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Domestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge Vol2 | by A. F. M. Willich



The Domestic Encyclopedia Volume two out of four

TitleDomestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge Vol2
AuthorA. F. M. Willich
PublisherB. McMillan
Year1802
Copyright1802, B. McMillan
AmazonThe domestic encyclopaedia; or, A dictionary of facts, and useful knowledge: Comprehending a concise view of the latest discoveries, inventions, and improvements, ... numerous engravings and cuts in five volumes

Domestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge: Comprehending A Concise View Of The Latest Discoveries, Inventions, And Improvements, Chiefly Applicable To Rural And Domestic Economy; Together With Descriptions Of The Most Interestlng Objects Of Nature And Art; The History Of Men And Animals, In A State Of Health Or Disease; And Practical Hints Respecting The Arts And Manufactures, Both Familiar And Commercial.

Illustrated With Numerous Engravings And Cuts.

In Four Volumes.

Volume Second.

By A. F. M. Willich, M. D.

Author Of The Lectures On Diet And Regimen, etc. etc.

London:

Printed For Murray And Highley, 32, Fleet-Street; Vernor And Hood, Poultry; G. Kearsley, Fleet-Street; H. D. Svmonds, And Thomas Hurst; Paternoster-Row ; And The Author.

MDCCCII

Printed by B. McMillan, Bow Street, Covent-Garden.

-Citron
Citron, or Citrus, L. an exotic genus of plants, comprising six species; of which the following are occasionally reared in hot-houses : 1. The Medica, or Citron-tree, which is a beautiful evergreen...
-Clarification
Clarification, is the aft of clearing or fining liquids from heterogeneous or feculent ingredients. For this purpose, the whites of eggs, blood, and isinglass, are usually employed: the two first, for...
-Clary
Clary, or Salvia, L. is a ge-nus of native plants, producing two species: 1. The Pratends, or Meadow-Clary, which grows in dry pastures, and is found principally in. the counties of Surre...
-Clay
Clay is a compact, heavy, stiff, viscid, and ductile earth, when moist, which is easily dissolved, and, when mixed with water, does hot readily subside. For promoting the Vegetation of many plants,...
-Clergy
Clergy, Benefit of, is an ancient privilege, by which a person in holy orders may claim to be delivered to his ordinary, to purge himself of felony. It was formerly confined exclusively to the clergy....
-Climate
Climate, is a term usually gives to any country or region, that differs from another, as well with respect: to the seasons and quality of the soil, as to the man-ners of its inhabitants. The climat...
-Cloud-Berry
Cloud-Berry, or Mountain Bramble, the RuBus cha-moemorus, L. an indigenous species of the raspberry-bush, which grows in peat-bogs, and on the sides of mountains: it is found chiefly in the counties o...
-Clove
Clove, a term used in weighing wool, consisting of 7lbs. In Essex, 8lbs. of cheese or butler make a clove. ...
-Clove-Fink
Clove-Fink, or Carnation, the Dianthus caryophyllus, L. belongs kings to a genus of plants comprising twenty-eight species ; of which six only are natives. - The carnation, in its wild state, grows on...
-Clover
Clover, a species of trefoil, or Trifolium, L. a genus of plants comprising 55 species, of which only 16 are indigenous: of these the following are the principal. 1. The pratense, or common clover,...
-Clove-Tree
Clove-Tree, or Caryophyl-lus aromaticus, L. a native of the Molucca Islands, particularly of Amboyna, where it. is chiefly cultivated. The clove-tree resembles the olive in its bark, and the laurel in...
-Club-Moss
Club-Moss, or Lycopodium, L. a native genus of plants, comprising six species, the principal of which are - 1. The clavatum, or common club-moss, which grows in dry mountainous places, heaths, and woo...
-Club-Rush
Club-Rush, or Scirpus, L. a native genus of plants, consisting of twelve species : the following are the principal: 1. The palustris, or marsh creeping club-rush, which thrives on the banks of rive...
-Clysters
Clysters, or Injections, or Lavemens, are liquid remedies introduced into the larger intestines, by the rectum. The most usual clystering machines are those consisting simply of the bladder of a hog, ...
-Coaches
Coaches, are covered vehicles for travelling, suspended on springs, and moved by wheels. Although these articles of convenience and luxury were not unknown to the ancient Romans, yet the first coach a...
-Coal
Coal, in mineralogy, a solid, inflammable, and bituminous sub-stance, commonly used for fuel: it consists of various species; the principal of which are : 1. The Luthantrax, or Pit-coal ; a black, ...
-Cobalt
Cobalt, a semi-metal of a whitish-grey colour, and nearly resembling fine hardened steel: it is as difficult to be fused as copper, or even gold ; and cannot be easily calcined. If the calx, resulting...
-Indian Berry
Cocculus Indicus, or Indian Berry, is the poisonous fruit of the Menispermum, L. or Moon-seed, an exotic genus of plants, growing in the southern parts of Europe, whence it is imported. It possesses a...
-Coccus
Coccus, a genus of insects, comprising twenty-two species, which are principally denominated from the plants they frequent. The most remarkable of these are : 1. The Coccus heperid/tm, or gre...
-Cochineal
Cochineal, a drag used by dyers for imparting red colours, and also for the purpose of making carmine. It consists of an insect which is collected from the cactus cochenillifer, or, as it is different...
-Cock
Cock, or Galhis, L. a species of the phasianus, too well known to require any description. The cock was first introduced into Europe from Persia, and is eminently distinguished for his courage, especi...
-Cockle
Cockle, or Cardium, L. a genus of small shell-fish, consisting of twenty-one species. They are commonly found on sandy coasts, and furnish a wholesome and agreeable food. When consumed in a raw state,...
-Cockroach
Cockroach, or Blatta, L, a genus of insects, resembling the beetle, and consisting often species, the most remarkable of which is the orientalis, or eastern cockroach! These insects are frequently fou...
-Cock's-Foot
Cock's-Foot, or Cock's-foot Grass, or Da6iylis, L. a genus of plants comprising seven species of of which two are indigenous : 1. The Stricta, or Smooth Cock's-foot Grass, which grows in marshe...
-Cocoa
Cocoa, or Cocos, L. a native tree of the East and West Indies, where it is of the greatest use to the inhabitants. It frequently grows to the height of 60 or 70 feet in the trunk, and delights in a mo...
-Cod
Cod, the Common, or Gadus Morhua, L. an inhabitant of the. ocean, which is from two to four feet long, and weighs from 12 to 20lbs.: it is found only in the northern parts of the world, between the la...
-Coffee-Tree
Coffee-Tree, or Coffea, L. a shrub from twelve to eighteen feet high, and originally a native of Arabia, but is now cultivated in Persia, the East and West Indies, and several parts of America : it is...
-Coffin
Coffin, a chest in which dead bodies are interred. In ancient times, the burying of deceased persons in coffins, was considered as a mark of the highest distinction. But, in Britain, the poorer cla...
-Coin
Coin, a piece of metal converted into money, by the impression of certain marks or figures. Coin differs from money, as the species from the genus. The latter may consist of any substance, whether ...
-Coke
Coke, is fossil-coal charred, or or having undergone a proce similar to that by which charcoal is made. By this operation, coals are divested of their humidity, their acid liquor, and part of the...
-Cold
Cold, in natural philosophy, is the privation, or absence of heat. Its immediate effects on the human body are, contraction of the cutaneous pores, and a temporary ob-struction of insensible perspirat...
-Colic
Colic, a disease attended with wandering pain in the bowels, and rumbling noise.; both abating on the expulsion of wind: there is a slight degree of thirst; the pulse is scarcely affected, and the pai...
-Colophony
Colophony, a black resin, or turpentine, boiled in water, and afterwards dried. It is chiefly used in the composition of horse-medicines. ...
-Colour
Colour is one of the most remarkable phenomena in nature, the explanation of which, by the ancient philosophers, was vague and unsatisfactory, till Sir Isaac Newton, in 1666, discovered that the colou...
-Colour-Making
Colour-Making, is the art of preparing various colours employed in painting. This art, tho one of the most curious branches of chemistry, is the least understood. The principles that govern it, differ...
-Colt
Colt, the young of a mare, usually called a horse-colt, in order to distinguish it from the female, which is denominated a filly. Colts should always be bred from a sound stud, as their future util...
-Colts-Foot
Colts-Foot, ox Tussilugo, L. a genus of plants forming 21 spe-cies, of which only three are natives : 1. The Farfara, or common colts-foot, which grows in pastures, in moist, stiff, clayey soils, a...
-Common Columbine
Common Columbine, or Aquilegia vulgaris, L. -is a native plant, growing in hilly woods and thickets. It is perennial, and blooms in July. The beauty of its flowers, and their uncommon diversity, both...
-Columbo-Root
Columbo-Root, or Colomba-Root, an article lately introduced into medicine, chiefly by Dr. PeRcivaL. The natural history of the tree, from which we ob-tain it, is but imperfectly known : it,grows near ...
-Comb
Comb, an instrumentit made of horn, ivory, or other materials, and used for separating, cleaning, and dressing flax, wool, hair, etc. Combs for wool are prohibited to be imported into England. A ve...
-Comfrey
Comfrey, the Common, or Symphytum officinale, L. a native perennial plant, which grows about two feet high, is found on the banks of rivers, and wet ditches ; and produces yellow-white flowers, in the...
-Commerce
Commerce, the exchange of commodities, or thebuying, selling, or trafficking of merchandize, money, or even paper, with a view to obtain profit. Commerce is at present divided into commerce by land...
-Commission Of Bankruptcy
Commission Of Bankruptcy, is that issued by the Lord Chancellor, on persons becoming bankrupt within any of the statutes, and directed to certain commissioners, who are appointed to examine into it, a...
-Commons
Commons are waste lands or pastures, the use of which is common to {he villages or towns in their vicinity. Commons are certainly of con-siderable utility in their present state, if they be not too...
-Compass
Compass, is an instrument of considerable utility for surveying , dialling, etc.. Its structure varies but little from that of the mariners' compass ; for, instead of needle being fitted into the card...
-Complexion
Complexion, generally sig-nifies the temperament, habitude, and natural disposition of the body; but more frequently the colour of the face and skin. In the latter point of view, it has in no small de...
-Compost
Compost, in agriculture, is a certain mixture designed to promote vegetation, instead of dung. To effect this purpose, various experiments have been made, of which we shall mention the following. A...
-Compresses
Compresses, in surgery, are very useful applications, for preventing a wound from bleeding, or swelling, as well as in the treatment of aneurisms, ruptures, and indoLent tumors of every kind. They ge...
-Conductors
Conductors, are long rods made of iron or other metal, employed for protecting buildings from the effects of lightning. The utility of conductors is universally acknowledged, yet it has not been as...
-Constitution
Constitution, is the particular temperament of the body, which depends chiefly on the state of its humours or fluids, and sometimes also on the solids, but especially the nerves. It is curious, say...
-Consumption
Consumption, in medicine, is a very comprehensive term, including all those diseases, in which the body, from a defect of nou-rishment, is gradually reduced to a state of debility and emaciation. This...
-Contagion
Contagion, infection, or the communication of a disease from one body to another. In some cases it is conveyed by immediate contact or touch ; in others, by infected clothes, such as cotton, and parti...
-Convulsion
Convulsion, a disease attended with irregular and unnatural contraction of the muscles, without sleep. It differs from epilepsy, in being accompanied neither with any mental affection, nor with a stat...
-Cooking
Cooking, the art of dressing or preparing food. It is effected by various methods, of which boil-ing is the most common, but also the most objectionable ; as it deprives flesh of its nutritious juice....
-Copaiba
Copaiba, or Balsam of Copaiba, a liquid resinous juice, issuing from incisions made in the trunk of the Copaifera balsamum, L. a tree growing in the Spanish West Indies, of which there is only one spe...
-Copal
Copal, improperly called Gum copal, is a resinous substance obtained from the concrete juice of the Rhus copallinum, or narrow-leaved sumach, a native plant of North America, known there by the name o...
-Copper
Copper, one of the finest imperfect metals, is found in the bowels of the earth, in the fol ow-ing states. T. Native or pure copper, which possesses the red colour, the malleability, and all the ot...
-Copperas
Copperas, a name given to green vitriol, particularly to that of iron. It is purified and prepared in the same manner as alum and saltpetre, being passed through several lixivia, till it is wholly red...
-Coral
Coral, Corallina, L. a genus of insects, consisting of eight species, which are found in the ocean. There are, properly, but three kinds of coral, namely, red, white, and black; the last of these i...
-Coralline
Coralline, or Sea-moss, a branched cretaceous substance, of a white colour. It is the habitation and production of polypi, found on rocks, and sometimes on the shells of fishes. It is celebrated as a ...
-Cord
Cord, a combination of several threads of hemp, twisted together by means of a wheel. Cords are extensively useful for various purposes of domestic life, but more particuarly in the rigging of ship...
-Coriander
Coriander, the Common, or Coriandrum sativum, L. is an annual plant, growing in corn-fields, on road-sides, and dunghills. This vegetable is raised from seed, generally sown in the month of March, in ...
-Cork-Tree
Cork-Tree, or Quercus su-ler, L. a species of oak indigenous in Spain and Portugal, where it attains the height or' from 30 to 40 feet; has a thick, rough, fungous bark, and oval serrated leaves, whic...
-Corn
Corn, in rural economy, the grains or seeds of plants, which are separated from the ear, and used chieHy for making bread. There are several species of corn, such as wheat, rye, barley, oats, mille...
-Corn-Chafer
Corn-Chafer, or Curculio granarius, L. a species of insects bearing a resemblance to oblong, soft worms. They are provided anteriorly with six scaly legs, and their head is likewise covered with scale...
-Corn-Cockle
Corn-Cockle, or Agrostem-ma Githago, L. is an indigenous, annual plant which grows in corn-fields, and bears purple flowers in the month of June or July, It is very prolific, and produces a great numb...
-Cornel-Tree
Cornel-Tree, or Cornus, L. a genus of plants comprising six species, of which only two are indigenous. 1. The sanguinea, wild cornel-tree, or dog-wood, which is chiefly found in woods and hedges. I...
-Corn-Salad
Corn-Salad, or Lamb's Lettuce, Valeriana locust a, L. is an annual indigenous plant growing in corn-fields, and producing white-reddish flowers from April to June. It is eaten by cattle, and its young...
-Corns
Corns, in surgery, are hard excrescences, consisting of indurations of the skin, which arise on the toes, and sometimes on the sides of the feet, where these are much exposed to the pressure of narrow...
-Corpulency
Corpulency, or obesity, in physiology, is the accumulation of too great a quantity of fat or animal oil, which distends the solids to an unnatural degree, by the abundance of granulated matter collect...
-Cosmetic
Cosmetic, any medicine, or preparation, that renders the skin soft and white, or contributes to beautify the complexion. Various articles have been obtruded on the public attention, by ignorant and...
-Costiveness
Costiveness, in medicine, a retention of the excrements, accompanied with an unusual hardness and dryness, so as to render the evacuations difficult, and sometimes painful. Sedentary persons are pe...
-Cottage
Cottage, properly signifies a small dwelling-house, independ-enly of any lands attached to it. By stat. 31 Eliz. c. 7, no man can build a cottage unless he annex four acres of land thereto; except in ...
-Cotton
Cotton, a soft downy sub-stance ; the production of the gos-sypium, L. or cotton-tree, a genus of plants comprising twelve species, all of which are natives of warm climates, though four only are cul-...
-Cotton-Grass
Cotton-Grass, or Erhpko-rum, L. is a perennial, native genus of plants, consisting of five species, the principal of which are the following: 1. The angustifolium, or common; mon cotton-grass, moor...
-Cough
Cough, a violent, often involuntary, and souorous expiration, suddenly expelling the air through the contracted glottis. It is excited by any acrid substance, either chemically or mechanically applied...
-Couhage
Couhage, or cow-itch, as it is erroneously called, Dolichos pru-riens, L. is an exotic plant, growing in warm climates, especially in the West Indies. - It produces crooked, leguminous, coriaceous pod...
-Country - Houses
Country - Houses, are those ereted in the country, for the use and convenience of private individuals, as opposed to the splendid villas and mansions of the nubility, and more opulent gentry. It ge...
-Cow
Cow, in zoology, an animal too well known to require any description. A perfect cow ought to have a broad forehead, black eyes, large clean horns, a long thin skin, a large deep belly ; strong musc...
-Cow-Parsnip
Cow-Parsnip, or Hog-weed, the Heracleum, L. a native genus of plants, producing two species. 1. The Sphondylium, or Common Cow-parsnip, which is found in hedges, meadows and pastures. It is biennia...
-Cowslip
Cowslip, the Common, or Paigle, or Cowslip-primrose, Primula veris, L. a native perennial plant, growing in meadows and pastures, on a loamy or clayey soil. It produces sweet-scented yellow-flowers, w...
-Cow-Wheat
Cow-Wheat, or Melampy-rui)i,L. a genus of native, annual plants, comprising four species, of which the following are the principal : 1. The arvense, or Purple Cow-wheat, which grows in corn-fields...
-Crab
Crab, in fruit-trees, a disease which attacks the bark, especially after transplanting them from the nursery: it destroys particularly the inner bark, by reducing it to a blackish powder, not unlike t...
-Crab-Fish
Crab-Fish, the Common, or Cancer-major, L. is a species of. shell-fish, that inhabits our shores, and lurks or burrows under the sand : it is sold almost exclusively to the poorer class of people. As ...
-Crab-Tree
Crab-Tree, or Pyrus malus, L. is an indigenous plant, growing in woods and hedges ; it flourishes better on declivities and in shady places, than in open, exposed situations, or on boggy soils. Its b...
-Crag
Crag, a species of manure, consisting of the fragments of various marine shells, which abound on the greatest part of the cliffs, contiguous to the British coast. They are often found -40 or 50 feet h...
-Cramp
Cramp, a kind of numbness, or involuntary contraction of the muscles, attended with a convul sive effort of the neck, arms, legs, etc. as likewise with a violent but transitory pain. Aged, sedentary, ...
-Crane
Crane, a machine used for raising large, stones, and other ponderous bodies. From the numerous accidents which attend the common cranes, several skilful machinists have attempted to contrive such as w...
-Cranes-Bill
Cranes-Bill, or Geranium, I, a genus of plants comprising 145 species ; of which Dr. Smith states only 13, but Dr. Withering 17, to be indigenous. None of these, however, are cultivated. The only s...
-Crape
Crape, a light, transparent stuff, somewhat similar to gauze : it is made of raw silk, gummed, twisted on the mill, and woven without crossing. It is mostly used for mourning. Crape is either crisp...
-Cream
Cream, the most oily part of milk : it is specifically lighter than the other constituents, collects and floats on the surface, whence it is generally skimmed, in order to separate effectually the cas...
-Credit
Credit, in commerce, a mutual trust, or loan of merchandize, or money, on the reputation of the property or solvency of a dealer. Credit is either public or private. Every trader ought to possess s...
-Cress
Cress, or Cresses, Sisymbrium L. a genus of plants, consisting of forty-one species, eight of which are natives : the principal of these are : 1. The Nasturtium, or common water-cress, which is fou...
-Cricket
Cricket, an exercise or game, performed with bats and a ball. This sport was formerly confined solely to the labouring class of people, but is now becoming daily more fashionable among those, whose ra...
-Common Cricket
Common Cricket, or Hearth-cricket,Gryllus domesticus, L. an insect which delights in new-built houses, where the moisture and softness of the mortar enable it to penetrate between the joints of the br...
-Crop
Crop, usually signifies- the corn gathered oil a field, in harvest. Till the middle of last century, the best common courses of fanning in Britain, consisted of a fal-low, which, by several ploughi...
-Cross-Wort
Cross-Wort, or Mugweed, Galium cruciatum, v. Valantia, cruciata, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing on hedge-banks, and in meadows. It produces yellow flowers which blow from May to July, and a...
-Croup
Croup, a violent inflammation of the throat in children undet twelve years of age, prevalent chiefly on the sea-coast, in cold and wet seasons. It is attended with a peculiar croaking sound of the voi...
-Crout
Crout, SouR CroutE, or KROUTE, a preparation of cabbage, originally invented by the Germans, who write it, Sauer Kraut. For this purpose, the soundest and most solid cabbages are selected, cut very sm...
-Crow
Crow, the Common, or Carrion-crow, Corvus corone, L. a bird sufficiently known: it bears a strong resemblance to the raven, both in its nourishment and other habitudes. The food of crows is carrion, o...
-Crow-Foot
Crow-Foot, or Ranunculus, L. a genus of plants consisting of 53 species; but only 15 are indi-genous, of which the following are the principal: 1. The flammula : See Lesser SpeaRwort. 2. The...
-Crow-Net
Crow-Net, a contrivance that may be used in the day time, for catching wild fowl in the winter season. This net is made of double thread, or of fine paci-thread; its meshes should be two inches wid...
-Crying
Crying, the act of weeping, usually accompanied with tears; but this term is more generally ap-plied to the squaring of infants. It is remarkable, that the first symptoms of human lite are uniforml...
-Crystal
Crystal, a species of stone, of various colours, of which that most generally known is the peb-ble-crystal, or sprig or rock-crys-ial, as it is usually called. It is common in this country, and is fre...
-Crystallization
Crystallization, a kind of congelation ocf essential, fixed, and volatile salts, which, after evaporating the greatest part of their humidity, are left to dry, concrete, and shoot into crystals. Op...
-Cuckow
Cuckow, the Common, or Cuculus canorus, L. is a native of Africa, whence it visits this country, about the middle of April, and continues here till the end of June, or beginning of July It is about 14...
-Cucumber
Cucumber, or Cucumis, L. a genus of exotic plants, consisting of fourteen species, of which the following are the principal: 1. The sativa, or Common Cucumber, which is reared in this country, at t...
-Cudweed
Cudweed, or Gnaphalium,L. a genus of plants, comprising 72 species, of which the following are the principal : 1. The Germanicum, or Common Cudweed, an annual indigenous plant, which grows in barr...
-Curb
Curb, a chain of iron fastened to the lower part of the branches of the bridle, in a hole called the eye, and running over the horse's chin or beard. It consists of three parts ; namely, the hook fixe...
-Curdling
Curdling, the coagulation of any particular fluid, such as milk. In Tuscany, it is effected by means of artichoke flowers, instead of the rennet employed in Britain. There are, besides, a variety of s...
-Cubing
Cubing, a term used for preserving fish, flesh, and other ani-mal substances, by adding certain ingredients, to prevent putrefadtion. It is also effected by drying the bodies with the smoke of wood, o...
-Curlew
Curlew, or Scolopax arqua-ta, L. an aquatic bird, large flocks of which visit the sea-coasts and marshes, feeding on shells, frogs, crabs, and other marine insects. In summer, they retire to th...
-Currant-Tree
Currant-Tree, or Ribes, L. is an indigenous plant, comprising 6 or 7 species, of which the following are the principal: 1. The Rubrum, or common Red Currant, which is found in woods in the north...
-Currying
Currying, the art of dressing cow-hides, calves-skins, etc. The principal object in this process, is to soften and supple cow and calf skins, which are usually employed in making upper-leathers and qu...
-Cuttings
Cuttings, or slips in gardening, are those brauches or sprigs of trees, which are cut or slipped off, in order to be transplanted; an operation that may be effected in any moist, fine earth. The most ...
-Cuttle-Fish
Cuttle-Fish, or Sepia, L. a remarkable genus of the finny tribe: the bones of a particular species, called the Officinal Cuttle, are frequently thrown out by the sea on (he British shore, but the fish...
-Cyder
Cyder, or Cider, a sharp, cool, and vinous beverage, made by fermenting the juice of apples. Some connoisseurs in this liquor are of opinion, that the juice of the more delicate table-fruit is general...
-Cyper-Grass
Cyper-Grass, or Cyperus, L. a genus of plants producing seventy-nine species, of which the following are the principal : 1. The rotundus, or Round Cy-perus, a native of the East Indies : its import...
-Cypress
Cypress, the Common, or Cupressus sempervirens, L. is a native of the islands of Candia and Crete, but may be easily propagated in Britain, from seeds as well as cuttings. The proper season for sowing...
-Dab
Dab, or Pleuronectes limanda, L. a fish that frequents the English seas, where it is caught in considerable numbers. It is, in general, of an uniform brown colour on the upper side, though sometimes o...
-Dace
Dace, or Leuciscus cyprinust L. a fish found in most of the still, deep rivers of this country, where it is very prolific. It seldom exceeds 10 inches in length, or weighs more than a pound and a half...
-Daffodil
Daffodil, the Common, or Narcissus pseudo-narcissus, L. an indigenous, perennial plant, growing in woods, meadows, and the sides of hedges, which is found chiefly in the north and west of England. It ...
-Dairy-House
Dairy-House, in rural economy, a place appropriated to the mangement of milk, butter, cheese, etc. - See Milk, Butter, Cheese, Churn, and COWS. A dairy ought to be so situated, that the windows, or...
-Daisy
Daisy, the Common, or Bellis, perennis, L.a perennial, indigenous plant, which abounds in meadows, and pastures, and is in flower from March to September. The leaves of the daisy, though slightly a...
-Dame-Wort
Dame-Wort, or Dame's Violet, the Scentless, or Hesperis inodora, L. is an indigenous perennial plant, which grows in pastures and hedges, and flowers in the month of May or June. According to Boerhaav...
-Dancing
Dancing is-the art ofmoving the body, agreeably to certain rales, and adjusted to the measures of music, either sung or played. It is generally the effect or indication of joy among most nations 3 tho...
-Dandelion
Dandelion, the Common, or Leontodon Taraxacum, L. is an indigenous, perennial plant, growing in meadows and pastures, on road-sides, ditch-banks, etc. It produces yellow flowers, which blow from April...
-Darnel
Darnel, or Lolium, L. a native genus of plants producing four species, namely : 1. The perenne, or Red Darnel, or Ray-grass, which grows on road sides and dry pastures , it attains the heig...
-Day
Day, in general, signifies that space of time during which it continues to be light, in contradistinction to night, or the period of darkness, while the sun is illumining the other hemisphere. Hence, ...
-Dead-Nettle
Dead-Nettle, or Lami-um, L. an indigenous plant con-sisting of three species, of which the following are the principal: 1. The album, or White Dead-nettle, or White Archangel, which is perennial, ...
-Dead-Tops
Dead-Tops, a disease incident to young trees, which may be cured, by cutting off the dead parts, close to the nearest sound twig or shoot, and claying them over in the same manner as is practiced in G...
-Deafness
Deafness, the state of a person who is deprived of the sense of hearing ; it is also used to signify a disease of the ear, which prevents the due perception of sounds. Deafness is frequently the ef...
-Deal
Deal, a well-known wood, being the production of the fir-tree, and of great utility for building, and other purposes. An excellent method of seasoning planks of deal and fir is, to immerse them int...
-Death
Death, a term more easily understood than defined. Although it may generally be said, that death consists in the separation of the soul from the body, yet this explanation is so far imperfect, as we p...
-Death-Watch
Death-Watch, or Termes pulsatorium, L. a small insect that harbours chiefly in old wood. It is produced from a very minute white egg, which is hatched in the month of March. When these vermin first...
-Debility
Debility, is that feeble state of life in which the vital functions are languidly performed; when the mind loses its cheerfulness and vivacity ; when the limbs are tottering with weakness, and the dig...
-Deciphering
Deciphering, or Decy-phering, the art, or act of disco vering the alphabet of a cypher, or of explaining a.letter written in cyphers, or secret characters. Every language has peculiar rules of deci...
-Deed
Deed, an instrument written on paper or parchment, which relates principally to the conveyance; or transferring of property, and the validity of which consists in the followiug essential particulars: ...
-Deer
Deer, the Fallow, Buck and Doe, or Cervus Da ma, L. a well-known animal abounding in the forests and parks of this country. Deer are of various colours ; being reddish, deep brown, white, or spotte...
-Deformity
Deformity generally signifies the want of that symmetry and uniformity, which are necessary to constitute the beauty of an object ; it is more particularly applied to the human frame. The chief cau...
-Dew
Dew is a light, thin, and transparent vapour, slowly exhaling and ascending from the earth, in spring and summer mornings, while the sun is below the horizon, and then deposited on vegetables, in the ...
-Dew-Born
Dew-Born, in animal economy, a distemper to which cattle are subject: it is a swelling, or distension of the body, to such a de gree, that the creatures affected are in danger of bursting. This mala...
-Diamond
Diamond, a genus of siliceous earths, and the hardest of all the stones hitherto discovered ; it is in general transparent, but is sometimes found of a rose-colour, or inclining to green, blue, yellow...
-Diarrhoea
Diarrhoea, or Looseness, is a frequent and copious evacuation of liquid excrement by stool. This malady is \cry common, being either a primary disease, or only a symptom or effect of another. In ma...
-Dibble
Dibble, or Dibber, a simple but useful implement in gardening, for the purpose of setting out young plants, etc. Within these few years, it has been employed for dibbing wheat, and the whole process c...
-Diet
Diet, in animal economy, a regimen or course of living, adapted both to the preservation of health, and its recovery, especially from chronical diseases. The dietetic treatment ought to be conforma...
-Digester
Digester, an instrument serving to dissolve solid animal sub-stances, in a manner similar to that performed by the stomach. This vessel was invented by Pap in : after putting meat into it, together wi...
-Digestion
Digestion, in animal economy, signifies the dissolution of food taken into the stomach, in order to supply the continual loss sustained by perspiration, the different functions, or by exercise. As ...
-Dimness
Dimness of Sight, in far-- riery, a disorder in horses proceeding from blood-shotten eyes. If the eye-ball be sound, a cure may be effected by keeping the horse warm, with a linen hood fitted to his h...
-Dinner
Dinner, a very significant term in domestic economy, as if expresses the principal meal, or that which should be eaten about the middle of the day. Although most nations which aspire to civilizatio...
-Discount
Discount, in commerce, a term employed by traders, merchants, and bankers ; especially by the two former, when they purchase commodities on the usual time of credit, and on condition that the seller a...
-Disease
Disease, is that condition of the body, in which it has declined from a state of health, so that its different functions are either greatly impeded, or performed with difficulty. Of all organized c...
-Distemper
Distemper is frequently used in the same sense as disease, but is particularly applicable to cattle. This term implies a species of contagious fever, attended with an in-flammation which is suc...
-Distilling
Distilling, or Distilla-tion, the art of separating or drawing off the spirituous, watery, oily, or saline particles of a mashed body from the grosser and more earthy parts, by the aid of fire; then c...
-Distortion
Distortion is that irregular growth, or unnatural motion, by which any part of animal bodies becomes deformed. Although this term is generally used to express an uncouth contraction of one side of the...
-Ditch
Ditch, in agriculture, a common fence, or inclosure, in marshes or other wet lands, where hedges cannot be conveniently planted. Ditches are generally allowed six feet in width at the side of broad...
-Dittany
Dittany, the White, or Dictamnus Fraxinel/a, L. an exotic perennial plant, growing in France, Germany, and Italy. Its thick pungent and bitter root, produces annually erect stalks, which bear loose sp...
-Diuretics
Diuretics, a term applied to those medicines which increase the secretion of urine in the kidneys. Their operation consists in promoting the circulation of the blood towards the renal arteries, render...
-Dock
Dock, or Rumex, L. a genus of perennial plants, comprising 39 species, of which eleven are natives ; and of these the following are the principal: 1. The crispus, or Curled Dock, which is found in ...
-Dodder
Dodder, or Cuscuta, L. a genus of plants, of which two species are natives : 1. The Europcea, or Greater Dodder, a very pernicious weed, that chiefly attaches itself to clover, hops, flax, nettles,...
-Dog
Dog, or Cams, L. a genus of animals supposed to be originally natives of China, and consisting of more than thirty species, of which that most generally known is the familiaris, or domestic dog : this...
-Dog-Fly
Dog-Fly, or Cynomia, L. a genus of insects common in woods, and among bushes : they are particularly troublesome to dogs, and usually seize upon their ears; it is believed, that they can be prevented ...
-Dog's-Grass
Dog's-Grass, or Couch-grass, or Couch-wheat, Triticum repens, L. is an indigenous, peren-. nial plant, which grows on arable lands; it is also frequently found near the sea-coast, and continues in flo...
-Dog's-Mercury
Dog's-Mercury, or Mercu-rialis perer,nLs, L. an indigenous plant, growing under hedges and in woods, in many parts of Britain. Its perennial root creeps in the ground ; the stalks are single, and with...
-Dog-Rose
Dog-Rose, the Common; Wild-briar; or Hep-tree, Rosa canina, L. an indigenous plant, growing in woods and hedges : in the month of June it bears oval flowers, which are succeeded by red, egg-shaped ber...
-Dog's-Tail-Grass
Dog's-Tail-Grass, the Crested, or Cynosurus cristatus, L. an indigenous perennial plant, which grows in dry pastures, on a moist clayey soil, and blows in July. Its leaves are shorter than those of an...
-Dog's-Violet
Dog's-Violet, or Viola ca-nina,An indigenous perennial plant, which thrives in shady places, heaths, and hedge-banks : it is in flower from April to June. - Sheep are very fond of this herb, and bees ...
-Dolphin
Dolphin, or Delphinus pho-caena, L. a cetaceous fish, found in the German ocean, and also in the Mediterranean sea. It is covered with a smooth, but very tough and firm skin ; its body is sometimes 8 ...
-Door
Door, in architecture, is a contrivance for securing an aperture in a wall, to admit persons to enter and leave a house or apartment. The proportions of doors are, in general, regulated by those of...
-Dough
Dough, is flour fermented with yeast, or leaven, and kneaded into paste. In some parts of this country, the dough is made by the hand, but in the more populous towns and cities, the process is gene...
-Drag
Drag, or Wheel-drag, an implement so constructed as to prevent the accidents which fre-quently happen to horses, when drawing loaded carts down steep hills or declivities. In the year 1794, an inst...
-Draining
Draining is the art or practice of making artificial channels, for carrying off superfluous moisture or water from wet or marshy lands. This highly useful art did not generally engage the attention...
-Draught
Draught, in trade, is a small allowance on all goods capable of being weighed, and which is made by the King to the importer, or by the seller to the buyer, so that the weight may not be deficient, w...
-Drawback
Drawback, in commerce, generally signifies certain duties, either of the customs, or excise, which are allowed upon some of our own manufactures; or upon certain foreign merchandizes, for which the du...
-Draw-Net
Draw-Net, a kind of net for taking the larger species of wild fowl: it ought to be made of the best packthread, with wide meshes; the whole should be about two fathoms in depth, and six in length ; ve...
-Drilling
Drilling, in husbandry, a method of sowing grain or seed of any kind, so that it may be deposited in the ground at an uniform depth ; a circumstance of the utmost importance to the production of healt...
-Drinking
Drinking, is one of the animal functions, essential to the proper solution and digestion of food. Although the proportion of liquid to that of dry, or solid food, cannot be precisely ascertained; yet,...
-Drone
Drone, in natural history, a species of bee, which is nearly double the size of the common working insect. The head of drones is round, the eyes full, their tongue short, and the belly broader than in...
-Dropsy
Dropsy, a soft, unelastic swelling of the whole or part of the body : in other words, a collection of water under the whole skin, or in the brain, chest, abdomen, etc. This complaint may originate ...
-Dropwort
Dropwort, or Oenanthe, L. a genus of perennial plants, con-si-ting of seven species, five of which are indigenous ; among these the following only deserve notice : 1. The fistulosa, or Common Wa...
-Drowning
Drowning, is the aft of suffocating, or being suffocated, by a total immersion in water. The length of time during which a person may remain in this element, without being drowned, is very unequal, in...
-Drunkenness
Drunkenness, is that state from the intemperate drinking of liquors, reason has lost its powers, and the person intoxicated is unable to govern himself. This odious vice is but too prevalent among...
-Dry-Rot
Dry-Rot, a disease incident to timber, used for building, such as flooring-boards, joists, wainscoting, etc. Dr. Darwin is of opinion, that the dry-rot may be entirely pre-vented, by soaking the ti...
-Duck
Duck, the Common Wild, or Anas boschas, L. an aquatic fowl, from which the common tame sorts derive their origin. This bird frequents the lakes of different countries, and feeds upon frogs and seve...
-Duck's-Meat
Duck's-Meat, or Lemna, L. a genus of plants, consisting of four species, all of which are natives of this country, and grow abundantly in ponds, ditches, and stagnant waters. They are in flower from J...
-Duel
Duel, a single combat,on some private occasion or quarrel, in consequence of a challenge. Taking away the life of a per son, by deliberate duelling, is, by the law of this count ry, a species of mu...
-Dumbness
Dumbness, is the privation, or want, of the faculty of speech. This unfortunate defect proceeds chiefly from total and native deaf-nesE; if it arise from a deficiency in the organs necessary for ut...
-Dung
Dung, properly signifies the excrements of animals, together with the litter. It likewise comprehends whatever will ferment with soil, such as the green stalks of leaves and plants, when buried in the...
-Dwarf-Trees
Dwarf-Trees, a kind of diminutive fruit-trees, frequently planted in the borders of gardens, and so denominated from their low stature. Dwarf-trees were formerly in great request, but have been muc...
-Dyeing
Dyeing, generally signifies the art of tinging cloth, stuff, or other matter, with a permanent colour, by penetrating its sub-Stance. It is, however, usually confined to the art of imparting different...
-Dyers-Green-Weed
Dyers'-Green-Weed, or Wood-waxen, Genista linSloria, L. is an indigenous plant, growing in pastures, and on the borders of corn-fields. It produces yellow flowers, which blow in the month of July or A...
-Dyers-Weed
Dyers'-Weed, or Yellow-weed, Resoda luteola, L. an indigenous annual plant, growing in meadows, pastures, on walls, and barren uncultivated spots, particularly on the rubbish thrown out of coal-pits....
-Dysente
DysenterY, or Bloody Flux, an infections disease, at-tended with a discharge of blood and purulent matter by stool; violent griping; a continual inclination to go to stool ; pains in the loins; fever...
-Eagle
Eagle, the Golden, or Falco chrysaetos, L. a bird of prey, which chiefly inhabits the northern parts of Britain : it weighs about twelve pounds, and is nearly three feet long ; but, with its expanded ...
-Ear
Ear, the organ of hearing, or that part through which animals receive the impression of sounds. This organ is extremely tender, and subject to a variety of disorders. If it be suffered to continue ...
-Ear-Wig
Ear-Wig, or Forficula auri-cularis, L. a well known insect, which has received its name from penetrating into the human ear, where it causes the most acute pains, and even, as some have asserted, even...
-Earth
Earth, in general, signifies that solid, incombustible substance which forms the basis of the globe we inhabit. Chemists have, hitherto, made us acquainted with eight different species of simple ea...
-Earth-Banks
Earth-Banks, in husbandry, are a kind of fence, very common in the vicinity of London, and in several other parts of England: where stones cannot easily be procured, they are preferable to other fence...
-Earth-Nut
Earth-Nut, a native plant of two species, namely, the Bunium bulbocastanum or Cheat Earth-kut; and theflexuosum, or Com-mon Earth- nUit, or Pig-nut. Both are per nnial plants, growing in sandy or grav...
-Earthquake
Earthquake, is a sudden and violent concussion of the earth, which is generally attended with ucommon noise, both in the air and under ground; inconsequence of which, whole cities are at once levelled...
-Earth-Worm
Earth-Worm, or lumbri-eus, L. a well known insect, which is destitute of feet; it is of an oblong form; round shape, and covered with a soft, slender skin, marked with annular ridges and furrows. It i...
-Eau-De-Luce
Eau-De-Luce, a kind of liquid volatile soap, of a strong pungent smell, which is prepared in the following maimer: Ten or twelve grains of white soap are dissolved in four ounces of rectified spirit o...
-Ebony
Ebony, an exceedingly hard and heavy wood, imported from the East Indies : it admits of being very highly polished, for which reason it is used chiefly for veneering cabinets, in Mosaic work, etc. ...
-Economy
Economy, a term of extensive signification, and if its meaning be properly understood and practised, the result cannot fail to be attended with the happiest effects. It is, in particular, applied to r...
-Education
Education, is the art of rearing, forming, and instructing children, according to the propriate rules and maxims. Many volumes have, from time to time, been published on t...
-Eel
Eel, or Murcena, L. a genus of fish, comprising seven species, two of which only are found in the waters of this country; namely, 1. The Anguilla, or Common Eel, which is very frequent in all pur f...
-Egg
Egg, a body formed in certain female animals, and which con tains an embryo or fetus, beneath a cortical surface, or shell. This shell is lined throughout with a thin, but tough membrane, which, divi...
-Elder
Elder, or Sambucus, L. a genus of plants consisting of 6 species, two of which are indigenous. 1. The Ebulus, Dwarf Elder, or Dane-wort, which is perennial, grows in hedges and on road sides, and f...
-Elecampane
Elecampane, or Trivia, L. a genus of plants, consisting of thirty species, of which four only are indigenous, and the principal of these is the Helenium or Common Elecampane ; which is perennial, abou...
-Electricity
Electricity, is the power of attracting light substances, etc when excited by heat, or friction : and which may be communicated to other bodies - This term also im-pies that branch of natural p...
-Electuary
Electuary, a form of medicine, consisting of powders, or ofheringredients, incorporated with honey, conserve, or syrup: it is divided into doses, to be taken as circumstances may require. Electuari...
-Elephant
Elephant, a well known animal, which is a native of India, and the southern parts of Africa. It is the largest of all quadrupeds, and generally about l6 feet in length from the front to the tail; 25 f...
-Elm-Tree
Elm-Tree, the Common, or Uimus campestris, L. an indigenous tree, growing chiefly in a loose soil of hedge-rows, and abounding in the more southern parts of this country; - its flowers have a plea-san...
-Elocution
Elocution, generally speaking, signifies the selecling and adapting of words and sentences, to the things or sentiments intend-ed, to be expressed. It is also used to denote the just and graceful mana...
-Embroidery
Embroidery, a work in gold, silver, or silk-thread, wrought by the needle upon cloth, stuffs, or muslin, into various figures. In the embroidery of stuffs, the work is performed in a frame, as the ...
-Emerald
Emerald, a genus of precious stones belonging to the order of siliceous earths. This is perhaps the most beautiful of all the gems : when heated in fire, it changes its colours to a deep blue, and bec...
-Emery
Emery, a kind of metallic stone, found in several mines, but chiefly in those of iron, being a species of rich iron ore. It is usually of a, dusky, brownish red on the surface; but, when broken, is of...
-Emetics
Emetics are those medicines which are either given with a view to discharge the foul or poisoned contents of the stomach, or to vel-licate the coats of that organ, and thus to produce certain changes ...
-Emollients
Emollients are those medieines which are supposed to soften and relax the fibres of the body, either by mechanically distending such as before were too closely, that is, preternaturally combined ; or,...
-Emulsion
Emulsion, a form of medicine resembling milk, and which is often prescribed with a view to sheath and neutralize acrid humours, especially in heat of urine and stranguries, as well as for nervous and ...
-Enamel
Enamel, in general, signifies a' vitrefied matter, interspersed with some solid substance; and possessing all the pfoperties of glass, excepting that of transpar-ency. The basis of enamels is a pur...
-Encyclopaedia
Encyclopaedia, of Cyclopaedia, signifies the circle, or chain, which connects the different arts and sciences. In the present work, we have preferably adopted the term En-cyclopaedia, for reasons...
-Engrafting
Engrafting, or GRAFTING a term in gardening, which signifies the taking a shoot from one tree, and inserting it into another, so that they may closely unite, and form one trunk. Grafting has been p...
-Enriching Plants
Enriching Plants, a term employed by gardeners to denote such plants as ameliorate land, in consequence of which the same soil will produce a good crop of corn; as, without attending to the culture of...
-Epidemic
Epidemic, in general, denotes a spreading disorder which, as is supposed, arises from some corruption or malignity in the air, and attacks great numbers of people at certain seasons. Mankind have a...
-Epilepsy
Epilepsy, or Falling-Sickness, though hitherto considered an incurable disease, has often been relieved by the conjoint power of medicines and an appropriate diet. Hence, a pure and fresh air, light b...
-Epsom Salt
Epsom Salt, was formerly obtained by boding down the mineral water found in the vicinity of Epsom, ft is at present prepared from sea-water, which after being boiled down, deposits an uncrys-tallized ...
-Eryngo
Eryngo, or Sea-holly, Eryngium, L. a genus of plants, consisting of eleven species, two of which are natives of this country, viz. 1. The maritimum, or Sea-eryngo, which is perennial, grows on ...
-Eschallot
Eschallot, or Shallot, Allium Ascalonicum, L. is a native of Palestine, whence it has been introduced into our kitchen gardens. It is raised from suckers, which are set about the end of February, in b...
-Espaliers
Espaliers, in horticulture, are rows of trees, planted in gardens or hedges, in such a manner as to inclose distinct lots of ground; hence they are trained up regularly to a lattice of wood-work, in a...
-Essence
Essence, or Essential Oil, as it is variously termed, in medicine, derotes the purest, most subtle, and balsamic part of a body, extracted by distillation. There are a variety of essences drawn fro...
-Ether
Ether, or dulcified spirit of vitriol, is a very subtle penetrating fluid, prepared by distilling equal proportions of rectified spirit of wine, and vitriolic acid. This spirit is the lightest, mos...
-Euphorbium
Euphorbium, a gummy-, resinous substance, which exudes from a tree of the same name, growing in Africa; whence it is imported in drops of an irregular form. These are externally of a pale yellowish co...
-Evacuation
Evacuation, in animal economy, is the act of diminishing, attenuating, or discharging the humours. The dueevacuations of the body, and its proper nourishment, are equally necessary; and it is an ob...
-Evaporation
Evaporation, is the conversion of fluids, chiefly of water, into vapour which is specifically lighter than the atmosphere. There is no subject that has occasioned a greater variety of opinions than...
-Evening
Evening, is that part of the night which commences with sun-set, and properly terminates when the prudent and industrious repair to their couch - long before midnight. In countries surrounded by th...
-Evergreens
Evergreens, in gardening, are those perennial plants which continue their verdure, leaves, etc. throughout the year, such as bays, hollies, pines, firs, cedars of Leba-non, etc. In the evergreen sh...
-Exchange
Exchange, in commerce, implies the receiving or paying of money in one country for a similar sum in another, by means of bills of exchange. - See Bill. The laws of all commercial nations have confe...
-Excoriation
Excoriation, or fretting of the skin, is a complaint sometimes arising from want of due attention to infants, or in persons unaccustomed to ride on horseback, or those who are unfortunately bedridden....
-Excretion
Excretion, in animal economy, is the discharge of foul or noxious humours, by stool. As the food and drink daily consumed must necessarily deposit feculent and useless matter, moderate evacuations ...
-Exercise
Exercise, in general, is such an agitation of the body, as produces salutary effects in the animal economy. Exercise may be divided into two classes, active and passive: the former includes walking...
-Exhalation
Exhalation, generally speaking, denotes effluvia or steams which arise from the surface of the earth, or other bodies, in the form of vapour. Plants and flowers afford a grateful exhalation, provid...
-Exotic
Exotic, an appellation given to plants, which are not natives of Britain. The generality of exotic plants do not thrive in this country, without particular care and culture; they require the warmth...
-Expectorants
Expectorants, are such medicines as promote expectoration, that is, the discharge of mucus, or other matters from the breast, lungs, and wind-pipe, by coughing, bringing up phlegm, etc. Expectorant...
-Extracts
Extracts, are those medicinal preparations obtained by boiling vegetable substances in water, and evaporating the strained decoction in broad, shallow vessels, to a thick consistence. Thus the most ac...
-Extravasation
Extravasation arises from the bursting or breaking of one or more of the blood vessels, after contusions, fractures, and other injuries of the head, as well as other parts of the body : this accident ...
-Eye
Eye, the organ of sight, by means of which visible objects are represented to the mind. It would be deviating from our plan, to give a minute anatomical description of this most useful organ ; we s...
-Eye-Bright
Eye-Bright, or Euphrasia officinalis, L. an annual indigenous plant, growing on heaths, dry barren meadows, and in pastures : it flowers from July to September. This vegetable is remarkable for not...
-Face
Face, generally signifies the visage of any animal: it is more particularly applied to the human countenance; being the only conspicuous part of the body. The human face is called the image of the ...
-Faggot
Faggot, a bundle of pieces of wood, tied together for fuel, or other purposes. In making up faggots, the workmen trim or cut off' the superfluous branches, from the sides and end, which they insert...
-Fair
Fair, a public place, where merchants, traders, and other persons, from remote parts, assemble on some fixed day in the year, to buy and sell commodities, and to partake of the diversions usually to b...
-Falcon
Falcon/ a formidable bird of prey, of which there are two species, namely: 1. The Jer-FalcoN, Falco Gyr-falco, L. which is but seldom found in Scotland and the Orkneys: next to the eagle, it is th...
-Fall
Fall, or the act of tumbling from an erect, posture, or from a higher place, is sometimes attended with serious consequences ; especially if it should be neglected in the beginning. Hence the necessit...
-Fallowing
Fallowing, in agriculture, is the mode of preparing land, by ploughing it a considerable time before it is ploughed for seed. Lands are laid fallow either during the summer, or during the winter, a...
-Fan
Fan, a well known contrivance employed chiefly by females to raise wind : cool the air by agitating it, and defending their complexion, This kin! of toy was introduced into Britain from the East, w...
-Farcy
Farcy, a disorder peculiar to horses, but which sometimes also affects oxen, and other cattle. The farcy is infectious, and spreads among horses, in a manner similar to the distemper. It arises fro...
-Farm
Farm, a small district of land, on which is erected a house, with other conveniencics; hired or taken on lease, or otherwise, for the purpose of cultivation. Having already, in the course of this w...
-Farm-House
Farm-House, in rural economy, is applied particularly to the dwelling occupied by a farmer. The principal objects to be attended to in erecting farm-houses are, convenience, and a salubrious situat...
-Farriery
Farriery, the art of preventing, curing, or alleviating the disorders of horses. The practice of this useful profession has, till within the last 15 or 20 years, been almost entirely confined to a ...
-Faselnut
Faselnut, or Areca catechu, L. one of the most curious Indian plants, which attains its greatest perfection in the island of Ceylon. It grows to the height of 25 or 35 feet, without any branches, ...
-Fashion
Fashion, in general, signifies the prevailing mode or taste, and is particularly applied to dress. In this respect, It frequently supplies the place of reason; especially when the two principal rules,...
-Fasts
Fasts, or Fasting, denotes abstinence from food, particularly for religious reasons. Fasting has been transmitted to us from the earliest ages, as a duty necessary to be performed at certain period...
-Fat
Fat, an unctuous, solid sub-stance, deposited in little membranous cells, in various parts of animal bodies : it serves to defend the muscles and bones against cold, to temper the acids of aliments, a...
-Fattening
Fattening of Colours, is a term employed by painters, and signifies a coagulation of the oil, which is occasioned by mixing it with several kinds of pigments : hence, when it has been kept for a consi...
-Feather
Feather, a general name, expressing the covering and wings of birds, by which they are enabled to fly. ' The feathers chiefly used in this country, are those of geese, from which animals they ...
-Felt
Felt, a kind of stuff, which derives its consistence merely from being fulled or wrought with lees and size, without being either spun or woven. The mechanism of felting is equally simple and curious ...
-Fen
Fen, a place overflowed with water, or abounding with bogs. See Bog and Draining. The most extensive fens in this island, are those of Lincolnshire, which afford considerable advantages to t...
-Fence
Fence, in rural economy, is a hedge, wall, ditch, bank, or other inclosure, made round gardens, woods, fields, etc. The fences employed for parks, and sometimes for gardens, are generally of paling...
-Fennel
Fennel, the Common, or Fennel Dill, Anethum foeniculum, L,' a native perennial plant, growing on chalk cliffs, and common on the western coasts. Its yellow flowers appear in July or August. The ten...
-Fenugreek
Fenugreek, or Trigonella faenumgrcecum, L. is a native of the Southern parts of France, Germany and Italy, whence its yellowish seeds are annually imported. They possess a strong, disagreeable Smell, ...
-Fermentation
Fermentation is, strictly speaking, a chemical process, and 'one of the most obscure phenomena in nature, which all the ingenuity of philosophers has hitherto been unable to explain. Instead, therefor...
-Fermented Liquors
Fermented Liquors, are those obtained by the process de-scribed in the preceding article. See also Beer, Brewing, Cyder, Wine, etc. All liquors which have undergone the vinous fermentation, are con...
-Fern
the Female Fern, or Pteris aquliina, L. an indigenous plant, growing on heaths, in woods, and dry barren places, and flowering jn the month of August. This weed is extremely difficul to be eradicat...
-Ferret
Ferret, or Mustela Furo, L. an useful animal, which is originally a native of Africa, whence it was introduced into Spain, and subsequently into this country. It has red, fiery eyes; the colour of its...
-Fescue-Grass
Fescue-Grass, or Festuca, L. a genus of plants consisting of 39 species; though only 12 or 14 are indigenous, of which the following are the principal: 1. The ovina, or Sheep's Fescue-grass, which ...
-Fever
Fever, a general term for a' numerous and diversified class of diseases ; in which, after shivering, succeed increased heat and a quick, irregular pulse ; while several of the animal functions are imp...
-Feverfew
Feverfew, or Matricaria, L. a genus of plants consisting of six species, three of which are indigenous. The principal of these are: 1. The parthenium, or Common Feverfew, which grows in waste grou...
-Fever-Powders
Fever-Powders are generally understood to be those originally prepared by the late Dr. Robert James, and by many still believed to be a certain remedy for fevers of every description. According to the...
-Field
Field, in agriculture, a piece of land inclosed, either for the purpose of tillage, or for pasture. The best season for laying land down to grass, is the latter end of August, or the beginning of S...
-Fig-Tree
Fig-Tree, or Ficus. L. a genus of plants, comprising forty-three species, of which one only is cultivated in this country, namely the. carica, or common fig-tree. It is propagated either by suckers ar...
-Figwort
Figwort, or Scrophularia, L. a genus of plants consisting of twenty-one species, four of which are natives of Britain : the principal of these is the nodosa, or great figwort, which is perennial, grow...
-File
File, a tool employed by smiths and others, for the purpose of smoothing, polishing, or cutting metals. This instrument is composed either of iron or forged steel, cut by means of a chisel and mall...
-Filtration
Filtration, in chemistry, as well as in domestic economy, is the process of straining or filtering liquors by means of woollen cloth, cotton, linen, paper, or other mate-rials. - It deserves to be pre...
-Finch
Finch, or Fiingi/la, L. a ge-nus of birds, comprising one hundred and eight species, of which ten only are natives of this country ; the principal of these are mentioned in their alphabetical order. -...
-Fir-Tree
Fir-Tree, the name of several species of the Pinus, or pine-tree, of which the following are the principal : 1. The sylvestris, or Scotch fir, which is a native of Scotland, and flourishes best in ...
-Fire
Fire, is that subtle, invisible cause, which penetrates both solid and liquid matters with extreme facility, and renders them hot to the touch. It is also the chief agent, by which the composition and...
-Fire-Arms
Fire-Arms, are those which are charged with powder and ball ; Such as musquets, carbines, pistols, cannons, etc. In December 1/80, a patent was granted to Mr. John AItkeN, of Edinburgh, surgeon, fo...
-Fire-Cocks
Fire-Cocks, are contrivances for admitting water into pipes or reservoirs : churchwardens in London, and within the bills of mortality, are enjoined to fix them at proper distances in streets, togethe...
-Fire-Escape
Fire-Escape, a contrivance for the purpose of rescuing persons in imminent danger from fire. In the Annual Register for 1775, an account is given of a machine for saving persons and effects from th...
-Fire-Irons
Fire-Irons, are those instruments which are employed in the management of a fire, namely, poker, shovel,and the different kinds of tongs. As the manufacture of these articles is acknowledged to be ver...
-Fire-Place
Fire-Place, a contrivance for communicating heat to rooms, and also for answering various pur-poses of art and manufacture. - With respect to the latter kind, we propose to treat under the articles of...
-Fire-Proof
Fire-Proof, a term which expresses the effect of certain applications to combustible substances, especially in buildings, with a view to prevent them from being reduced to ashes. This important object...
-Firkin
Firkin, an English measure for liquids, which is the fourth part of a barrel; it contains eight gallons of ale, soap, or herrings, and nine gallons of beer. - Two firkins make a kilderkin. ...
-Fish
Fish, in natural history, an animal that lives in the water as its proper element. - See Animal kingdom. The most general, or popular division of these creatures, is into fresh and salt water fis...
-Fishing
Fishing, the art of catching fish, whether by means of nets and spears, or of lines and hooks. The former are used in fresh and salt waters, for the taking of large fish, which go in shoals ; the latt...
-Fish-Ponds
Fish-Ponds, are those reservoirs made for the breeding and rearing of fish. They are considered to be no small improvement of watery and boggy lands, many of which can be appropriated to no other purp...
-Fistula
Fistula, in general, denotes any ulcerated and sinuous cavity, with callous and elevated edges, which extends to a carious bone. This formidable disease is, according to the parts which it attacks,...
-Fixed-Air
Fixed-Air, an aerial fluid which is disengaged from allsub-stances liable to undergo the vinous fermentation, as well as by mixing alkaline salts and earths with acids. It is, strictly speaking, a gas...
-Flag
Flag, the Sweet, or Acorus calamus, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in shallow, standing waters, rivulets, and marshy places. It delights in an open situation, and might be transplanted into...
-Flannel
Flannel, a kind of light, porous, woollen stuff, woven on a loom with two treddles, in a manner similar to baize. This is unquestionably one of the most useful articles of wearing apparel; and it i...
-Flatulency
Flatulency, a very com-. mon disorder, arising from vapours generated in the stomach and intestines. It occasions distensions. disagreeable sensations, and frequently a considerable degree of pain. ...
-Flax
Flax, or Limim, L. an indigenous plant, consisting of four species, of which the following are the principal: 1. The Usitatissimum, or Common Flax, which grows in corn-fields, and sandy pastures, a...
-Flax Toad
Flax Toad, the Common Yellow, or Antirrhinum Liuaria, L. an indigenous perennial plant, which grows in barren meadows, pastures, and road sides, and is in flower from July to September. Cows, horse...
-Flea
Flea, or Pulex, L. in zoology, a genus of insect, requiring no particular description. Want of cleanliness remarkably contributes to the generation of fleas ; as the females deposit their eggs, ea...
-Flea-Bane
Flea-Bane, the Great, or Plowman's Spikenard, Conyza squarrosa, L. an indigenous biennial plant, growing in mountainous meadows and pastures, in a calcareous soil, and producing yellow flowers in the ...
-Flesh-Meat
Flesh-Meat, or the flesh of animals prepared for food, is an important object of domestic eco-nomy. - In this place, however, we shall communicate only the most proper and effectual ways of preserving...
-Fleuk-Worm
Fleuk-Worm, or Flewk-worm, Fasciola hepatica, L. an insect, of the size and shape of a child's finger-nail : it creeps up the gall-ducts from the intestines, and, preying upon the livers of sheep, occ...
-Flint
Flint, or Silts, L. a kind of opaque stone, which is, in general, of a roundish form, covered with a white crust, of a smooth-uniform texture, and .so hard, as to emit fire, when stricken against stee...
-Floor
Floor, in architecture, the area, or lower part of a room. which is in general covered with boards. The best wood that can be selected for this purpose, is yellow deal, thoroughly seasoned ; which,...
-Flounder
Flounder, or Pleuronectes flesus, L. a fish, which abounds in all parts of the British sea, and is also found in rivers, at a considerable distance from the shore. It may be easily distinguished from...
-Flour
Flour, the meal of wheat, rye, etc. finely ground and sifted. We have already stated, that corn is the prey of a variety of in-sects : when converted into flour, it is subject to the depredations o...
-Flower
Flower, or Flos, the most beautiful part of plants and trees, which contains the organs of fruc-tification. - See Botany, vol, i. p. 316. From their frequent utility as medicinal drugs, as well as ...
-Flower-De-Luce
Flower-De-Luce, or Flag, Iris, L. a genus of plants consisting of 54 species, the following three of which are natives of Britain : 1. The pseudacorous, Water Flower-de-Luce, or Yellow Flag...
-Fluellin
Fluellin, the Sharp-pointed, or Antirrhinum Elatine, L. is an indigenous annual plant, growing in corn-fields, and flowering from July to September. - The expressed juice of this plant has been highly...
-Flummery
Flummery, a kind of jelly made of oatmeal, in the following manner: Steep three large table-spoonfuls of finely ground oatmeal for 21 hours in two quarts of pure water, then pour off the clear fluid, ...
-Flute
Flute, the GErman, a musical instrument of a well known construction. Although playing the flute is on the Continent more generally practised than in Britain, yet we think it useful to observe, tha...
-Flux
Flux, a disorder to which sheep are subject, when those useful animals, alter having been kept on too short an allowance, suddenly come to their full feed. It is also sometimes occasioned by their eat...
-Sap-Flow Flux
Sap-Flow Flux, Flurus umbilicalis, a disease frequently occurring in plants and trees, when the alburnum, or sap-wood, is wounded during the spring; and which consis s of a saccharine, mucilaginous fl...
-Fly
Fly, or Musca, L. an order of insects divided into several genera, of which we shall notice only those species that are more immediately connected with agriculture and domestic economy. 1. The Dol...
-Fly-Blown
Fly-Blown, a term expressive of that corruption of flesh-meat, or any animal food, which is occasioned by flies depositing their eggs on its surface, where they are subsequently bred into maggots. - I...
-Catch Fly
Catch Fly, or Campion, Silene, L. a numerous genus of plants amounting to 03 species, eleven of which are indigenous, None of these have hitherto been employed to any other useful purpose than that of...
-Spanish Fly
Spanish Fly, usually called by the plural name of cantha-rides, but properly speaking, is a chafer of a shining green colour, a blueish shade, and emitting an unpleasant narcotic odour. This insect i...
-Fly-Struck
Fly-Struck, adisorder peculiar to sheep, which is occasioned by a fly that settles and deposits its eggs on them, and very materially injures the quality of the fleece. In order to remove this mala...
-Fodder
Fodder, denotes any kind of dry food provided for horses, or other cattle : it is more particularly applied to hay and straw. Having already specified those vegetables which may be employed with th...
-Fog
Fog, or Mist, a meteor consisting of gross vapours floating near the surface of the earth. Fogs have a considerable influence on the winter. In the summer of 1783, an uncommon fog prevailed all ove...
-Fomentation
Fomentation, in the art healing, signifies the external application of a fluid in cases of swellings, etc. as warm as the patient can bear it, and in the following manner: Two pieces of flannel are di...
-Food
Food, generally speaking, denotes those alimentary substances which are taken into the stomach, whether fluid or solid; but it is usually confined to the latter kind: - of the former we have already s...
-Fools-Parsley
Fools-Parsley, or Lesser Hemlock, Aethusa cynapium, L. an indigenous plant, growing in corn-fields and kitchen-gardens, and flowering in the months of August and September. This noxious weed greatl...
-Foot
Foot, that part of the body on which animals stand and walk. The principal cause of the lameness and distortion observable among many children, especially of the poorer class, is owing to an improper ...
-Foot-Halt
Foot-Halt, a disorder peculiar to sheep, and which is occasioned by an insect resembling a worm, two, three, and sometimes four inches in length. The first appearance of this malady is manifest by the...
-Foot-Rot
Foot-Rot, a disease to which sheep are subject, and which is said to be contagious. The first symptom of the disorder is manifest, when the animal affected begins to limp; though no injury will be ...
-Forcing
Forcing, in horticulture, is the art of producing ripe fruits from trees, before their natural season. Although by no means inclined to encourage this artificial practice, as fruit thus raised is n...
-Forest
Forest, generally speaking, signifies a large tract of land, covered with trees. The principal forests in this country are those of Sherwood,Windsor, the New Forest, that of Dean, on the north of t...
-Fore-Stalling
Fore-Stalling is the buying of, or bargaining for, corn, cattle, or other merchandize, in its passage to fairs, or markets, for sale, with an intent to dispose of them again at an advanced price. T...
-Fossil-Alkali
Fossil-Alkali, is thus called to distinguish it from the vegetable alkali; as the former is found in a pure state, in the bowels of the earth} whereas the latter is prepared from various plants. Fo...
-Fossil-Coal
Fossil-Coal, a species of pit-coal found in various parts of England. - See Coal. In December 1792, a patent was granted toMr. John Barber, of Attleborough, Warwickshire, for a method of smelting a...
-Fossil-Pitch
Fossil-Pitch, or Hardened Rock-oil, Petroleum induratum ; a bituminous production (see Bi-tumens), which consists of two varieties. 1. The Asplialtum, or pure fossil-pitch, which is found in the sh...
-Foul
Foul, a disorder in cattle, which proceeds from a peculiar state of the blood, and a watery rheum that descends into the legs, and occasions swellings. To remove this malady, it has been advised to th...
-Foundered
Foundered, a disease in the feet, to which horses are subject. It is occasioned by hard riding, severe labour, great heats, sudden colds, etc. that inflame the blood, and, as the farriers express it, ...
-Fox
Fox, or Canis vulpes, L. animal of the canine race, well known for his cunning, and the depredations he commits in farm-yards among poultry, and in warrens among rabbits. Foxes produce but once a...
-Fox-Glove
Fox-Glove, the Common, or Purple, Digitalis purpurea, L. an indigenous biennial plant, growing in meadows, on hedge-banks, and the sides of hiils ; in dry, gravelly, or sandy soils, but seldom on fat ...
-Fox-Tail Grass
Fox-Tail Grass, or Alope-curus, L. a genus of plants consisting of 18 species, of which Dr. Smith enumerates four, and Dr. Withering six, to be natives of England: the principal of these are the follo...
-Fractures
Fractures of Bones, are accidents which generally arise from external injury. They are either simple, when the skin and other integuments remain sound; or double, when splinters are projecting, and th...
-Freckles
Freckles, are spots of a yellowish colour, about the size of a lentile-seed, frequently appearing on the face, neck, and hands. These discolourations are either constitutional in the ind...
-French-Mercury
French-Mercury, or Mer-euriu/is annua, L. an indigenous plant, growing on waste places, and dung ills in the vicinity of towns and flowering in the months of August and September. The who...
-Friction
Friction, in medicine, is the act of rubbing a diseased part with oils, unguents, and other matters, in order to ease, relieve, and cure it-Friction is also performed with a flesh-brush, a linen-clot...
-Frog
Frog, or Ratio, L. a genus of amphibious reptiles, consisting of 17 species, the most remarkable of which are; 1. The tewporaria, or Common Frog, which is an animal so well known as to render any d...
-Frost
Frost, is that state of the atmosphere, which causes water and other liquids to congeal, or freeze. Frost is supposed to descend from the upper parts of bodies ; but no experiments have hitherto as...
-Fruit-Trees
Fruit-Trees, are such as bear fruit, namely, Apple, Cherry, Pear-trees, etc. for the particular culture of which we refer to those articles. At present, we shall confine ourselves to remarks equally a...
-Frumenty
Frumenty, or Furmenty, as it is popularly called, is a kind of pottage, prepared of wheat, which is first dried whole in an oven, afterwards boiled, and put into moulds or basons. In this country, it...
-Frush
Frush, or Running-Thrush, in farriery, is a discharge of fetid, and sometimes ichorous matter, from the cleft in the middle of an horse's foot. It attests one, two, and sometimes all the animal's legs...
-Fuel
Fuel is the aliment or food of fire. The fuel generally used in Britain is pit-coal : it is attended with considerable expence, that is not a little increased by the enormous waste, arising from th...
-Fullers'-Earth
Fullers'-Earth, or Argilla Litliomarga, is a species of clay, of an ash-coloured brown, and presents various shades, from a very pale to nearly a black colour: it is in general of a greenish cast. ...
-Fulling
Fulling, is the art of cleansing, scouring, and pressing cloths, stuffs., and stockings, to render them stronger, closer, and firmer : it is also sometimes called milling. The fulling of cloths, et...
-Fumigation
Fumigation, in medicine. denotes the artificial impregnation of the atmosphere, with the fumes or smoke of any vegetable or aromatic substance. Considerable injury is often produced by inhaling the...
-Fumitory
Fumitory, or Fumaria, L. a genus of plants comprising nineteen species, five or six of which are natives ; and among these the principal are: . 1. The officinalis, or ...
-Funeral Rites
Funeral Rites, are those ceremonies which are religiously-observed at the interment or burial of the dead. They varied among the ancients, according to the different genius and religion of each countr...
-Fur
Fur, in commerce, signifies the skins of wild quadrupeds, which are dressed with alum, without depriving them of the hair; and which form a part of the robes of princes, magistrates, and others. The s...
-Furnace
Furnace, an utensil, or apparatus, in which a strong lire, either of coals or of wood, may be raised and maintained. There is a great diversity of furnaces, according to the different purposes to w...
-Furrow
Furrow, in agriculture, a term not properly defined, as it has three or four distinct significations, namely, 1. The soil turned up by the plough ; 2. The trench left by this operation; 3. The interva...
-Furze
Furze, or Ulex, L. an indigenous plant, consisting of two species, the principal of which is, the Europoeus, Common Furze, Whins, or GorzE, which grows on heaths, road-sides, and pastures. It abounds ...
-Fustic
Fustic, or Fustock, is the Dyer's MolberT-tree, or Mo-rus tinctoria, L. a native of the West Indies, whence it is brought to this country. It is used by dyers in tinging cloths of a yellow colour; for...
-Gad-Fly
Gad-Fly, or BREEZE, Oestrus lovis, L. an insect with spotted wings, and a yellow breast. It has a long proboscis, with a sharp dart, inclosing two others within it. These insects particularly infes...
-Galbanum
Galbanum, a gum that exudes from the stem of the Bubon gummiferum, L. or Gum-bearing Macedonian Parsley, a native of Persia and different parts of Africa. - The concrete juice is semi-pel-lucid, soft,...
-Sweet Gale
Sweet Gale, Sweet Willow, or Dutch Myrtle, Myrica gale, L. is an indigenous low plant, growing abundantly on bogs, in gravelly soils, and flowering in the month of May. - It is eaten by horses and goa...
-Gall
Gall, in natural history, signifies any protuberance, or tumor, produced by the punctures of insects on plants and trees of various kinds ; but especially the quereus, or oak ; cistus, or rock-rose ; ...
-Galling
Galling of a Horse's Back, an injury occasioned by heat, and the chafing or pressure of the sad-dle.To prevent this painful affec-tion, it is recommended to take the skin of a hind, well furnis...
-Gallon
Gallon, a measure of capacity, both for dry and liquid articles, containing four quarts, which varies according to the nature of the MS commodity measured. - Thus, the wine-gailon contains 231 cubic i...
-Galvanism
Galvanism, an appellation given to the influence of metals y mere external contact with the human body, discovered by Prof. Galvani, at Bologna, about ten years s nee, and which he called Animal Elec...
-Gamboge
Gamboge, a concrete vege-table juice, of a gummy-resinous nature. It issues from the Cambo-gia gutta, a native of Cambia, in the East Indies; whence it is imported in large cakes or rolls. The best so...
-Game
Game, in general, denotes any sport or diversion that is performed with regularity, and subject to certain rules. Games are usually divided into those of exercise, such as leaping. playing at tenni...
-Gaming
Gaming, the art of playing any game of chance; for instance, dice, E O, and Pharo-tables, etc. Gaming has at all times been regarded as pernicious to the morals of society, and is therefore prohibi...
-Gangrene
Gangrene, an intense degree of inflammation; in which the part affected grows livid, soft, little sensible, and is frequently covered with vesicles contain ichorous matter. But, when the part becomes ...
-Garden
Garden, a piece of ground, laid out, cultivated, and ornamented with a variety of plants, fruits, and flowers. Gardens are generally divided into three classes: 1. The flower-garden ; which, being ...
-Garget
Garget, a disease incident particularly to black cattle: it is attended with a swelling of the throat, tongue, and the contiguous parts ; and supposed to arise partly from over-heated blood, partly in...
-Gargil
Gargil, a distemper in geese, which, by stopping the head, frequently proves fatal. - To effect a cure, nothing mere is requisite to take three or four cloves of garlic, pound them in a mortar with sw...
-Gargle
Gargle, or Gargarism, is a liquid form of medicines used in disorders of the mouth, gums, etc. Gargles are peculiarly useful in pore throats and fevers : they are preferable to many other remedies ...
-Gargut
Gargut, a distemper affect-ing all kinds of mamillary animals, especially cows when full of milk. It is occasioned by this fluid being coagulated in their bags or udder so that it becomes corrupted an...
-Garlic
Garlic, or Allium, L. a genus of plants comprising 54 species, seven of which are indigenous : of these, the following are the principal : 1. The oleraceum, Streaked Field-garlic, or Wild Garlic...
-Garter
Garter, a ligature employed for fastening or tying up stockings. Though the use of garters be sanctioned by custom and fashion, it is by no means to be recommended, either above or below the knee; ...
-Gauze
Gauze, in commerce, is a thin transparent stuff, sometimes woven of silk, and sometimes only of thread. In preparing the silk for making gauze, it is twined round a wooden machine, about six feet in h...
-Gem
Gem, a general name applied to all precious stones, which are divided into two classes; 1. The pellucid, or such as are clear, elegant and beautiful fossils, extremely hard, and of uncommon lustre ; 2...
-Generation
Generation, in physiology, implies the propagation of the species, whether in plants, insects, fishes, or other animals. Having referred the reader to this article, under the head of Animalcule,...
-Gentian
Gentian, The Common Yellow, or Red; Gentiana lutea, v. rubra, is a native of the Alps, whence it was introduced into this country. It is, however, seldom cultivated in our gardens; the root, which is ...
-Germander
Germander, or Teucrium L. a genus of plants consisting of sixty-eight species, three of which only are natives. 1. The scorodinia, Wood Germander, or wood sage, which is perennial; grows in woods...
-Gid
Gid, a distemper to which hogs are subject. It is occasioned by their feeding too eagerly on buck-wheat, clover, or other rich succulent plants ; and is somewhat similar to the disorder in horses, cal...
-Gilding
Gilding, the art of spreading, or covering any substance with! gold, either in leaf, or in a liquid state. This art was known to the ancients, though it has only within. the last two or three centu...
-Gilead
Gilead, the Balsa m, or Balm of, is a gummy substance that exudes from the bark of the Amyris Gileadensis v. Opobalsamum L. a native of Arabia Felix. The balsam formerly imported into Europe, is ob...
-Gin
Gin, sometimes called Geneva, or Hollands, is a malt spirit distilled a second time with the addition of juniper-berries. These berries were at first added to the malt before it was ground ; so tha...
-Ginger
Ginger, the Common, or Amomum Zingiber, L. is a native of the East Indies, whence it was transplanted by the Spaniards to the West India Islands, from which Europe is chiefly supplied with its spicy f...
-Ginseng
Ginseng, or Panax quinque-folium, L. is an exotic plant growing wild in North America. The dried root of ginseng, as imported into this country, has a mucilaginous, sweetish taste, similar to that ...
-Glanders
Glanders, a disorder in horses, which manifests itself by a corrupt slimy matter running from the nose : according to the degree of malignity, or the continuance of the infection, the discharge is eit...
-Glass
Glass, a solid, transparent, brittle substance, produced by melting together sand, flint, alkaline salts, etc. besides which, there are various saline matters employed, namely, Polverine, or ro-chetta...
-Glauber's-Salt
Glauber's-Salt, a chemical composition, which is usually prepared by adding to sea-salt an equal quantity or oil of vitriol diluted with water, distilling off the marine acid, and dissolving and cryst...
-Glazing
Glazing signifies the coating or enamelling of earthen ware with any vitreous substance, the barfs of which consists of lead. It is one of those familiar arts with which the ancients were doubtless be...
-Gleaning
Gleaning, or Leasing, as it is called in some counties, is the gathering or picking up those ears of corn which are left after the field has been reaped, and the crop carried home. This practice ha...
-Glove
Glove, a covering for the hand and wrist, which forms a considerable article of commerce. Gloves are divided into various kinds, such as silk, thread, cotton, leather, etc. The materials for the la...
-Glow-Worm
Glow-Worm, the FEMALE, of the Fire-fly, or Lampyris no luca, L. is remarkable lor the light it emits during the night. This luminous appearance depends upon a phosphorescent liquor found at the lower ...
-Glue
Glue, a tenacious, viscid mat-ter, serving as a cement to unite or connect substances together. Glues are of different kinds, according to the various uses to which they are applied; such are commo...
-Gnat
Gnat, or Culex, L. a genus of insects comprising several species, which are well known by the severe punctures they inflict. Gnats deposit their eggs to the number of 200, by each female, on stagna...
-Goat
Goat, or Copra, L. a genus of animals, comprising more than 30 species, only one of which is reared in this country, namely, the Hircus, or Common Goat, a native of Mount Caucasus, in Asia, whence it ...
-Goatsbeard
Goatsbeard, or Tragfo-pogon, a genus of plants comprising 16 species, two of which are indigenous. 1. The pratense, Yellow Goafs-beard, or Go-to-bed-at-noon (because its blossoms close about the m...
-Gold
Gold, the most valuable of all metals, is of a bright yellow colour in its pure state, but acquires different shades, when alloyed with baser metals. Europe is supplied with gold chiefly from Chili...
-Golden-Rod
Golden-Rod, the Common OR Wound-wort, Solidago Vir-gaurea, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in woods, hedges heaths, and copses ; and flowering from July to September. This plant was formerly...
-Gold-Finch
Gold-Finch, or Fringilla carduelis, L. is a native of Europe, and is sometimes also found in Asia and Africa. This bird is peculiarly beautiful in its colour, of an elegant form, and strikes melodi...
-Gold-Fish
Gold-Fish, or Cyprinus au-ratus, L. is a native of the East Indies, whence it was introduced into England, about the latter end of the 17 th century. These fish are very tender, even in their nativ...
-Gold Of Pleasure
Gold Of Pleasure, or Common Camline, Alyssum tivum, v. Moenchia sativa, L. an indigenous plant, growing in corn-fields, frequently among fax (with the seeds of which it is supposed to have been import...
-Goose
Goose, or Anas anser, L. a well known species of birds, very common in this country : it is divided into two varieties : 1. The ferus, Grey Lag, or Wild Goose, that inhabits the fens, where each ...
-Gooseberry
Gooseberry, the Rough, or Fea-BERRY, ribes grossularia, L. an indigenous growing in woods and hedges, especially about Darlington, Durham ; also, on old buildings arid church-towers, whi-ther i...
-Goose-Foot
Goose-Foot, or Ckenopo-dium, L. a genus of plants, comprising twenty-seven species, eleven of which are indigenous ; of these the following are the principal : 1. The Bonus Hernials, Perennial Goos...
-Goose-Grass
Goose-Grass, or CLEAVER3, Clivers, or CATCHWEED Goose-grass ; Galium aparine, L. an in-digenous plant, growing in cultivated grounds and hedges, and flowering from June to September. This succule...
-Gourd
Gourd, or Cucurbila, L. a genus of exotic plants comprising nine species, of which the following are the principal: 1. The lagenaria, or Bottle Gourd, a native of both Indies, where it grows on the...
-Gout
Gout, or Podagra, a disease of the Pouteus-kind, thus defined by Dr. Cullen : It is hereditary, and commences without any a parent external cause, but is in most instances preceded by indigestion, or ...
-Gout-Weed
Gout-weed, Herb-gerard, Ash-weed, or Ground-ash, AEgopodium Podagraria,L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in orchards, gardens, pastures and hedges, and flowering in the months of May and June....
-Grain
Grain strictly speaking, signifies the fruit or seed, growing in a spike or ear ; in which sense it comprehends corn of every kind, such as Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, etc. Of the preparation, culture, ...
-Grains
Grains, are the refuse of malt, which has been brewed or distilled. Immense quantities of this article are consumed in London and its environs for the feeding of pigs, 1 00,000 of which were annually ...
-Granary
Granary, a buildinginwhich corn is deposited, especially when designed to be kept for a considerable time. In constructing granaries, the principal objects are, strength or solidity of the edi...
-Granate
Granate, or Garnet, a genus of fossils, classed among siliceous earths, and containing three species, the principal of which is the crystallized granate. It is ranked among precious stones, but ...
-Granite
Granite, in Natural History, a genus of stones, consisting chiefly of quartz, feldspath, and mica; forming rough and very large masses of great hardness, yielding fire with steel, not fermenting with ...
-Granulation
Granulation, a chemical process, by which metallic sub-stances are reduced to small grains. It consists simply in pouring the melted metal into cold water, from a considerable height. Lead or tin may ...
-Grapes
Grapes are the fruit of the VinB, on the culture of which we shall treat under that head. Grapes are excellent fruit, and well calculated for cleansing the humours, on account of their laxative pro...
-Grass
Grass, in botany, is defined to be a plant or vegetable which has simple leaves, a jointed tubular stem, a husky calyx called gluma, and the seed of which is single. Grasses are divided into two cl...
-Grass-Hoppers
Grass-Hoppers, or Tettigo-nice, L. are a family of inserts belonging to the genus of Gryllus, and comprising 69 species : they ail leap by the help of their hind legs, which are strong and much longer...
-Grasswrack
Grasswrack, or Zostera, L. a perennial native plant, of two species, the principal of which is the marina, or Sea-grasswrack, found on sea-shores, and in salt-water ditches near Yarmouth. This vege...
-Grates
Grates for Fires, are composed of ribs of iron, placed at small distances from each other, so that the air may pass through the fuel, and the accumulation of ashes be, as 'much as possible, pre-vented...
-Gravel
Gravel, in agriculture and gardening, is a congeries of pebbles ; which, if mixed with stiff loam, make excellent and durable gravel-walks. For this purpose, the bottom should be laid with lime-rubbis...
-Gravel In Medicine
Gravel In Medicine, is a disorder affecting chiefly the bladder and ureters ; it is occasioned by a sandy or gritty substance which collects in those parts, produces considerable pain, and at length o...
-Gravelling
Gravelling, a disorder incident to horses much employed in travelling. It is occasioned by small particles of gravel penetrating between the hoof and shoe, in consequence of which the part swells and ...
-Grease Disorder
Grease, a disorder in the feet of horses, proceeding either from a relaxation of the vessels, or a vitiated state of the blood and humours. When a horse's heels are first observed to swell in the s...
-Grease
Grease, the fat of animals, or any unctuous matter. - See Fat, and Tallow. Having already given (in p. 8, of this volume) some recipes for removing grease-spots from Cloth, we shall here add a few ...
-Green
Green, is one of the primary colours, exhibited by the refraction of the rays of light. - See Colour. Sap-green is a simple colour, but far inferior to verdigrease : it is prepared from the juice o...
-Green-Finch
Green-Finch, a species of the Fringilla, L. a charming little bird, which has a strong tinge of green diffused over its whole body; the wings and tail are black, but variegated with yellow. The gre...
-Green-House
Green-House, a conservatory or erection in gardens, for the purpose of sheltering the more curious and tender exotics from the effects of our variable climate, espe-cially during the winter season. ...
-Green-Sickness
Green-Sickness, or 'Chlorosis, a disorder which frequently attacks females after the age of puberty. It is attended with a depraved appetite, and a desire to eat substances that are not food, such as ...
-Common Grey-Hound
Common Grey-Hound, or Cams Grains, L. is a dog remarkable for his swittness, strength, and sagacity, in pursuing game. There are several varieties, such as the Italian, the Oriental, and the Hi...
-Grief
Grief, or an increased and continued degree of sorrow, is one of the depressing passions. Its influence on the body is remarkable ; and its effects, with few exceptions, are similar to those of fear. ...
-Gripes
Gripes, or Colic, in Farriery, a disorder, with which horses are frequently affected. As it arises from various causes, its treatment must necessarily differ ; and as the most judicious farriers have ...
-Gromwell
Gromwell, or Lithosper-mujn, L, a genus of perennial plants, comprising several species, the principal of which are : 1. The officinale Common Gromill, well, or Gromill,Gray-mill, orGray-millet, wh...
-Ground-Ivy
Ground-Ivy, Gill, or Ale-hoof, Glechoma Hederacea, L. an indigenous plant, thriving in groves, hedges, and shady places ; flowering in the months of April and May. Ground-ivy has a peculiar strong ...
-Ground-Nuts
Ground-Nuts, or Ground-pease, the Arrachis Hypogaios Americanus of Ray, a plant cultivated in the West Indies by the Negroes. When in flower, it inclines towards the earth, into which the pointal ente...
-Ground Pine
Ground Pine, or Ajuga Chamaepitys, L. an indigenous plant growing in sandy fallows, and flowering in the months of April and June. It possesses a bitter and acrimonious taste, and though it has often ...
-Groundsel
Groundsel, the Common, or Senecio vulgaris, L. an indigenous plant, growing on cultivated grounds, rubbish, and in court-yards ; it flowers from April to September. A strong infusion of this weed exci...
-Grouse
Grouse, or Growse, Tetrao tetrix, L. a native bird, which is found in woody and mountainou situations, chiefly In North Britain. The male is two feet in length, and weighs nearly four pounds ; while t...
-Grove
Grove, in gardening, is a small wood impervious to the rays of the sun. Groves constitute one of the chief ornaments of our gardens : they also afford the greatest relief against the scorching rays...
-Grub
Grub, in Zoology, the English name for worms, or maggots, hatched from the eggs of beetles. Grubs are an excellent bait for many kinds of fish. In angling for the grayling (see Umber) as well as tr...
-Grubbing
Grubbing, in agriculture, a term used by farmers to denote the extirpation of trees. Old trees which are past growing should be taken up by the roots, and young ones planted in their stead. This is...
-Guaiacum
Guaiacum, or Lignum vitae, L. is a genus of plants producing three species, the principal of which is the officinale, or Common Lignum Vita?, a native of the West Indies. - It may, in colder climates,...
-Gudgeon
Gudgeon, in Ichthyology, is a species of the Barbus, or Barbel ; which see. It inhabits most running waters, small streams, such as the river Lea, and is found in great abundance in the New River, nea...
-Guelder-Rose
Guelder-Rose, or Viburnum, L. a genus of plants comprising twenty-two species, two of which are natives of Britain. 1. The Lantana, Mealy Guelder-rose, Pliant Mealy Tree, or Wayfaring Tree, which ...
-Guinea
Guinea, a British gold coin, thus denominated, because the precious ore from which the first guineas were coined, was originally imported from the coast of Guinea. The value or rate of this coin ha...
-Guinea-Grass
Guinea-Grass, a valuable species of herbage, thus denominated, as it was first discovered on the coast of Guinea, whence it was brought to Jamaica, and afterwards imported into this country. In poi...
-Guinea-Hen
Guinea-Hen, or Numida meleagris, L. an exotic species of gallinaceous fowl, which is a na-tive of Africa. Its body is sloped in a manner similar to that of a partridge, and its dark grey colour is bea...
-Guinea-Pig
Guinea-Pig, or, as it is more properly termed, the Restless Ca-vy, Cavia Cubaya, is not a native of Guinea, but of Brasil, whence it has been imported into Europe. It is about seven inches in l...
-Gull
Gull, or Laws., in ornitho-logy, a genus of aquatic birds, com-prising eleven species, the most remarkable of which is the parasiticus, or Dung-hunter : it is about 21 inches in length ; the upper par...
-Gullet
Gullet, or Oesophagus, in anatomy, is a long, round, and capacious tube, destined to con-vey the food from the mouth into the stomach. It descends between the windpipe (which see) and the joints of th...
-Gum
Gum, a concrete vegetable juice which possesses no peculiar smell, or taste ; it forms a viscid or mucilaginous solution in water, but is not acted upon either by spirits, or oils : it burns in fire w...
-Gum-Secretion
Gum-Secretion, in horticulture, is a kind of gangrene, or morbid production of gummy matter, exuding from the wounded alburnum or sap-wood of deciduous trees, whether the injury be caused by internal ...
-Gum-Boil
Gum-Boil, Parulis, is an a fection of the gums, commencing with inflammation, and generally terminating in an abscess. Gum-boils usually arise from violent pains in the teeth. They are to be treate...
-Gums
Gums, in anatomy, are hard fleshy subtances in both jaws, surrounding the teeth, and keeping them firm in their sockets. Gums frequently become spongy, and separate from the teeth: this is often oc...
-Gun
Gun, or MUSQUET, in the military art, is a kind of fire-arms, or weapon of offence, which forcibly discharges a ball, or other hard and solid substance, through a cylin-drical tube, by means of inflam...
-Gunpowder
Gunpowder, a granulated composition of salt-petre, sulphur, and charcoal, which readily takes fire, and when secluded from the air, rarefies or expands with great vehemence, by means of its elastic fo...
-Gutta Serena
Gutta Serena, or Amaurosis, signifies the loss of sight, without any other visible cause or defect in the eye ; except that the pupil (or the round hole for admitting the rays of light) is generally d...
-Gutters
Gutters, in building, denote canals in the roofs of houses, for receiving and carrying off rain wa-ter. They are also formed in streets, for similar purposes. Gutters in agriculture, may be...
-Gypsum
Gypsum, or Plaster-stone, a native combination of calcareous earth with vitriolic acid. It is more loose and friable than limestone, and does not effervesce with acids, either in a crude or calcined s...
-Haddock
Haddock, or Gadus eglesi-nus,h. a species of fish which periodically frequents the Yorkshire coast, in large shoals, and commonly weighs from two to three pounds. . Large haddocks are in roe, fr...
-Hail
Hail, a meteor, which is usually defined to be frozen rain ; though it widely differs from the latter, as hail-stones are not composed of single pieces of ice, but of several small globules condensed ...
-Hair
Hair, small filaments, which issue from the pores of the skins of animals, and which serve them as a natural covering. Hair is found on all parts of the human body, excepting on the palms of the ha...
-Hair-Grass
Hair-Grass, or Aira, L. a genus of perennial plants, comprising 24 species ; of which 14 are indigenous; and of these the following deserve notice: 1. The cespitnsa, or Turfy Hair-grass, which grow...
-Hair-Powder
Hair-Powder is generally prepared from starch, which, after being thoroughly dried, is ground and passed through ' the finest sieves. In its pure state, it should be perfectly white, and possess no sm...
-Halter-Cast
Halter-Cast, in farriery, is an excoriation of the pastern, occasioned by the halter being entangled about the leg, in consequence of the horse's endeavour to rub his neck with one of the hind feet. ...
-Halting
Halting, among farrier signifies an irregularity in the motion of a horse, arising from a lameness, or other injury, in the shoulder, leg, or foot, which induces him to spare that part, or exert ...
-Ham
Ham, the lower part of an animal's thigh, adjoining to the knee; or the angle in which the leg and thigh, when bent, incline to each other. Ham, in Commerce, denotes the thigh of a hog or bear, dri...
-Hand
Hand, a part or limb of the human body, which forms the extremity of the arm. The most common accidents to which the hand is liable, are sprains from violent exertion, and chaps from sudden changes...
-Common Hare
Common Hare, or Lepus timidus, L. is naturally a timid animal, and extremely swift in motion when pursued by dogs. Hares are dispersed over almost every climate, and, though hunted in all countries...
-Harrogate - Waters
Harrogate - Waters, are those chalybeate and sulphureous springs, which rise in the villages of High and Low Harrogate, in the county of York. Formerly, the chalybeate water only was used internall...
-Harrow
Harrow, an implement of agriculture, -commonly used, for the purpose of covering seed with earth. There is, however, another object of equal importance, to which it may beapplied, namely, to pulverize...
-Hartfell-Water
Hartfell-Water, is a vi-triolated chalybeate spring, which arises from a lofty mountain of the same name, about five miles from Moffat, in the county of Annan-dale, Scotland. The rock abounds with ...
-Harts' Horns
Harts' Horns, are the horns of the common made red deer. The scrapings, or raspings of this animal's horns are medicinal, and employed in decoctions, ptisans, or cooling drinks, et...
-Hat
Hat, a covering for the head, which is generally made of a mixture of Spanish wool with that of hares, kids, rabbits, beaver, etc. Lately, feathers have been usefully employed in the manufacture of th...
-Hatching
Hatching, is the maturation of, or communicating life to, fer cundated eggs, either by the incubation and warmth of the parent bird, or by artificial heat. The art of hatching chickens by means of ...
-Haulm
Haulm, Halm, or Hawk, among farmers, signifies the stem or stalk of corn, pease, beans, etc. from the root to the ear. The haulm of beans affords an excellent fodder for working-horses; that of pea...
-Haw
Haw, or Ha ugh, in farriery, is a spongy excrescence in the inner corner of the eyes of horses, or other cattle, and which, if not timely removed, will occasion total blindness. It arises from gross h...
-Hawk
Hawk,theCoMMON, or Spar-ROWHAWK, Falco Nisus, L. is a bold and spirited bird : it abounds in almost every part of Europe; and varieties of it are found dispersed over the whole earth. The length of...
-Hawkweed
Hawkweed, or Hieracium, L. a native genus of perennial plants, comprising forty-six spe-cies, the principal of which are.: 1. The Pilosella, Mouse-ear Hawkweed, which grows in dry-meadows, pastur...
-Hawthorn
Hawthorn, or Crataegus, L. a genus of plants, consisting of twenty-five species, three of which are natives of Britain. 1. The Aria (pyrus Aria of Dr. Smith), White-beam Hawthorn, or Wild Pear-tre...
-Hay
Hay, signifies any kind of grass, that is cut and dried for fodder. The time of mowing grass for hay, ought to be regulated according to its growth and maturity; for it is extremely detrimental to ...
-Hays
Hays, signify a particular kind of net, for taking rabbits, hares, etc. As rabbits frequently straggle abroad at mid-day for fresh grass, two or three of these nets are di-rected to be pitched at t...
-Hazelnut Tree
Hazelnut Tree, or Co-rylus, L. a genus of plants consisting of four species : one of these is a native of Britain, namely, the avellana, or Common Hazel-nut tree. It grows in woods, copses, and hedges...
-Head
Head, the uppermost or foremost part of the animal body. As the foundation of many diseases is laid, by taking cold in this part of the frame, we shall offer a few hints relative to its covering. -...
-Head-Ach
Head-Ach, or Cephalalgia, a painful sensation in the head, produced by various causes, and attended with different effects, according to its various degrees, and the part of the head where it is situa...
-Health
Health, is a proper disposi-tion of the several constituent parts of the body, by which they are enabled to perform their respective functions without any impediment. The continuance. of health dep...
-Hearing
Hearing, is one of the external senses, and expresses the act or faculty of perceiving sounds. Animals possess this sense in a more acute degree than man; the owl and the hare-enjoy the faculty of ...
-Heart
Heart, a hollow muscle of a conical form, situated at the bottom of the thorax or breast: its basis is turned towards the right, and its point towards the left side. The former, whence the great blood...
-Heart-Burn
Heart-Burn, or Carclialgia, an uneasy sensation of heat in the stomach, which is frequently attended with nausea and sickness. The heart-burn generally arises from a prevailing acidity, indigestion...
-Heat
Heat, signifies either the pe-culiar sensation we feel on the approach of burning bodies, or the cause of that effect, which is Fire. Heat is now universally considered as a modification of a fluid...
-Heath
Heath, or Erica, L. a genus of plants comprising 100 species, five of which are natives of Britain. The principal of these is the vulgaris, Common Heath or Ling. It grows on heaths and in woods ; flow...
-Black Heath
Black Heath, the Berry-Bearing Black Crow-brrrip.s, or Crake-BERRIES, Empctrum ni-grnm, L. an indigenous plant, growing on moist mountains and elevated heaths, in the driest and most barren lands,...
-Hectic Fever
Hectic Fever, a species of slow fever, returning daily, with paroxysms at noon, and in the evening; generally attended with profuse perspiration at night; and the urine depositing a sediment like bric...
-Hedge
Hedge, in agriculture, 3 fence inclosing a field, or garden, etc. generally made by intertwining the branches of trees. Hedges are usually divided into two classes : . Outward fences, planted eithe...
-Hedge-Hog
Hedge-Hog, the Common, or Hystrix erinaceus, L. is a quadruped, which is from nine to ten inches in length, the body is of an oblong form, entirely covered with sharp quills on its back, but with hair...
-Hellebore
Hellebore, or Hellclorus, L. a genus of plants consisting of five species, two of which are natives of Britain : the principal of these is the faetidius, Fetid Hellebore, Bear's-foot, Ox-heel, or Set-...
-Hemlock
Hemlock, or Conium, L. a genus of plants comprising five species ; one of which is a native of Britain, namely, the maculatum, Common Hemlock ; or Kex, a bi-ennial plant, growing in hedges, orchards, ...
-Hemp
Hemp, the Common, or Cannabis sativa, L. a valuable plant, which grows wild in the East In-dies, and is cultivated to a 'very considerable extent in Britain, particularly in the counties of Sussex and...
-Hen
Hen, the female,of the Cock (Phasianus Gallus), an useful domestic bird which lays eggs, and produces one, and sometimes two broods of chickens in one year. If well fed, and allowed to roam in a fa...
-Hen-Bane
Hen-Bane, or Hyoscyamus, L. a genus of plants comprising nine, species, one of which is a native of Britain, namely, the niger, orCom-mon Hen-bane. It abounds in villages, road-sides, and among rubbis...
-Hen-Harrier
Hen-Harrier, Dove-coloured Falcon, or Blue Hawk, Falco Cyaneus, L. a native bird, found chiefly in the northern parts of Britain. It is about 18 inches in length; the female breeds an-nually on the Ch...
-Hen-Mould-Soil
Hen-Mould-Soil, in agriculture, a term used in some parts of England to denote the black, moul-dering, hollow, spongy earth, which is usually found at the bottoms of hills. It is better calculated for...
-Hentings
Hentings, a term used by farmers to express a particular method of sowing grain before the plough, so that the seed is cast in a straight line, which is followed by the plough, and thus completely cov...
-Hepatic Aloe
Hepatic Aloe, the inspissated juice of the common aloe, a native of Barbadoes, and other West India Islands. Its smell is much stronger, and more disagreeable, than the Socotrine aloes; the taste is u...
-Herb
Herb, a name given to all plants, the stalks or stems of which perish every year, after their seeds have attained to maturity. Herbs are usually divided into two classes : 1. Those, the roots of ...
-Herbal
Herbal (Herbarium), gene-rally speaking, signifies a book, containing a methodical arrangement of the classes, genera, species, and varieties of plants, -together with an account of their properties. ...
-Herb-Paris
Herb-Paris, or True-love, One-Berry, or Four-leaved True-love, Paris quadrifolia, L:: an indigenous phut, growing in woods and shady places; and flowering in the .month of May or June. The dark, br...
-Herb-Robert
Herb-Robert, or Fetid Cranes-bill, Geranium Robertia-num, L. an indigenous annual plant, growing on walls, hedges, rubbish, and stony places; flowering from May to October. This herb is in great reput...
-Heron
Heron, the Common, or Ar-dea major, L. a predatory bird, which has a small lean body, but is provided with long legs, and a sharp-pointed bill. The male heron is a very elegant bird; its forehead, ...
-Herring
Herring, or Clupea harengus, L. a well-known fish, generally about seven or eight inches long, though it sometimes grows to the length of a foot: it has four gills, the fibres of which are remarkably-...
-Hiccough
Hiccough, or Hiccup (Sin-gullus), a sudden convulsive mo-tion of the stomach, occasioned by various causes, such as a fit of laughing, thirst, cold drinks, sup-pression of diarrhoea, antipathy, etc. I...
-Hide
Hide, generally speaking, signifies the skin of beasts, but is par-lieularly applied to those of large rattle, such as bullocks, cows, horses, etc. Hides are either raw or green, that is, in the sa...
-Hide-Bound
Hide-Bound, in farriery, a disorder to which horses, or other cattle, are subject. It is known by the rigidity of the skin, which apparently adheres to the animal's ribs, without the least partial sep...
-Highway
Highway, a road or way through which all persons have a right to pass unmolested ; for this reason, it is called the Kings highway, though the freehold of the soil belong to the Lord of the Manor, or ...
-Hoarseness
Hoarseness, a diminution of the voice, generally attended with an unnatural asperity and harshness. It arises, mostly, from defects in the larynx and wind-pipe ; from an ulcerated or ossified H h ...
-Hoe
Hoe, or How, a well known implement of husbandry, designed for eradicating weeds from gardens, fields, etc. This tool is of great utility, and ought to be more frequently employed in 6tirring the unoc...
-Hoeing
Hoeing, or Horse-hoeing, in the drill-husbandry, is the breaking or dividing of the soil by tillage, while the corn, or other plants, are growing ; it differs from the common mode of cultivation, whic...
-Hog
Hog, or Sus, L. a genus of animals consisting of six species, the most remarkable of which is the scrofa, or Common Hog. Its body is covered with bristles, and it has two large teeth, both in the uppe...
-Holey
Holey, or Ilex, L. a genus of shrubs consisting of 16 species ; one of which is a native of Britain', namely, the aquifolium, or Common Holly-tree : it grows in Woods or hedges, and produces sm...
-Hollyhock
Hollyhock, or Alccarosea, L. a beautiful exotic plant, frequently cultivated in our gardens. It is a native of China; grows to the height of 8 or 9 feet; and nearly the whole of its stalk is covered w...
-Honey
Honey, a sweet fragrant ve-getabi juice, collected by the bees from the flowers of various plants, and deposited in tire cells of the comb. Having already treated of the best methods of taking the ...
-Honey-Dew
Honey-Dew, or Suffusia mellita, a sweet substance found on the leaves of oak, hazle-nut, hops, and other plants 5 and which has been erroneously supposed to fall from the sky. According to Dr. Darw...
-Honey-Suckle
Honey-Suckle, or Loni-, L. a genus of plants consisting of 20 species, two of which are natives of Britain, viz. 1. The Perichymenum, Common or Woodbine Honey-suckle, which grows in hedges and w...
-Hoof
Hoof, the homy part which* covers the feet of many valuable quadrupeds; but, in this place, we shall treat of it only so far as it relates to that useful animal, the horse. A perfect hoof should be...
-Hoof-Boney
Hoof-Boney, a distemper arising from external injury, either a stripe, blow, or by a horse bruising himself in his stall, by attempting to strike at the next animal, but missing his aim, and dashing t...
-Hoof-Bound
Hoof-Bound, an unnatural contraction of a horses hoof, on the top and at the heel, so that the skin appears to grow over the hoof . It is easily discovered by the fre -quent halting of the horse, and ...
-Hoof-Brittle
Hoof-Brittle, or Brittle-hoof, a disorder in horses, which is either constitutional in the ani-mal, or arises from a surfeit, and as farriers express it, falls down into his feet; or, is the consequen...
-Hoof-Casting
Hoof-Casting, a misfortune that sometimes befals a horse, when the horny substance entirely separates from his foot, in consequence of his foundering or slip-ping, which breaks it on the top round the...
-Hoof-Hurt
Hoof-Hurt, an injury incident to working cattle, especially to oxen, which are sometimes wounded by a coulter or share of a plough in any part of the clees. It may be cured by a salve, consisting of p...
-Hop
Hop, the Common, or Hamulus Lupulus, L. an indigenous plant, growing in hedges, and flowering in June. Hops delight in a good rich loam, with a deep sub-soil or stratum of a loamy brick-earth, in a...
-Horehound
Horehound, the White, or Marrubium, L. a genus of plants comprising 12 species, one of which only is indigenous, viz. the vulgare, or Common WhiteHorehound, which grows on road sides, and among rubbis...
-Horn
Horn, a hard substance growing on the heads of various animals, particularly on cloven-footed qua-drupeds. - The oil extracted from it, by repeated distillations, becomes extremely subtle and volatil...
-Horn-Beam
Horn-Beam, of Carpinus,L. a genus of plants consisting of five species, one of which is a native of Britain ; viz. the Betulus, Common Horn-beam-tree, Hard-beam- tree, Horse or Horn-beech-tree. It gro...
-Horn-Distemper
Horn-Distemper, a disorder incident to horned cattle: it gradually wastes the internal sub-stance of the horn, commonly called the pith, which is the spongy part of the bone, and the cells of which ar...
-Hornet
Hornet, or Vespa Crabro, L. a well known insect, which is about one inch in length, and builds its nest in hollow trees. Hornets are very voracious, devouring other insects, and even bees. Their st...
-Horse
Horse, or Equus, L. a genus of quadrupeds consisting of five species : the principal of these is the caballus, or common horse, which has a flowing mane, and the whole of its tail is covered with long...
-Horse-Bread
Horse-Bread, an expensive preparation given to horses, and consisting of wheat, oats, and beans ; to which are sometimes added, aniseed, liquorice, eggs, and ale ; at others, rye and white-wine. T...
-Horse-Chesnut
Horse-Chesnut, AEscu--lus, L. a genus of exotic plants, natives of the East, consisting of four species : the principal of these is the Hippocastanum, or Common Horse-chesnut. It thrives best in rich ...
-Horse-Fly
Horse-Fly, or Hippolosca, L. a genus of insects, comprising four species : the principal of these is the equina, or Common Horse-fly, which equally torments horses and cows. The horse-fly is broad,...
-Horse-Medic
Horse-Medicines, an a pellation given to such drugs as are prepared exclusively for the use of horses, in particular disorders. As many accidents happen from the ignorance of pretenders, we shall offe...
-Horse-Radish
Horse-Radish, or Cochle-aria Annoruda, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing on the sides of ditches, the banks of rivers, and other damp places ; flowering in the month of May. It has a strong...
-Horse-Shoe-Head
Horse-Shoe-Head, an a fection of the beads of infants, in which the sutures of the skull are too open, or too great a space occurs between them; so that the aperture is frequently not closed, or t...
-Horse-Tail
Horse-Tail, or Equisetum, L. a genus of perennial plants, comprising eight species, six of which are indigenous: of these, the following are the principal: 1. The sylvaticum, or Wood-horse-tail, ...
-Hospital
Hospital, a building properly endowed, or otherwise maintained by voluntary contributions, for, the reception and support of the poor, sick, infirm, or helpless. Few countries abound with a greater...
-Hot-Beds
Hot-Beds, in gardening, are made either with fresh horse-dung or tanners' bark, and covered with glasses, to protect them from the severity of the wind and weather. . Where horse-dung is employed, ...
-Hot-House
Hot-House, a building erect-ed for the purpose of raising such exotic plants, as., from their extreme tenderness, are unable to withstand the effects of a cold or variable climate. The construction...
-Hound
Hound, an appellation given to dogs of chace. Hounds of the middle kind are deemed to be the best, being stronger than such as are either very small, or of a large size. The shape of these a...
-Hound's-Tongue
Hound's-Tongue, or Cynoglossum, L. a genus of plants consisting of eight species, two of which are natives of Britain : the principal of these is the officinale, Common Great Hound's-tongue, or...
-Hour
Hour, a measure of time, equal to the 24th part of the natural day, or that space of time which the earth requires to perform its diurnal revolution round its axis. The hour is divided into 60 minutes...
-Hour-Glass
Hour-Glass, a kind of chro-nometer, employed by navigators, as well as by some artisans and mechanics, to measure the passing of time, by means of the descent or running of sand, out of one gl...
-House
House, a habitation or edifice suited with conveniencies for the abode of man. The chief requisites in con-structing houses are, situation, durability, and convenience, of which we have already tre...
-House-Leek
House-Leek, or Sempervi-vum, L. a genus of perennial plants, consisting of 13 species, one of which, the Sempervivum teSlorum, Common House-leek, or Cyphel, is a native of Britain ; it grows on the ro...
-Hunger
Hunger, an uneasy sensation, occasioned by long abstinence from food, when the body is in a state of perfect health. Without attempting to specify the different preparations used by the ancients, ...
-Hunting
Hunting, the exercise, or diversion of pursuing wild quadrupeds, whether those of game or prey. Hunting has at all times been a favourite amusement, as well among the rudest, as the most polished n...
-Husbandry
Husbandry, strictly speaking, comprehends the whole business of a farmer, or a man who maintains himself and family by cultivating the earth. In this light, husbandry includes not only agriculture,...
-Hyacinth
Hyacinth, or Hyacinthus, L. a genus of perennial plants, comprising 16 species, one of which is indigenous; namely, the non-scriptus, English Hyacinth, or Harebell Hyacinth (Salla nutans, or Wild Hyac...
-Hydrometer
Hydrometer, an useful instrument for measuring the gravity, density, strength, etc. of spirits, or other liquids. For this purpose, various hydrometers have been contrived on different principles; ...
-Hykes
Hykes, a species of blankets, commonly used by the inhabitants of Barbary. They consist of a light woollen cloth, woven by women, who conduct every thread with their fingers, and without the aid of a ...
-Hypochondriac AffecTion
Hypochondriac Affection, or Hypochondriasis, may be defined to consist in a corrupted state of the stomach and intestines, accompanied with languor, dejection of mind, and fear arising from insufficie...
-Hyssop
Hyssop, or Hyssopus, L. a genus of exotic plants, comprising three species, the principal of which is the officinalis, or Common Hyssop. It grows to the height of 18 inches ; is a very hardy plant, an...
-Hysterics
Hysterics, a spasmodic or convulsive disease, to which females chiefly are subject. It attacks them at uncertain intervals, and is usually preceded by a languor and debility of the whole frame. There ...
-Jack
Jack, a well-known machine for raising timber, or other ponderous bodies. Although numerous accidents almost daily happen in using the common jacks, for want of a contrivance to prevent the machine...
-Jack-Daw
Jack-Daw, or Corvus mone-dula, L. a notorious bird, that is a native of Britain- It breeds in steeples, old castles, and on lofty rocks, where the females deposit five or six eggs. The jack-daw is ...
-Jalap
Jalap, in medicine, the root of the Convolvulus Jalappa, L. an exotic species of bindweed. This root is imported in transverse slices from Xalapa, in South America. The best pieces are compact, har...
-Japanning
Japanning, the art of varnishing and drawing figures on wood, in the manner practiced by the inhabitants of Japan, and other parts of India. It may be applied to almost every substance that is dry and...
-Jasmine
Jasmine, or Jess a mine-tree, Jasminum, L. a beautiful exotic plant, consisting of 9, species, three of which are reared in England, viz. 1. The officinale, or Common White Jasmine, with shrubby, s...
-Jaundice
Jaundice, or Icterus, a dis-ease in Which the skin and eyes are yellow; the feces of a whitish colour; and the urine of a dark red hue, tinging cloth, or other substances immersed in it, of a yellowis...
-Jaw
Jaw, or Jaw-bone, in ana-tomy, is the bone which contains the teeth within their sockets. The jaw is liable to a variety of disorders, occasioned by colds or other accidents : the most fatal are, 1...
-Jay
Jay, or Corvus g/avdarius, L. a well-known British bird, remarkable for its beauty. It is about 13 inches in length ; its forehead is white, streaked with black; the head is covered with a tuft of lon...
-Jelly
Jelly, a form of food, prepared either from the juice of ripe fruits, boiled to a proper consistence with sugar ; or without it, from the flesh, intestines, or bones of animals, which are stewed so as...
-Ice
Ice, a solid, transparent, and brittle body, formed of some fluid matter by the power of cold, or, more properly speaking, by the ab-straction of heat. Ice concretes generally on the surface of wat...
-Short Index for Vol. 2
Dragon's Blood, a foreign drug, more useful for staining than as a medicine. - See Marble. Foal, or Colt and Filly, the young of a horse. See Colt. Cleavers, or Clivers. See Goose-Grass. Cl...









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