicines of very different qualities, such as emmollients, detergents, rest...
-Balsamine
Balsamine, or Touch-menot, the Impatients noli-fang L. is one of the poisonous native plants, growing in moist and shady, places, especially in several parts of Westmoreland, Lancashire, Yorkshire,...
-Bamboe Habit
Bamboe Habit, an invention of the Chinese, by the use of which a person unskilled in the art of swimming may easily keep himself above water. The Chi: merchants, when going on a voyage, always provide...
-Bandage
Bandage, in surgery, a fillet, or roller, used in dressing and binding up wounds, restraining dangerous bleedings, and in joining fractured or dislocated bones. The modern and more enlightened surg...
-Bandy-Legs
Bandy-Legs, a vernacular expression applied to distorted or crooked legs. In some cases this is a natural defect in the birth, though it may more frequently be ascribed to an improper treatment of inf...
-Bane-Berries
Bane-Berries, the production of the Herb-Christopher, or Actea spicala, L. a native plant, which is in a high degree poisonous, though very rare, and to be met with chiefly in the northwestern extremi...
-Bank
Bank, in commerce, signifies a common repository, where persons consent to keep their money : it is also applied to certain societies or communities, who take charge of the money of others, either for...
-Bank-Fence
Bank-Fence, in rural economy, signifies the inclosure of ground with an artificial bank. In places where fiat stones cannot be procured, the most durable and advantageous method of fencing in arable ...
-Banks
Banks of Rivers, are those natural boundaries within which . 7 stream is confined, accord-to the magnitude and velocity of its current. But as the course of rivers is frequently rapid and irre...
-Banks of the Sea
Banks of the Sea, are those ions of the ground or bottom of the ocean that may be compared to ridges or hills, with which the land is more or less intersected. Sea-bank sometimes project above...
-Bankrupt
Bankrupt, an appellation given to a person whose bank or : the word is From the French, lanque-route which signifies a breaking or failing in affairs of fortune. From the descriptio...
-Barbel
Barbel, in ichthyology, a genus of fresh-water fishes, comprising thirty-one species, which are principally distinguished by the number of rays in the vent-fin: their general characters are, a toothle...
-Baubles
Baubles, or BARBS, in fa riery, are those small excrescences frequently appearing under the tongue of horses, as well as black cattle : cattle i they are known by two paps, which may be discover...
-Barilla
Barilla, or BARILHA, is properly, the Spanish name of a plant cultivated for its ashes, from which the purest mineral alkali is obtained; but likewise signifies that particular sort of vegetable alkal...
-Baring
Baring of Trees, in horticulture, is the removing of the earth from the roots of those which are planted in a dry soil. This operation should be carefully performed in autumn, without injuring the roo...
-Bark
Bark, in the dissection of plants, is the exterior coat of trees, corresponding to the skin of animals. As these are furnished with a cellular membrane covering all the fleshy parts, and usually reple...
-Barley
Barley, or Hordeum, L. one of the most useful culmifernus plants, producing mealy and saccharine grains, which are principally used for malting and brewing beer. As the different species and varieties...
-Barn
Barn, in husbandry, a covered building or place, with vent-holes in the sides, for laying up any kind of grain, hay, or straw. This kind of store-house being so well known to all rural economists, ...
-Barn-Floors
Barn-Floors. The best kind are to be found, according to Mr. Marshall, in the district of Cotswold, Gloucestershire: they are from 12 to 14, by 18 to 20feet ; some of ouk, Others of stone; but ...
-Barometer
Barometer, an instrument of modern invention, for measuring and ascertaining the weight of the atmosphere, as well as the height of maintains, and likewise foretelling, with tolerable accuracy, the pr...
-Barrel
Barrel, in commerce, is a vessel of an oblong size, made of wood, the form of which is generally known, as well as its use for holding various sorts of merchandize : it is also used as a measure for l...
-Barrenness
Barrenness, a term syno-nimous to sterility, in opposition to fecundity, That the creation might not degenerate, Nature has wisely ordained barrenness to all monstrous productions; and hence the steri...
-Barter
Barter, or Truck, is the ex-? changing of one commodity for another ; and forms a rule in the commercial part of arithmetic, by which the commodities are properly calculated and equalled, by computing...
-Basaltes
Basaltes, in natural history, a hard stone of a black, grey, or sometimes greenish colour; and on account of its constituent parts, and resemblance to lava, generally classed among the volcanic produc...
-Basilicon Ointment
Basilicon Ointment, in pharmacy, a preparation consisting of eight parts of hogs lard; five of white resin; and two of vellow wax: or, according to the London College, of nearly equal parts of yellow...
-Basket
Basket, a well knownutensil, made of twigs interwoven together. Considered as a measure in commerce, it denotes an uncertain quantity, as a basket of medlars is two bushels ; of asafoetida from 20 to ...
-Bat
Bat, or Vespertiuo, an animal which seems to fill up the chasm between quadrupeds and birds ; with the latter, however, it has in common only the power of flying, as, Nature has provided it with a smo...
-Bath
Bath, in the general acceptation of the term, signifies a conve-nient receptacle of water adapted to the various purposes of washing or cleansing, and bracing the body, either by plunging, or continui...
-Bathing
Bathing, in general, signifies the act of immersing the body, or part of it, into water, or any other fluid ; and is a practice coeval with mankind. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Germans, as well...
-Dry Baths
Dry Baths were formerly made of ashes, salt, sand, shreds of leather, and similar substance. - Celsus informs us, that the ancihad a variety of sweating baths by a dry heat, and especially by certai...
-Medicated Baths
Medicated Baths, are those saturated with various mineral, vegetable, or sometimes animal sub-stances. Thus we have sulphur and steel baths, aromatic and milk baths ;'there can be no doubt, tha...
-Bath-Waters
Bath-Waters are celebrated on account of their having a higher temperature than any other in Britain, and being the only springs which are sensibly hot to the touch. All other therma/ waters of this i...
-Bay-Salt
Bay-Salt, a kind of brownish impure salt, manufactured in France, Italy, and other countries, by evaporating sea-water in clay-pits ; which is effected at a small expence, and with little trouble. ...
-Bay-Tree
Bay-Tree, or Lauras, L. is an elegant tree, of which there are ten species ; but none of these being indigenous, we shall in this place give an account of those only, which may perhaps in this country...
-Bean
Bean, or Vicia, L. a genus of plants, of which there are four species commonly reared in the gardens of this country: l. The small Lisbon, or Magazan ; 2. The Spanish ; 3.The Sandwich ; and 4.The Wind...
-Kidney Bean
Kidney Bean, or P haseo-ins, L. is a plant of one species, with several varieties. Those prin-cipally cultivated for the table, are, 1. The common white, or Dutch kidney bean ; 2. The smaller kidney, ...
-Bear
Bear, or Ursus, in natural history, a genus of curious quadrupeds, consisting of eight species, the most remarkable of which are: 1. The artos, or black bear, animal of a phlegmatic temperament, i...
-Beard
Beard, the hair growing on the chin and adjacent parts of the face of male adults. The customs of most nations, respecting the beard, have been various. Ancient writers have spoken honourably of the f...
-Beauty
Beauty, in its literal signification, is a term applied to objects of sight, but often figuratively, though improperly, used to express the. effect produced by the perception of other senses, such as ...
-Beaver
Beaver, or Castor, a qua-druped, of which there are three species. 1. The fiber, or common beaver, which inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America, in the banks of rivers or lakes, a...
-Bed
Bed, a convenience for ease, or sleep. It was the general practice in the first ages, for mankind to sleep upon the skins of beasts ; and the Ancient Britons, before the first Roman invasion, slept o...
-Bed-Room
Bed-Room, an apartment, or chamber, devoted to the enjoyment of nightly repose, after the usual labour and fatigue of the clay. Those happy few who, from their respective situations in life, are enabl...
-Bedstead
Bedstead, a frame for supporting a bed. Among the various materials used for bedsteads, iron is not only the most durable, but also the most beneficial, with respect to health. Oak is excellent for th...
-Bed-Time
Bed-Time, or that period of the evening or night, when we retire to enjoy the necessary repose. Although it would be difficult, in the present irregular state of society, to lay down rules for the...
-Bee
Bee, or Apis, in natural history, a genus of insects, of which the mellifica, or domestic honey-bee, is particularly worthy of attention. I. Economy, Instincts, etc. A hive of bees maybe...
-Bee-Hives
Bee-Hives made of straw, have been generally preferred, as they are not liable to be over-heated by the rays of the sun, keep out the cold better than wood, and are cheaper than those of any other mat...
-Bee-Wax
Bee-Wax, a solid concrete, obtained from the honey-combs, sweet and liquid parts are extracted by heating and pressing them between iron plates. The should be hard, compact of a clear yellow c...
-Bee-Glue
Bee-Glue, formerly called Virgin-wax (Propolis:), is another balsamic production of the bee, which deserves to be noticed : it is a kind of natural mastich, of a reddish colour, and very agreeable sme...
-Beech-Tree
Beech-Tree, or the Fagus, L. a plant of which there are three species, viz. 1. The sylvatica, or beech-tree, which rises sixty or seventy feet high; 2. The castnnea, or chesnut-tree; 3. The puwila. or...
-Beech-Nut
Beech-Nut or, as it is more generally called, Beech-Mast, is the seed or fruit of the beech-tree, and is recommended for feeding and fattening hogs. These animals may be secured from the gargut, by mo...
-Beech-Mast Oil
Beech-Mast Oil, is express-. ed from the mast, after it has been shelled and pounded. It is used in many parts of France and Silesia instead of butter: according to Some accounts, it is li...
-Beef
Beef, the flesh of black cattle, prepared for food. This process is managed in various ways, accordingly as the meat is intended for keeping a longer or shorter time. The usual method of salting beef,...
-Beef-Tea
Beef-Tea, a preparation commonly made for persons whose energy of the stomach is reduced, either after recovery from diseases, or in consequence of complaints arising from indigestion. It has been a c...
-Beer
Beer is a fermented, spirituous liquor, prepared from any fa Ous grain, but generally from and, strictly speaking, vinous production, serving as a substitute for wine. As we propose to give a sh...
-Beestings
Beestings, or Breastings, in domestic, economy, a term used for the first milk drawn from a cow after calving. This liquor is of a thick consist-ence, and yellowish colour ; whence some persons hav...
-Beet
Beet, or Beta, L. a plant of which there are four species, viz. 1. The maritima, or sea-beet, which grows spontaneously by the sea side} and in salt marshes in many parts of England. 2. The ho...
-Beetle
Beetle, or Scaralecus, L. a well-known insect, of which there are eighty-seven species, of one common formation, having cases to their wings, which are the more necessary, as they mostly live beneath ...
-Beggars
Beggars require no definition. Various opinions have been held, concerning the good or bad consequences which result from the practice of relieving common beggars, in the public streets. Dr. BURN o...
-Belles Lettres
Belles Lettres, or polite literature, a very comprehensive expression, though not easily defined. Our industrious predecessors, the editors of the Encyclopcedia, Britannica, justly complain that th...
-Bell-Flower
Bell-Flower, or Campanula, L. a genus of plants comprehending eighty species : of which, however, only nine are indigenous. The following are the principal : 1. The rotundifolia, or Round-leaved Be...
-Bellows
Bellows, an apparatus so contrived, as alternately to inspire and expel the air. This machine is too well known to require a particular description. It is used in chambers, kitchens, forges, and found...
-Belly-Ach
Belly-Ach, or Colic, is a disease which may arise from various causes, and is generally accompanied with costiveness, though sometimes also with diarrhoea, especially in children. Adults frequently co...
-Bene-Sked
Bene-Sked, the production of an American plant, the botanical name of Which we have not been able to ascertain. According to a letter of Mr. J. MoRel, inserted in the first volume of the Trans...
-Bent Grass
Bent Grass, or Agrotis, a genus of grasses comprehending forty-one species, of which, according to Dr. Smith, only eight are indigenous ; though Dr-. Hull enumerates fourteen : of these, how ever, we...
-Benzoine
Benzoine, a concrete resinous juice, obtained, according Mr. DRYANDER from the Styrax benzoe, L. a tree which grows chiefly in the island of Sumatra. It is imported from the East Indies. in large mas...
-Berberries
Berberries, or Barberries, the Herberts, L. a shrub better known by the name of Piperidge busk. There are three species of this plant, but one only is indigenous, namely, the vulgaris, or Common Berbe...
-Here
Here, or Barley-big, or Square Barley, is a very strong luxuriant plant, both in grain and straw: it resembles bailey in growth, and cone-wheat in size. It is generally cultivated in Ireland, fo...
-Bergamot
Bergamot, a varietv of the citron, produced by grafting the latter on the stock of a bergamot-pear-tree. The fruit has an exquisite smell and flavour ; and its essence is highly esteemed as a perfume....
-Berne-Machine
Berne-Machine, an engine for rooting up trees, invented by P. Sommer, a native of Berne, in Switzerland. This machine consists of three principal parts : the beam, the ram, and the lever. The beam ...
-Betony
Betony (Wood), or Betonica officinalis, L. alow perennial plant, growing wild in woods, and thickets ; its flowers, which appear in July and August, are of a purplish colour, and stand in spikes on th...
-Bezoar
Bezoar, in natural history and medicine, is a calculous concretion, found in the stomach of animals of the goat kind. It is a morbid substance, possessing neither taste nor smell, and it cannot be con...
-Biennial Plants
Biennial Plants are those, of only two years duration. Several vegetables are of this tribe : being-raised from seed, they generally attain perfection the first year ; and in the following spring, or ...
-Bilberry
Bilberry, ' or the Vacantia*, L, is a plant of which, according to Bechstein, there are twenty-six species, while others enumerate only fifteen: of these, the following are indigenous: 1. The myrti...
-Bile
Bile, is a yellow, or greenish, saponaceoua liquor, secreted in the liver, and collected in the gall-bladder, into which it regurgititates as it were, into a blind gut, and is thence discharged into t...
-Bill
Bill, in husbandry and mechanics, an edged tool, made of iron, with a curvated point. It is much used by gardeners, for pruning trees, and by plumbers and basket-makers. When fitted to a short handle,...
-Bindweed
Bindweed, or Convolvulus, L. a genus of plants, comprising forty-three species, of which only three are natives, namely : 1. The arvensis, or Small Bindweed, a common plant in fields and hedges, bu...
-Biography
Biography, an account of the lives and characters of remark-able persons. It is the most entertaining and instructive branch of history, and admits of the description and passion of romance, with this...
-Birch-Tree
Birch-Tree (Common), or Betula alia, L. is one of the indigenous trees which has already been mentioned under the head of Alder-tree, though the latter is only a species of the same genus, and oug...
-Bird
Bird is a biped animal, provided with a bill, and covered with feathers, having two wings, by which it is enabled to fly, except in a few instances. The science which treats of birds, in general, is ...
-Bird-Lime
Bird-Lime is a viscid matter used for catching birds. - There are different ways of preparing this substance, but it is generally made of holly bark, which is boiled ten or twelve hours; and when its ...
-Bird-Cherry
Bird-Cherry, or the Prunus Padus, L. is a species of cherry-tree, growing wild in several parts of Britain, especially in the North of England, and some parts of Norfolk. The Bird-cherry tree atta...
-Common Bird's Foot
Common Bird's Foot, or Omithopus perpusillus, L. is an indigenous p'ant ; the yellow flowers of which blow in July or August; and the legumen, or pulse, is curv-ed in the form of a bow. See CURT. Land...
-Birth Wort
Birth Wort (Slender), or Aristolochia clematitis, , is the only indgenous species of that plant: it has heart-shaped leaves, an upright stem, and its root is long and slen-der. - See Engl. Bot. 398. ...
-Biscuit
Biscuit, a kind of bread ma-nufactured by confectioners, of fine flour, eggs, sugar, and rose or orange water ; or of flour, eggs, and sugar, with aniseeds and citron-peel. Sea-Biscuit, a sort of h...
-Bismuth
Bismuth, or Tin-glass, one of the semi-metals, of a reddish or light yellow colour, and a lamel-lated texture: it is moderately hard and brittle, so that it breaks under the hammer, and may even be re...
-Great Bistort
Great Bistort, or Snakeweed ; the Polygonum bistorta, L. a native species of knot-grass, most plentiful on meadows and pastures, in the northern counties of England : it has a thick oblique root, abou...
-Small Bistort
Small Bistort, Welch, or Alpine; the Polygonum.viviparum, L. is likewise an indigenous plant, which grows on the moorlands in several parts of Westmoreland and the North Riding of Yorkshire : it has a...
-Bite
Bite, of a mad dog, an unfortunate accident which but too frequently happens in hot summers ; and is supposed to be occasioned chiefly by suffering that faithful animal to feed upon putrid meat, witho...
-Bitter
Bitter, is a term applied to substances of a peculiar taste, and generally opposed to sweet; the principal of which are, the Gentian and Bis tort-roots, Hops, Lesser Centaury, Carduus, etc. Most bi...
-Bitumens
Bitumens, are inflammable mineral bodies, not sulphureous, or only casually impregnated with sulphur. They are of various degrees of consistence, ' and appear, in the mineral kingdom, to correspond wi...
-Black
Black, the darkest of colours, supposed to be owing to the absence of light, as most of the rays which fall on black substances are not reflected, but absorbed by them. There are many shades or var...
-Black-Bird
Black-Bird, or Turdus merula, a specie* of the thrush. When young, its plumage is of a rusty black ; but at the age of one year, being the period of its full growth, its feathers acquire a deep glossy...
-Black Cattle
Black Cattle, among graziers, denotes all the larger kinds of domestic animals which contribute to our support or convenience; such as oxen, cows, horses, etc. As these will be respectively treated of...
-Black Canker
Black Canker is the name given by husbandmen to a caterpillar which commits great devastation among turnips. The best method of destroying these insects is, to turn a body of ducks into the fields inf...
-Black Fly
Black Fly, an insect that at-tacks the seedling leaves of turnips, cabbages, and many otler vegetables. In summer, it may frequently be seen in swarms on the wing near the ground, search ing for, and ...
-Black Land
Black Land, in agriculture, a term used to denote a peculiar kind of clayey soil, which in rainy weather appears of a dusky or blackish colour, though, when dry, it more resembles a pale grey, than? a...
-Black Leather
Black Leather is that which, having passed through the hands of the currier, after being scored and rubbed three times on the grain side with copperas-water, acquires a black colour, instead of the ru...
-Black-Legs
Black-Legs, a name given by the Leicestershire breeders to a disease incident to calves and sheep. It is a kind of gelatinous humour, which settles between the skin and flesh of the neck, and not unfr...
-Black Tin
Black Tin, in mineralogy, a term given to tin-ore when it is ready to be melted into metal, after having been well stamped, washed, and dressed. It is taken up from the washing-troughs in the form of ...
-Black Wadd
Black Wadd, in mineralogy is a kind of ore of manganese, remarkable for its property of taking fire, when mixed with a certain proportion of lintseed-oil. It is found in Derbyshire, and is a useful in...
-Blackberry
Blackberry, the fruit of the common bramble, or Rubus fruticosus, L. - See Bramble. These berries, when eaten immoderately, and too frequently, are apt to produce the most violent effects, as...
-Blacking
Blacking, in general, signifies a factitious black ; as lamp-black, shoe-black, etc. The common oil-blacking consists of ivory-black mixed with lintseed-oil. The shining blacking is made in var...
-Bladder
Bladder, in anatomy, a thin membranous, expanded receptacle of some juice or humour secreted in the animal body. This term principally applies to the vessels in which the urine and bile are respective...
-Bladder-Nut-Tree
Bladder-Nut-Tree, or the Staphylea, L. is a plant containing two species, the pinnala, indigenous in Britain, and the trifolia, or three-leaved bladder-nut, a native of Virginia. For the first, to whi...
-Blain
Blain, in farriery, a distemper incident to horses and cattle, consisting of a tumor which grows on the root of the tongue, and swells to such a size as frequently to stop respiration. It is caused by...
-Blanching
Blanching, the art or man-ner of rendering any tiling white-See Bleaching. The blanching of woollen stuffs is performed with soap, chalk, sulphur, etc. Silk is blanched with soap and sulphur ; and ...
-Blanket
Blanket, an article of commerce so well known in domestic economy, that any definition of it would be superfluous. The best kind of blankets is manufactured at Witney, in Oxfordshire : their excell...
-Blast
Blast, in agriculture and gardening, is a term synonimous with. blight, which see. That species of blasts called ure-dines, or fire-blasts, is supposed by Mr. Hales to originate from the solar rays...
-Bleaching
Bleaching is the art of whitening linen cloth, thread, cotton, etc. In the present advanced state of the linen and cotton manufactures of Great Britain and Ireland, the art of bleaching is one of the ...
-Bleeding
Bleeding, a term used to ex-- either a spontaneous, or artificial, discharge of blood : in the former case, it is by medical writers called hemorrhage; in the latter, ve-necection, or blood-letting, o...
-Blend-Water
Blend-Water, also called more-hovgh, a distemper incident to black cattle, which proceeds father from the state of the animal's blood, from the yellows, or from the change of ground, which, if too har...
-Blight
Blight, in husbandry, is a disease incident to plants, and affecting them in various degrees ; sometimes destroying only the leaves and blossoms, and frequently causing the whole plant to perish. B...
-Blindness
Blindness, implies either a partial or total privation of sight, proceeding from some defect of the organs of vision, or an impaired 6tate of their functions. Hence it may be either total, partial, tr...
-BLind-Worm
BLind-Worm (fragilis), or slow-vorm; a species of the Anguis, or snake. It is about a foot in length, and of the thickness of the little finger. Its name is derived from the slowness of its motion, an...
-Blister
Blister, in medicine, signi fies either a thin bladder, containing a watery humour raised on the skin, or the application of vesica-tories to different parts of the body. With this intention, Spanish ...
-Blite
Blite, the small red, or Ama-ranthus llitum, L. is an indigenous species of the amaranth, which is frequently found growing on rubbish, etc. It flowers in July and August: on the Continent its seed is...
-Blood
Blood, the most copious fluid in the animal body, and essentially necessary to the preservation of life: it is generally of a red, but in most insects, and in all worms, of a white colour. Thehuman...
-Blood-Hound
Blood-Hound, Sanguina-rius, a species of dog remarkable for possessing the sense pf smelling in the highest degree. This animal is distinguished by his long, smooth, and pendent ears, broad chest, mus...
-Blood-Shot Eyes
Blood-Shot Eyes, an inflammation of the membranes which invest the eye. As we propose to treat of the diseases incident to that organ, in general, under its alphabetical head, we shall at present only...
-Blood-Spavin
Blood-Spavin, in farriery, is a swelling and dilatation that runs along the inside of the horse's leg, forming a small, soft tumor in the hollow part, and is not unfrequently accompanied with weakness...
-Blood-Stone
Blood-Stone, or Hematites, is a hard mineral substance of a red or purple colour. It is found in masses of different forms, and contains a considerable portion of iron, insomuch, that forty pounds of ...
-Blood-Letting
Blood-Letting, in surgery, is performed with a view either to diminish the quantity of the circulating fluid, or to relieve a particu-lar part, in case of inflammation, and, consequently, it is either...
-Blood-Vessels
Blood-Vessels, in anatomy, are long membranous canals, which convey the blood through every part of the body. They are divided into two classes, arteries and veins. For an account of the construction,...
-Bloodwort
Bloodwort, the Small-grained Dock, or the Rumex sanguineus, L. Is a plant seldom cultivated, as it so quickly propagate that it becomes a troublesome weed. See Withering, 353. The fresh leaves and ...
-Blossom
Blossom, in general, signifies the flowers of plants. See Flower. It is also applied to the flowering of trees in the spring, called their bloom. The use of the blossom to the vegetable is, partly to ...
-Blow-Pipe
Blow-Pipe, in chemistry and mineralogy, an instrument by which the breath may be directed in a stream upon the flame of a lamp, or candle, in order to vitrify a small quantity of mineral substance. Th...
-Blowing
Blowing, an agitation of the air by means of a pair of bellows, the mouth, etc. Butchers have a very pernicious custom of blowing meat, to deceive the buyer. The sudden change of veal and lamb ...
-Blubber
Blubber, the fat of the whale and other aquatic animals. It lies immediately under the shin. In the porpoise it is firm, fibrous, and about an inch thick; in the whale, it is commonly six inches in th...
-Blue
Blue, is one of the seven colours of Nature, into which the rays of light divide themselves when refracted through a prism. The principal blues used in painting are, Prussian blue, bice, Saun...
-Blue-Bottle
Blue-Bottle (Corn), or the Centaureci (yearns, , L. is a plant common in corn-fields. See Withering-, 472; and Engl. Rot. 277. This vegetable is considered as a weed; but besides the property of affor...
-Blueing
Blueing, is the art of communicating a blue colour to different kinds of substances. Laundresses blue their linen with smalt; dyers, their stuffs and wools with woad or indigo. Blueing of metals is...
-Board
Board, a piece of timber sawed thin, for building, and other purposes. A cheap and durable composi tion for preserving weather board ing, may be made in the following manner :Take three-part...
-Boat
Boat, a small open vessel worked by oars or sails. The formation and names of boats are different, according to the purposes for which they are intended: hence they are slight or strong, with a keel, ...
-Ice-Boats
Ice-Boats, a modern invention of Thomas Ritzlkr, of Hamburgh, whose name deserves to be transmitted to posterity; as his ingenious and useful contrivance has already saved many valuable lives from a w...
-Life-Boat
Life-Boat, at Shields, one of the most useful modern inventions, by which many lives and much property have already been saved. It was built by Mr. Greathead, an eminent ship-builder, and generously p...
-Bobbing
Bobbing, among fishermen, a particular manner of catching eels. . A number of large lobs are scoured and put upon twisted silk by a needle, which is passed through them from end to end. When a suffici...
-Body
Body, in physics, implies an extended, solid, divisible sub-stance, which in itself has no power of motion, but acts by external impulse; it also possesses the properties of attra6tion and repulsion. ...
-Bog
Bog, a quagmire covered with grass, but not firm enough to support a heavy body. Various theories have been started, to account for the formation of bogs; but the most probable is, that they have o...
-Bohea
Bohea, a species of tea which generally used for breakfast, with or without milk. It was formerly supposed, that infusions of this herb would sensibly satisfy the cravings of hunger, and afford a bals...
-Boilers
Boilers. Many ingenious vessels and utensils have, at different periods, been invented, with a view to facilitate the process of boiling, and save the consumption of fuel. In the latter respect, Count...
-Boiling
Boiling, in the culinary art, is a method of dressing animal food, vegetables, etc. by coction in hot water, for the purpose of removing their natural crudities, and rendering them more easy of digest...
-Boles
Boles, are vised earths more friable than clay : they are soft and unctuous, and gradually melt in the mouth, communicating a slight sensation of astringency. There is a great variety of these earths,...
-Bombast
Bombast, in composition, is an endeavour, by strained and turgid description, to give a low or familiar subject that importance pf which it is not susceptible; instead, therefore, of being sublime, it...
-Bones
Bones, are solid substances composed of animal earth and gluten. They support and form the stature of the body, defend its viscera, and give adhesion to the mus-cles. Their number in the human frame i...
-Bone-Spavin
Bone-Spavin, is a bony excrescence, or hard swelling, on the inside of a hone's leg. A spavin which begins on the lower part of the hock, is not so dangerous as that which grows higher, between the tw...
-Book
Book, a general name for most literary compositions ; but should, with propriety, be applied to such productions only as extend to the size of a volume. The writings of Moses are allowed to be the ...
-Book-Keeping
Book-Keeping, is the art of recording mercantile transactions in a systematic manner. A merchant's books should contain every particular which relates to his affairs ; and exhibit the state of his ...
-Boorcole
Boorcole, is a species of the Brassica, L. and generally cultiopen fields like turnips, cabbages, or the turnip-rooted cab It is one of those hardy plants, leaves of which may be cut without detr...
-Boot
Boot, a cover or defence for the leg and foot, made of leather, and generally worn by horsemen. boot is by no means a modern invention, as it was worn in the Roman army by the infantry as well -as t...
-Common Bob
Common Bob, or Bob officinalis, L. a native plant, frequently found growing in waste lands, and upon old walls; it is rough, and clothed with small prickly hairs; has alternate leaves, and bears blu...
-Borax
Borax, in chemistry, a salt produced in the mountains of Thibet, in Asia, both naturally and artificially by evaporation. The borax imported from China is purer than that of Thibet, and is found in...
-Botany
Botany, that part of natural history which relates to plant vegetables. This pleasing science had the misfortune of being, from its infancy, considered merely as a branch of medicin...
-Bottle
Bottle, a small vessel made of glass, leather, or stone. Glass-bottles are better for cyder than those of any other substance. Dr. Percival censures the com-mon practice of cleansing wine-bottles ...
-Bottling
Bottling, the filling of bottles with liquor, and corking them in order to preserve it. Particular caution should be used in bottling cyder : the best way to secure the bottles from bursting, is to ha...
-Botts
Botts, in zoology, a species of short worms produced and nourished in the intestines of a horse. As the flies, from whose the botts are produced, do not frequent the neighbourhood of large towns,...
-Bounty
Bounty, in commerce, a premium paid by government to the exporters and importers of certain commodities, such as corn, sail-cloth, silk-stockings, fish, etc. Bounties are sometimes given to suppor...
-Bow
Bow, a weapon made of wood, horn, or some other elastic sub-stance, and bent into a curve, in which position it is kept by a string fastened to each end. The elastic power thus acquired, is such, tha...
-Bowels
Bowels, or intestines, are very important parts in the annual economy (see ABDOMEN) often subject to diseases which, if may be attended with dangerous consequences. of this nature, in partic...
-Box
Box, generally implies a small coffer, or chest, to contain articles of any kind. The term is also employed to express an uncertain quantity or measure : a box of quicksilver, for instance, contain...
-Box-Tree
Box-Tree, or Buxus, L. a genus of plants containing three species ; namely, the semper virens, or common box, with oval leaves ; the angustifolia, or narrow-leaved box; and the suffruticosa, or Dutch ...
-Boxing
Boxing, the art of fighting with the fists, which, among the Romans, were either naked, or inclosed a stone or leaden ball. Hence this exercise is very ancient, having been in vogue in the heroic ages...
-Braces
Braces, a supplementary article of dress, now very generally adopted; which by rendering a tight cincture altogether unnecessary, cannot be too much recommended, both to men and women, for the sake of...
-Brain
Brain, in anatomy, a great viscus in the cavity of the skull, of an. oval figure, and larger in man, in proportion to his size, ' than in any other animal. The brain is uniformly considered as the gra...
-Brake
Brake is a large and weighty harrow, used to reduce a stubborn soil. It consists of four square, bulls, each side live inches thick, and six feet and a half in length. The teeth are seventeen inches l...
-Bramble
Bramble, the Common, or Rubus fruticosus, L. a species of the raspberry bush, which grows wild in hedges, and has three varieties, one of which bears white fruit. See With. 469. There are sever...
-Bran
Bran, the husks of wheat, which when ground are separated from the flour by a sieve. It contains a portion of the farinaceous matter, less glutinous than flour, and slightly detergent and purgative. I...
-Brandy
Brandy, is a spirituous and inflammable liquor, obtained by distillation from wine. French brandies are accounted the best La Europe; and those of Bourdeaux, Rochelle, Cogniac, Charenton, etc. are hel...
-Brass
Brass, in metallurgy, is a factitious metal, made of copper and zinc, or lapis calaminaris. The French call it yellow copper. The Scriptures inform us, that the first formation of brass was previous t...
-Brawn
Brawn, is the flesh of a boar, pickled or souced, which is always found to be better tasted, according to the greater age of the animal. The most approved method of preparing it is as follows :...
-Bread
Bread, an important article of food, prepared of flour kneaded with a mixture of yeast, water, and salt, and afterwards baked in an oven. Mankind seem to have an universal appetite for bread, which...
-Bread-Fruit-Tree
Bread-Fruit-Tree, or the Artocarpus, L - a plant which grows in the South-Sea Islands, and is remarkable for the size and nutritive quality of its fruit. Although this tree has been mentioned by many ...
-Bream
Bream, or Brama, is a species of the Cyprinus, or carp. It inhabits lakes, or the deep parls of smooth rivers, and affords sport to the angler, though it is not much esteemed for its flavour. The rule...
-Breast
Breast, or fore part of the chest, signifies that cavity of the trunk which is composed of many bones, namely, the sternum or breast-bone in front, twelve ribs on each side, twelve vertebra, or turnin...
-Breath
Breath, fetid, a misfortune to which many persons are liable, though they appear to be in perfect health. It may arise from various causes., the principal of which are, carious teeth, putrid gums, ul-...
-Breathing
Breathing, is that alternate contraction and expansion of the lungs and breast, by which animals inspire and expire the surrounding atmosphere; a process essentially necessary to the support of life. ...
-Breeches
Breeches, a part of the dress of most Europeans, worn by males, and reaching from the waist to the knees. The Romans had no dress corresponding with our breeches. This article appears to be a habit pe...
-Breeding Of Cattle
Breeding Of Cattle : As the different circumstances to be attended to in the management of cattle, will be stated when treating of the various kinds of useful animals, we shall here only observe, that...
-Breeding Of Fish
Breeding Of Fish. The necessary qualities of a pond for breeding fish, are very different from those which are. requisite to make it serve for their nourishment, A ' good breeding pond is more rare to...
-Good Breeding
Good Breeding; an expression which is used to denote the proper deportment of persons in the external offices and decorum of social intercourse. Good breeding necessarily implies civility; though a...
-Brewing
Brewing, the art of preparing beer or ale from malt, by extracting all its fermrntable parts in the best manner; by adding hops in such proportions as experience has shewn, will preserve and meliorate...
-Briar
Briar, the Sweet, or Rosa ru-biginostt, L. ; by Hudson and Du-ROI called Rosa eglantena, is a well known indigenous plant, found in hedges and on heaths. It grows to the height of live or six feet, ha...
-Brick
Brick, a mass of clay formed into oblong squares, and dried in the open air, or burnt in proper kilns, to serve the various purposes of building. English statute-Irichs ought, when burnt, to be nin...
-Bridge
Bridge, a construction of stone, timber, or iron, consisting of an arch or arches, and built over a river, canal, etc. for the convenience of passengers. A bridge built of stone is evidently the stron...
-Brine
Brine, or Pickle, is water saturated with saline particles. It is either native, as the sea-water; or factitious, when formed by a solution of salt in water. Pickle made according to the common rul...
-Bristol Hotwell
Bristol Hotwell, is situated at the bottom of St. Vincent's Rock, on the Gloucestershire bank of the river Avon, about a mile below Bristol, and within four of the Channel, or arm of the sea. The r...
-Broad-Cast
Broad-Cast, a term in husbandry, used to denote a particular mode of sowing corn, pulse, turnips, clover, grasses, and most field-plants. When seeds are scattered over the surface of the ground by th...
-Broccoli
Broccoli, a species of the Brassica, or Cabbage-plant, cultivate, d for the use of the table. There are' several kinds of this plant, particularly the purple, the white, and the black broccoli, etc. b...
-Brome-Grass
Brome-Grass, or Bromus, L. a genus of plants comprehending forty-six species, of which, according to Dr. Withering, only nine vine, but, according to Dr. Smith, twelve, are indigenous : the following...
-Bronze
Bronze, a metallic compound of copper and tin, to which zinc and other substances are sometimes added. It is hard, brittle, sonorous, and specifically heavier than the metals of which it is composed. ...
-Brook
Brook, a little river, or small current of water. It is distinguished from a river by this circumstance, that in general it has a current only at particular seasons, whereas a river flows throughout t...
-Brook-Lime
Brook-Lime, the Veronica Beccabunga, L. a species of Speed-well, growing in slow, shallow streams, and near springs that seldom freeze. The whole of this perennial plant is smooth and succulent ; the ...
-Broom
Broom, the Common, or Spar-tium scoparium, L. an indigenous plant, very common on sandy pastures and heaths, and requiring no particular description. When growing of a large size, the broom deserves a...
-Broth
Broth, a liquor in which the flesh of animals has been boiled; and which is rendered palatable by addition of herbs, etc. If other ingredients be used, such as rice pearl-barley, oat-meal, etc it is t...
-Bruises
Bruises, or contusions, being frequently neglected at first, may produce consequences more alarming than those of wounds. Blows received on the head, pit of the stomach, hip, or the knee, are the most...
-Brush
Brush, a domestic implement, consisting generally of a collection of hairs or bristles, fastened in a frame of wood, bone, or ivory; with, or without a handle : and used for various purposes. This sim...
-Brute
Brute, a general name for all animals, except mankind. Among brutes, the monkey kind bears the nearest resemblance to the human race, both in external shape, and internal organization. Investigations ...
-White Bryony
White Bryony, or more properly, the Red-berried Bryony, or Wild-wine ; the Bryonia alla or dioica, L. is a native plant, growing in many parts of England, under hedges and thickets. The root is per...
-Black Bryony
Black Bryony, or the Bryony lady-seal, the Tamus communis, L. is also a native of England. It has a large root, sending forth several stems, large heart-shaped, dark-green leaves; greenish flowers, an...
-Buck-Bean
Buck-Bean, or Menyarthes, , L. a genus of plants, comprising four species, of which two are natives : 1. The trifoliata, or marsh trefoil, water trefoil, marsh cleaver, or trefoil buck-bean : it gr...
-Buck-Thorn
Buck-Thorn, or Rhamnus, L. a numerous genus of plants, consisting of 48 species, of which only two are indigenous, namely, 1. The catharticus, or purging buckthorn, a shrub growing in woods and he...
-Buck-Wheat
Buck-Wheat, the Polyg-num. fagapyrum, L. a species of the Persicaria, also called snakeweed, bucke, branks, French wheat, or crap. As this useful plant requires no botanical description, we shall proc...
-Bucking
Bucking, one of the operations performed in the whitening of linen cloth, or yarn. - See Bleaching. ...
-Buckram
Buckram, is coarse linen cloth, stiffened with glue, and used in the making of garments, to keep them in proper form. It also serves for wrappers to cover cloths, serges, and other articles of merchan...
-Bud
Bud, in botany, the embryo or rudiment of a plant, growing on the stems and branches of trees, and covered with scales, or with a resinous varnish, to protect it from the winter cold, and from the d...
-Bug
Bug, in zoology, a species of cimex, too well known to need any description. Of the various recipes for the extirpation and prevention of these vermin, the following have been found, by experience, to...
-Bugle
Bugle, or Ajuga, L. a genus of plants, comprising three species, all of which are natives ; but we shall only mention the reptans, or common bugle, which grows in woods and moist pastures, in many par...
-Building
Building is the art of constructing and raising an edifice : in which sense it comprehends as well the expences, as the invention and execution of the design. In the practice of this useful art, th...
-Bulb
Bulb, in botany, a kind of large subterraneous bud, though sometimes appearing above ground, upon or near the root of certain herbaceous plants, which are therefore denominated bulbous. Linnaeus co...
-Bulfinch
Bulfinch, or pyrrkula, a species of bird comprehended under the genus Loxia, and so generally known as to require but little description. The head, wings, and tail are black; the breast and belly red...
-Bull
Bull, or Bos Taurus, in zoology, is naturally a fierce and terrible animal, having cylindrical horns, bent outwards, and loose dewlaps. When chased, he has a majestic and sullen air, often tearing up ...
-Bullocks
Bullocks, in this country, are most advantageously fattened by stall-feeding; a method now brought to systematic perfection. The following is the result of experience, inserted in the eleventh volu...
-Bull-Rush
Bull-Rush, or Club-grass; the Scirpus lacustris, L. is an indigenous plant, frequently found in rivers, pools, and fens. It attains a height of from five to twelve feet, and is, near the root, about t...
-Burdens
Burdens, or heavy loads, cannot fail to be injurious to the lungs because the person carrying them is obliged to inspire and expel the air with greater force than is designed by Nature. Those who,...
-Burdock
Burdock, or Clot-burr, the Arctium Lappa, L. a well-known plant growing on the road sides, on rubbish and ditch-banks, bearing purplish blossoms in July and August. The blackish, but internally whi...
-Burgoo
Burgoo, a kind of porridge, is a nutritive dish, eaten by mariners, and much used in Scotland : it is made by gradually adding two quarts of water to one of oatmeal, so that the whole may mix smoothly...
-Burial
Burial, the interment of a deceased person. The rites of burial have been, at all times, and in every civilized country, considered as a debt so sacred, that those who neglected to discharge it, were ...
-Great Burnet
Great Burnet, , or Wild, or Meadow Burnet the Sangui-svrl-a officinalis, L.; a native plant growing on moist pastures, especially on a marly and calcareous soil, in the North of England. It is a hard,...
-Upland Burnet
Upland Burnet, or Po-tcrium sanguisurca, L. is likewise a native plant, and by some called the Common Garden Burnet, though it grows wild in a dry calcareous soil. It has fibry perennial roots, and re...
-Burning
Burning, the action of fire on fuel, the minute parts of which are thereby put into violent com-motion, so that some of these particles assume the nature of fire, and escape, while the remainder is ei...
-Burns
Burns may proceed from fire, as well as a fluid body; which latter may be either heated, or consist of corrosive mineral acid, such as aqua fortis, oil of vitriol, etc. In this place, we shall treat o...
-Burnt-Grain
Burnt-Grain, a distemper incident to corn, and frequently confounded with the smut, though in its nature, very different from the latter. According to Duha-mel, the husks, or external coverings of the...
-Burying-Grounds
Burying-Grounds are places consecrated to the interment of dead bodies ; and have, from the. earliest institutions of society, been h Id in great veneration, both by Heathens and Christians. It is, ho...
-Bush-Vetch
Bush-Vetch, or the Vicia sepium, L. an indigenous plant, growing in woods, hedges, pastures, and meadows. Its leaves are doubled together ; bunches shorter than the leaves ; the stem upright, sometime...
-Bushel
Bushel, a measure of capacity for dry substances, such as grain, pulse, fruit, etc.; it Contains, in general, four pecks, or eight gallons; being the eighth part of a quarter. According to the earl...
-Bustard
Bustard, or Otis tarda, in ornithology, is said to be the largest of the British land-fowl; its breadth, with expanded wings, being nine feet 5 the length nearly four; and the male weighing from 25, t...
-Butcher
Butcher, a person who slaughters cattle for the use of the table cuts up and retails meat. Although, by the constitution of this country, the butchers 'are not so restricted as they we...
-Butter
Butter, an artificial preparation of cow's milk} which, either in its entire state, or in that of cream, is agitated for a considerable time, till all its unctuous particles are separated from the whe...
-Butter-Burr
Butter-Burr, the Common, or Colt's-foot, the Tussilago Petasites, L. is an indigenous plant, growing in moist meadows, pastures, and banks of rivers. Its leaves are the largest of any plant in Britain...
-Butter-Cup
Butter-Cup, Butter FLOWER, Or Upright Meadow Crow - foot, the Ranunculus aris, L. ; a very common weed, abounding in meadows and pastures : it has hairy leaves, and ieaf-stalks; and bears yellow flowe...
-Butterfly
Butterfly, or Papilio, in zoology, a well known insect, of which there are 273 species, principally distinguished by the colour of their wings. The beauties of this elegant part of the creation, e...
-Butterwort
Butterwort, or the Pin-guicula, L.; a genus containing six species, of which the most remarkable is the vulgaris, or common butterwort, or Yorkshire sa-nicle, growing on bogs, or low, moist gro...
-Buxton Waters
Buxton Waters are those warm mineral springs which rise in a village of that name, in Derbyshire, and have long been celebrated for their medicinal properties. One of the earliest treatises on the vir...
-Buzzard
Buzzard, or the Bitten, a species of the Falco, or eagle, is the most common of the hawk-kind in England. It breeds in large woods, and lays two or three eggs, which are either perfectly white, or spo...
-Cabbage
Cabbage, or Brassica, L. a genus of plants comprising sixteen species, of which the following are the principal : 1. The orientalis, or perfoliate cabbage. This species is indigenous, grows in cor...
-Anjou Cabbage
Anjou Cabbage, is a shrub, a native of France, in the Western provinces of which, and also in Glamorganshire, and other parts of Wales, it is successfully cultivated. It is leguminous, and equally use...
-Cabbage-Palm
Cabbage-Palm, or Areca oleracea, L. an exotic plant, and, perhaps, the tallest, and most beautiful of vegetable prod growing generally to the height of 170 or 200 feet. It is about seve...
-Cage
Cage, an inclosure of wire, Vicker, etc interwoven in the form of lattices, and used for the confinement of birds, or beasts. The latter were, inancient times, brough to Rome in cages artfully formed ...
-Cajeput
Cajeput, an oil brought from the East Indies, and resembling that of cardamoms. Its uses are so little known in this country, that it is rarely kept, even in the shops of the metropolis. According to ...
-Cake
Cake, a fine sort of bread, which has received this denomination, on account of its flat and round figure. There are various compositions under the name of cakes; as seed-cakes made of flour, butte...
-Calamine
Calamine, or Calamy, Lapis calamlnaris, or Cadmia fossilis, a species of stone, ormineral, which contains zinc, iron, and some other substances. It is of various colours, somewhat hard and brittle, an...
-Calamint
Calamint, or the Melissa Calamintha, L. an indigenous species of the balm. Its botanical characters are: the foot-stalks axillary, forked, and generally shorter than the leaves; fibrous, perennial roo...
-Calandre
Calandre, an insect of the Saraboeus, or beetle class, thus denominated by some French writers, and which is particularly destructive in granaries. It has two antennae, or horns, consisting of severa...
-Calcareous Matter
Calcareous Matter, consists of various kinds, which have their respective uses and value in agriculture. Lime-stone and marble are both calcareous substances, but the latter is in a crystalized state....
-Calcination
Calcination is the reduction of solid bodies by lire, to a state of powder, or ashes : a process which is attended with a change of their quality, and is es-sentially different from comminution, or me...
-Calculary
Calculary of a Pear, is a cluster of small, strong knots, which are dispersed through the whole of the parenchyma of the fruit. It is mostly found in rough-tasted, or choke-pears, of which it does not...
-Calender
Calender, a machine employed in manufactories to press woollen and silken stuffs, and linens, in order to make them smooth, even, and glossy, also to give them waves, as is done with ...
-Calf
Calf, in zoology, the young of a cow. On account of its great utility, the means of rearing, feeding and improving' this animal, have from its earliest existence. ercised all the ingenuity of mank...
-Calico
Calico, a stuff or cloth of cotton, originally manufactured in India; but, within the last twenty or thirty years, it has been imitated in Britain, and brought to great perfection, since the invention...
-Calkins
Calkins are the prominent parts at the extremity of a horseshoe, bent downwards, and the edges blunted. They often occasion horses to trip, and sometimes also produce the bleyme, or an inflammation in...
-Calx
Calx properly signifies lime ; but the term is also used by chemists and physicians for a fine powder, which remains after the calcination of metals and other mineral substances. All metallic calces a...
-Camblet
Camblet, or Chamblet, a stuff made of wool, silk, and some-times of hair, especially that of goats, combined with the first-mentioned substances. In some, the- warp consists of wool and silk, and the ...
-Cambric
Cambric, in commerce, a species of very fine white linen, made of flax, which derives its name from Cambray, a city of France, where it was first invented. This article has long been an object of cons...
-Camphor
Camphor, a white, solid, transparent resin, of a very volatile penetrating smell, and a bitterish aromatic pungent taste, accompanied with a sense 0f coolness. It is chiefly extracted from the wood an...
-Canada Balsam
Canada Balsam, a transparent resinous juice, of an agreeable smell, and a warm pungent taste. It is imported from Canada, in North America, and may be considered as a very pure turpentine, being obtai...
-Canal
Canal, an artificial cut in the ground, which is supplied with water from rivers, springs, etc. in order to make a navigable communication between different places. There are various circmstances, ...
-Canary Bird
Canary Bird, or Fringilla canaria, i- a species of finch, and a native of the Canary Islands. It is. supposed to have been first brought to Europe in the 14th tury. At a still later period, canar...
-Canary Grass
Canary Grass, or Phalaris, L. a genus of plants, comprising twenty-four species, of which two only are cultivated in England ; viz. 1. The Caraniensis, or the manured canary-grass, which is raised fro...
-Cancer
Cancer, a round, though unequal, and, at first, indolent tumor, generally situated in glandular parts, such as the breasts, arm-pits, etc. When this tumor grows large, is of a livid, blackish, or lead...
-Candle
Candle, a light made of tallow, wax, or spermaceti, the wick of which is usually composed of several threads of cotton. There are two species of tallow candles, the one dipped, and the other moulde...
-Canker
Canker, a disease to which trees are subject; it proceeds principally from the nature of the soil, and causes the bark to decay. If the canker be seated in a bough, and a large one, the general practi...
-Canker-Worm
Canker-Worm, a species of insects particularly destructive to corn, grass, and every other vegetable in which it can harbour. It has been erroneously supposed, that excessive and continual wet' weathe...
-Caoutchouc
Caoutchouc, Elastic Re-sin, ox India ruller, is a substance produced from the Syringe Tree, or Iatropha elastica, L. which is a native of South America. It oozes in the form of vegetable milk, from in...
-Caper
Caper, or Capparis, L. an ex-otic genus of plants comprising.se ven species, of which the spinosa, or common caper, only is cultivated in Britain, but with great difficulty. This plant delights in the...
-Caraway
Caraway, the Common, or Carum carui, L. is an indigenous biennial plant, propagated from seeds, which ought to be sown in autumn ; it blows in the second year, and decays a short time after the seeds ...
-Cardamom
Cardamom, or Cardamo-mum, a species of the Amomum, is a native of India, comprising two varieties. 1. The majus, or greater cardamom, which, when it arrives in England, is a dried fruit, or pod, about...
-Carline
Carline, or Caroline Thistle, the Carlina, L. a genus of plants plants comprising nine species, of which the vulgaris, or Wild Carline Thistle, only is indigenous, and generally indicates a barren so...
-Carmine
Carmine, a powder, of a very beautiful red colour, partaking of the shades of scarlet and purple. It is used by painters in miniature ; but, on account of its high price, they are often induced to sub...
-Carnivorous
Carnivorous animals are those which seek for, and feed on, flesh. It is a question among philosophers. Iosophers, whether man is naturally carnivorous. Those who are of a contrary opinio...
-Carp
Carp, or Carpio, L. is a species of the Cyprinus, a genus of fish comprising above thirty species. Carp are also called white-fish, on account of their glittering scales, and are distinguished from ot...
-Carpet
Carpet, a covering for floors, etc. manufactured of wool, or other materials, and worked with the needle, or in a loom. The carpets in the greatest estimation are those of Persia and Turkey 5 but a ma...
-Carriage
Carriage, a vehicle which is employed in conveying persons, goods, merchandize, etc. from one place to .mother, and is usually constructed with two, or four wheels. Carriages have various names, wh...
-Carrot
Carrot, or Daucus, L. a genus of plants comprising ten species, of which the Carota, or common carrot, only is cultivated in Britain, where it was introduced from Flanders, in the reign of Queen Eliza...
-Cart
Cart, a land carriage, with two wheels, drawn either by horses or oxen, for conveying heavy goods, etc. generally at short distances. In rural economy, the proper construction, and adaptation of ca...
-Cartilage
Cartilage, is a smooth, elastic, and insensible animal sub-stance, somewhat approaching to the nature of bones. Cartilages have a natural elasticity, the power of which is so great that, on being f...
-Case-Hardening
Case-Hardening of Iron, is a superficial conversion of that metal into steel, by a cementation of it with vegetable or animal coals. This operation is usually performed on small pieces of iron, worked...
-Cassava
Cassava, or Iatropha Mani-kot, L. a native shrub of South America, eminently deserving to be transplanted to our climate ; for it is asserted that one acre of its roots produces a quantity of food equ...
-Cassia
Cassia, in botany, a genus of plants, comprising thirty species, the most remarkable of which are : 1. The cassia fatula, L. or purg-ing Cassia of Alexandria. It is indigenous in Egypt, and both In...
-Castor-Oil
Castor-Oil is extracted from the nut, or the seed of the Ricinus communis, a native of the West Indies. These seeds are about the size, of small beans, which, In their brittle shells, contai...
-Cat
Cat, Fells Cuius, L. a genus of animals, Comprising twenty-one species, and belonging to the same class as the lion and the tyger. Though originally a variety of the wild cat, one of the most ferociou...
-Cat-Salt
Cat-Salt, a beautiful granulated species of common salt, thus denominated by the manufacturer. It is made from the bittern, or leach brine, by the following pro-: When the common salt is drawn out of ...
-Catarrh
Catarrh, or Cold, a disease arising generally from a sudden diminution of insensible per-spiration, by exposing the body to a damp, or cold air, after having been, for some time, under the influence o...
-Catch Weed
Catch Weed, the Trailing, or German Madwort, Aspe-nt go procumtens, L. an indigenous plant, growingnear roads, and amongst rubbish. Its angular stem bears blue, or purple flowers, in April and May. ...
-Catechu
Catechu, or Mimosa Catechu, L. or sensitive plant, which is a native of the East Indies, and comprises above sixty species. From this plant is produced the extract denominated catechu, which was for a...
-Caterpillar
Caterpillar, or Eruca, a genus of insects, comprehending many species, of which that most generally known is the common, or garden-caterpillar. The natural food of these creatures consists of the leav...
-Water-Caterpillars
Water-Caterpillars, Eruc aquaticte, L. are thus called from their living under water. They feed on aquatic plants, and respire by their stigmata in the same man-ner as the common caterpillars of the g...
-Catmint
Catmint, or Nep, the Ne-ptta Cataria, L. a native plant growing on pastures and hedges, in a calcareous soil - near Bungay, Suffolk ; Wick Gifts; on the beach at Rampside ; Low Furness ; Dud-ley...
-Cats Tail
Cats Tail, or Reed-Mack, the Typha, L. a genus of native plants consisting of two species : J. The latrfotia, or great cats tail, bearing a stalk from six to eight feet high, leaves a yard long, and s...
-Cattle
Cattle are those quadrupeds, which serve either for tilling the ground, or as food for man. They are divided into black cattle, which comprise horses, oxen, bulls, cows, and their young; and into smal...
-Caudex
Caudex, a botanical term, signifying, in general, the stem, or trunk of a tree. It is properly that part of plants which joins together the plumula, or leaf, and the radicle, or root fibres; and which...
-Cauliflower
Cauliflower, the Botrytis, 1. a variety of the Brassica oleracea, or sea-cabbage, a native of the Isle of Candia, but, of late years, has been so far improved in Britain, as to exceed, in ' size and ...
-Caustics
Caustics, in medicine, are remedies, the operation of which resembles that of fire; by destroy-ing the texture of the part to which they are applied, and converting it into a substance not unlike burn...
-Cautery
Cautery, a surgical term given to substances which corrode or burn any solid part of the body: they are divided into two classes, actual, and potential. By the former are understood red-hot instrument...
-Cavadilla
Cavadilla, a plant but little known, though its seeds have long been applied externally to destroy vermin; as they produce a considerable irritation in the skin. Lately, however, the celebrated Schmuc...
-Caviar
Caviar, a species of food chiefly imported from Russia : it is made of the hard roes of the sturgeon, formed into small cakes, about an inch thick, and three or four inches in breadth; but sometimes t...
-Cayenne Pepper
Cayenne Pepper, one of the most heating and stimulating spices with which we are acquainted. It is said to be the pro-duction of a tree growing in South America; according to Guthrie, the geographer, ...
-Cedar
Cedar, or the Finns Cedrus, L. a species of the pine-tree, usu-ally called the Cedar of Libanon, is a native of Syria. It is an ever-green of the larger kind, bearing roundish cones, with smooth, eref...
-Ceiling
Ceiling, in architecture, is the top, or roof, of an tipper room, made of plaster, laid over lathi nailed on the bottom of the joists of the upper room; or, where there is no upper room, on joists mad...
-Celery
Celery, a variety of the Apium graveolens, L. originally denomi-nated smallage, or parsley. The root, in its wild state, is thick and fibrous ; its bushy stalk attains the height of two or three feet,...
-Cellars
Cellars, in modern building, are the lowest rooms in a house; their ceilings are usually level with the surface of the ground, on which the house is built. They are also situated under the pavement be...
-Cement
Cement, generally signifies any glutinous matter, capable of uniting and keeping substances in close cohesion. It principally de-notes .compositions employed for holding together broken glass, etc. ...
-Cephalic
Cephalic, generally signifies whatever relates to the head. Hence those remedies that are given for disorders of that part, are denominated cephalic medicines. Under this description are comprehended ...
-Chafer
Chafer, Cock-chafer, May-beetle, Jeffry Cock, or, in Norfolk, Dor, the Scarabaeus Melo/ontha, L. is an insect belonging to a genus, which comprises eighty-seven species. It has, like all the rest, ...
-Chaff
Chaff, in husbandry, the husks of the corn separated from the grain, by screening or winnow-ing it. This term is also applied to the rind of corn, which in grind-ing it, produces the coarser part o...
-Chain
Chain, a series of rings, or round pieces of metal linked one into another: it is of various forms and sizes, and applied to different purposes. Notwithstanding the general utility of this article,...
-Chair
Chair, in general, an article of furniture contrived for the pur-pose of relieving the lower extre-mities from the incumbent weight of the body. Chairs have been held in great estimation,...
-Chaldron
Chaldron, is a dry English measure, generally used for sea-coal, and consisting of 36 bushels filled up according to the sealed bushel kept at Guildhall, London. On ship-board, 21 chaldrons are al-low...
-Chalk
Chalk, Crete, is a white earth, abounding in Britain, France, Norway, and other parts of Eu-rope, which is said to have been anciently dug chiefly in the island of Crete, whence it has received its na...
-Chamber
Chamber, in building, a part of a lodging, or a partition of an apartment, usually intended for the accommodation of beds. We can-not enter into an explanation of Privy Chamber, Chambers of Jus-tice, ...
-Chamomile
Chamomile, Chamomile, Anthemis, L. a genus of plants comprising 21 species: of these, five only are indigenous, the principal of which are the three following : 1. The nobilis, or common cha-momile...
-Charcoal
Charcoal, or Carbon of the French chemists, a sort of artificial coal, or fuel, consisting of halt-burnt wood. It is chiefly used, where a clear and strong fire with-out smoke is required; for the hu-...
-Charity
Charity is one e, f the cardinal virtues of mankind, displayed chiefly in the spontaneous habit and disposition of supplying the wants of others, whether with money, counsel, assistance, etc. Pecuniar...
-Charlock
Charlock, WildMustard, Chadlock, or Corn-Cale, the Sinapis arvensis, L. an indigenous plant, which grows in corn and turnip fields. It is a very noxious weed, especially among turnips, to which it bea...
-Cheese
Cheese, a species of solid food, prepared from curdled milk cleared of the whey, and after-wanb dried for use. As this article constitutes a material part of domestic consumption, we find in almost ev...
-Cheese Rennet
Cheese Rennet, or Yel-BED-STRAW, (la, rum, L. is a native plant growing on the 5 of fields and roads. It has a firm, erect, square stem ; short branches, terminating in spikes of small yellow blossoms...
-Cheltenham Water
Cheltenham Water, a mineral spring, rising in the town of that name, in Gloucestershire, and celebrated for its medicinal properties. This spring issues slowly, and in a scanty stream, from a bed o...
-Chemistry
Chemistry, is one of the most important branches of Physics, or Natural Philosophy; and, though not easily defined, we shall attempt the. following short analysis : The science of chemistry implies t...
-Helmont
Helmont, however. must be allowdiscover of gaseous, or aeriform bodies; for ? was called a magician, and .. imprisoned by tribunal ion. Dr. Hook proved, 1. That air in whic...
-Cherry
Cherry, a species of the Pru-nus, L. or plum-tree, a genus of plants, comprising fifteen species, originally natives of persia; whence they were introduced into Italy, as well as other parts of E...
-Chervil
Chervil, or Chaerophyllum, L. a genus of plants comprising seven species, two of which only are indigenous, namely, 1. The sylvestre, - or wild chervil, or smooth cow-parsley, or cow-weed chervil,...
-Chesnut
Chesnut, or Castanea, L. is a species of the Fagus or beech-tree, a genus of plants comprising three species. It flourishes on poor gravelly or sandy soils, and will thrive in any but moist or marshy ...
-Chest
Chest, in commerce, a hind of measure, which contains an underlain quantity of various com-modities. Thus, a chest of sugar holds from 10 to 15 cwt.; a chest of glass from 2 to 300 cubic feet; of Cast...
-Chewing
Chewing, or mastication, is the action of the teeth, by which solid food is broken, and divided into smaller particles: thus, being at the same time mixed with the saliva, it is better prepared for di...
-Chick
Chick, or CHICKEN, the young of the gallinaceous order of birds, especially of the common hen. From the importance of this bird, as constituting a delicate and agreeable food, especially to invalid...
-Chickweed
Chickweed, or Alsine, L. a genus of plants, comprising five species, of which that most generally known in England is the media, or common duckweed. It grows in almost every situation, whether damp...
-Chilblain
Chilblain, in medicine, is a small tumor, or ulcer, in the hands, feet, heels, etc. It is occasioned either by exposing warm parts too suddenly to a cold temperature ; or by holding the hands, or feet...
-Child
Child, a term of relation to parent; but also metaphorically applied to adults, expressing either simplicity, or imbecility. We shall consider it only in the former sense. As the physical education...
-Chimney
Chimney, in building, is that part of a house, where the fire is made, and which is provided with a tube, or funnel, to carry off the smoke. Notwithstanding the magnificence of the Grecian and Roma...
-Chincough
Chincough, or Hooping-cough, a contagious disease, which at first resembles a common cold, though it is from its commencement attended with a difficulty of breaming ; and the eyes are protruded from t...
-Chocolate
Chocolate, in commerce, a kind of cake, prepared principally of the nuts of the cacao, or Co-coa-tref, to which we refer. In preparing these cakes, the cocoa is properly roasted, and well cleaned...
-Herb Christopher
Herb Christopher, or Actaea spicata, L. is an indige-nous plant, growing in woods and shady places, and is found chiefly Malham - Cove, Clapham, Thorpe Arch, and other places in the north-west of York...
-Chronical Diseases
Chronical Diseases are, in general, neither attended with fever, nor any other symptoms, portending a speedy termination of the complaint ; and, in this sense, they are opposed to acute, or inflamma-t...
-Chrysalis
Chrysalis, or Aurelia, in natural history, is a term express-ing that form of butterflies, moths, chafers, and other inseets which they assume, while in a state of rest and apparent insensibility; be...
-Chue
Chue, or Cephalus, L. is a species of the Cyprinus, a numerous genus of fish. It is mostly found in holes overshadowed by trees, where these fish are seen floating during warm weather, in great nunber...
-Churn
Churn, a vessel in which butter, by long and violent agitation, is separated from the serous part of milk. The inferiority of the churns in common use, has induced several ingenious mechanics to ex...
-Chyle
Chyle, in animal economy, is that white fluid, produced from the nutritious part of the food, in the first passages, after the fibrous or feculent matter has been separated: it is chiefly generated i...
-Sweet Cicely
Sweet Cicely, or Great Chervil, or Shepherd's Needle, the Scandix odoralti, L. is a native plant, growing in orchards, hedges, and waste places, but generally near houses; and is chiefly found in the ...
-Cinnabar
Cinnabar, in natural history, is either native, or factitious. The former is an ore of quick-silver, moderately compact, very heavy, and of a beautiful striated, red colour. The latter is composed of ...
-Cinnamon
Cinnamon, is the bark of the true cinnamon tree, or Laurus ctnnamomum, L. - but an inferior sort, which is often sold for genuine, is collected from the base cinnamon, or Laurus Cassia, L. See Bay-Tre...
-Cinquefoil
Cinquefoil, or Potentilla or Pot comprising five species, of which only are indigenous; the principal of these are: 1. The frulicosa, or shrubby cinquefoil, which is set with fi...
-Cisterns
Cisterns are vessels employed for the reception of rain, or water, either under ground, such as those of navigable carials, etc. or above ground, for domestic and other purposes. In this place,...
-Short Index for Vol. 1
Abies. See Fir-tree, or Pinus Abies, L. Absinthium vulgare. See Arte-misia Absinthium, L. or Mugwort. Acer campestre, L. See Common Maple. Acer pseudo-platamus, L. See Sycamore Tree. Achil...









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