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Domestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge Vol3 | by A. F. M. Willich



Volume three of the Domestic Encyclopedia

TitleDomestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge Vol3
AuthorA. F. M. Willich
PublisherB. McMillan
Year1802
Copyright1802, B. McMillan
AmazonThe domestic encyclopaedia; or, A dictionary of facts, and useful knowledge: Comprehending a concise view of the latest discoveries, inventions, and improvements, ... numerous engravings and cuts in five volumes

Domestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge: Comprehending A Concise View Of The Latest Discoveries, Inventions, And Improvements, Chiefly Applicable To Rural And Domestic Economy; Together With Descriptions Of The Most Interestlng Objects Of Nature And Art; The History Of Men And Animals, In A State Of Health Or Disease; And Practical Hints Respecting The Arts And Manufactures, Both Familiar And Commercial.

Illustrated With Numerous Engravings And Cuts.

In Four Volumes.

Volume Third.

By A. F. M. Willich, M. D.

Author Of The Lectures On Diet And Regimen, etc. etc.

London:

Printed For Murray And Highley, 32, Fleet-Street; Vernor And Hood, Poultry; G. Kearsley, Fleet-Street; H. D. Svmonds, And Thomas Hurst; Paternoster-Row ; And The Author.

MDCCCII

Printed by B. McMillan, Bow Street, Covent-Garden.

-Jet
Jet, a black inflammable concrete, which becomes electrical by friction; attracts light substances, in the same manner as amber, and, when burning, emits a bituminous smell. It has the grain of wood, ...
-Iliac Passion
Iliac Passion, or Ileus, one of the most dangerous maladies with which mankind is afflicted, and in which the motion of the bowels is totally inverted. It generally arises from spasms, or obstructions...
-Implements
Implements of Husbandry, denote those machines or instruments which are used in the different branches of rural and domestic economy; such as ploughs, harrows, hoes, churns, threshing-machines, straw-...
-Inarching
Inarching, in gardening, is a method of engrafting, denominated grafting by approach; and is employed when the stock intended to graft on, and the tree from which the scion is to be taken, are s...
-Index
Index, in literature, expresses that part of a work, or single volume, which is generally subjoined to its conclusion, and arranged in alphabetical order, with particular references to the pages where...
-Indigestion
Indigestion, or Dyspepsia, a complaint which chiefly consists in the loss of appetite, and is generally attended with nausea, flatulence, vomiting, heart-burn, cos-tiveness, as well as other unpleasan...
-Indigo
Indigo, a drug for dyeing blue, prepared from the indigo plant, or Indigofera tinctoria, L a native of the warmer parts of Asia, Africa, and America. Instead of describing the particular ...
-Industry
Industry, Houses of, are buildings erected in various parts of England, in order to maintain the sick, infirm, and aged poor; while children and healthy adults, who are received into the house, labour...
-Infancy
Infancy denotes the first period of human life, previous to the age of seven years. Having already treated of the diet proper for infants, under the article Food, and of their amuse-- ments, under ...
-Infection
Infection, the communication or contraction of some disease, from the effluvia, which arise either from the sick, or from the apartment in which they reside: hence it does not necessarily imply ...
-Inflammation
Inflammation, in medicine, is a tumor attended with unnatural heat, redness, painful tension of the skin, and febrile symptoms, which are more or less violent, according to the nature of the part ...
-Inflammatory Fever
Inflammatory Fever, a Su den and acute febrile disease, chiefly prevalent in hot climates. It commences its attack with a considerable degree of shivering, and severe. pain in the small part of the ...
-Ingrossing
Ingrossing, is the act of accumulating or buying up corn or other provisions, by wholesale, with a view to sell the same articles at a higher price, and thus to oppress as well the poor, as those who ...
-Ink
Ink, a black fluid employed in Writing, and usually prepared with an infusion of galls, copperas, and gum-arabic. The chief requisites for the making of good ink, are, 1. Limpidity, so that it may ...
-Inn
Inn, a place appointed for the reception and entertainment of travellers. The Inns of this country are under admirable regulations, which, if properly enforced, would prevent many iniquitous prac...
-Inoculation, Budding
Inoculation, or budding, in horticulture, an operation performed on apricots, nectarines, plums, cherries, or other stcne-fruit trees, and also upon oranges and jasmines. It is reputed to be superior ...
-Inoculation
Inoculation, in medicine, is the transferring of distempers from one subject to another, particularly of the small, and cow-pox. The practice of inoculation is of great antiquity in the East, whenc...
-Insects
Insects, in natural history, form the most diminutive class of animals, which are distinguished by certain incisures or indentations found in their bodies. See also Animal Kingdom ; vol. i. p. 58. ...
-Instinct
Instinct, denotes that faculty or disposition of mind, by whicb animals are led spontaneously to perform whatever is necessary to-preserve the individual, or to continue the species ; independently of...
-Insurance
Insurance, in law and commerce, denotes a contract by which one party engages to pay the other, for a certain premium or consideration, such losses as he may accidentally sustain. The common kinds of ...
-Interest
Interest, implies the premium or sum, paid for the loan or use of money The rate of legal interest has varied, and been progressively reduced, during the last two centuries ; accordingly as the qua...
-Interfering
Interfering, a local disease incident to horses. It arises from various causes ; and though this malady is sometimes constitutional in the animal, yet it is more frequently occasioned by an improper m...
-Intestines
Intestines, in anatomy, are those hollow membranous- tubes of the human body, commonly termed the guts or bowels, which extend from the right orifice of the stomach to the anus. They are six times lon...
-Intoxication
Intoxication is a term expressing that depravity of human nature, which requires no farther explanation, as it is but too often practised both by the vulgar, and those whose professions lead us to exp...
-Saint John's-Wort
Saint John's-Wort Hypericum, L. a genus of plants comprising sixty-three species, nine of which are natives of Britain. Of these, the principal is the perforatum, Common, or Perforated Saint John's-wo...
-Joint
Joint, generally speaking, signities the juncture of two or more things : it is also applied to the human frame, in which case the joints are anatomically called articulations. The joints, like oth...
-Journal
Journal, or Diary, properly signifies a day-book, register, or account of particular circumstances occurring daily, and deserving to be noted. Journals are of extensive utility, in an economical po...
-Joy
Joy, one of the most power ful mental emotions, accompanied with an extraordinary degree of pleasure. The effect of this sensation, if not too violent, invigorates the whole animal frame, and facilita...
-Ipecacuanha
Ipecacuanha, a medicinal root imported from the West Indies. There are three kinds distinguished by the eye, namely, the ash-coloured, or grey, brown, and white; but the first of these is justly prefe...
-Iron
Iron, the hardest and most extensively useful of the imperfect metals : it is naturally of a livid, whitish-grey colour, and found in great abundance in various parts of the world, both in a pure stat...
-Irrigation
Irrigation, signifies the watering, or artificial flooding of land. The principal object in irrigating the soil, is a proper supply of water ; and, if that fluid abound with mud, the land will be m...
-Irritability
Irritability, denotes that essential property of animals, in consequence of which their fibres, on being touched, contract or become short, in a greater or less degree. Chemists have lately endeavo...
-Isinglass
Isinglass, or Ichthyocolla, a preparation from different species of a Russian fish, called sturgeon, of which we have given some account in the article Caviare. It may also be produced from the ai...
-Issues
Issues, are small artificial apertures or ulcers in the muscular parts of the body, for the purpose of draining superfluous moisture, or of giving vent to some noxious humours. Issues are usually m...
-Itch
Itch, a cutaneous affection, in which the skin is covered with small watery pustules, that appear first on the wrist, or between the fngers, then upon the arms, legs, etc. where they are accompanied w...
-Juice
Juice, denotes the sap of vegetables, or the fluids of animals.-See Blood, Plants, Sap, etc. The juices of several plants and fruits are expressed with a view to obtain their essential salts, and f...
-Julep
Julep, a convenient form of medicines, which require no decoction, and are mixed up with syrup or sugar, in order to dilute them properly, or to cover their pungency. Acid julep consists of 3 drams...
-Juniper-Tree
Juniper-Tree, or Junipe-rus, L. a native shrub, comprising several species ; of which the principal is the Juniperus communis, or Common Juniper-tree : it grows in many parts of Britain, upon dry, bar...
-Ivory
Ivory, the tooth or tusk of an elephant, growing on each side of his trunk, and somewhat resembling the shape of a horn. Ivory is much esteemed for its remarkable whiteness, its polish, and beautif...
-Ivy
Ivy, the Common, or Hedera Helix, L. a native plant, growing in woods, hedges, and about old buildings: it flowers in the month of October. This plant was first brought to Europe from Canada, and h...
-Kale
Kale, the Sea, or Crambe, L. a genus of perennial plants comprising three species, one of which is a native of Britain, namely, the marilima, Cliff-kale, Sea-cabbage, Or Sea Colewort. It grows on sand...
-Calendar
Kalendar, or Calendar, denotes either the distribution of time, accommodated to the purposes of life; or a table or almanack, comprising the order of days, weeks, months, etc. There are various sys...
-Kelp
Kelp, a term used to denote a species of pot-ash, employed in glass manufactories for crystallizing the metal. Kelp consists of the calcined ashes of the sea-wrack and other plants growing on the s...
-Kennel
Kennel, or Channel, generally signifies a small cavity or hollow for conducting water through the streets; but, in its present sense, it is peculiarly applied to denote a house or building for the rec...
-Kermes-Mineral
Kermes-Mineral, one of the best preparations of antimony, which is so termed from its close resemblance to the insect called Kermes, or Coccus ilicis, L.- It is prepared by boiling together half a pou...
-Key
Key, a well-known instrument employed for opening Locks, of which we shall give some account, under that article. Key also denotes an extensive wharf for the convenience of loading and unloading go...
-Kidnapping
Kidnapping, a term which implies the forcible taking away or seizure of any man, woman, or child, from their native soil, and conveying them to foreign countries.- This atrocious violation of natural ...
-Kidney-Vetch
Kidney-Vetch, Anthyllis, L. an indigenous biennial plant, comprising several species, of which the vulneraria, or Lady's-finger, is the principal: it grows in meadows and pastures, in a chalky or calc...
-Kidnies
Kidnies, in anatomy, are those two viscera which separate the urine of animals. They are situated in the lower part of the cavity of the abdomen, on each side of the vertebrae of the loins, between th...
-Kilderkin
Kilderkin, a liquid measure, consisting of twofirkins ; and two kilderkins make a barrel.- See FIRKIN. ...
-Kiln
Kiln, a stove used in various manufactures. It also denotes a building for the admission of heat, in order to dry or burn certain materials deposited in such an edifice.- See Brick, Malt, and Lime. ...
-King-Fisher
King-Fisher, or Alcedo, L. a genus of birds frequenting every quarter of the world, and comprising numerous species ; the principal of which is the ispida, or common king-fisher. This bird is about...
-Kino
Kino, a gummy resinous substance, exuding from incisions made in a tree called Pau de San-gue, a native of the inland parts of Africa, but of which there is no botanical account. From its sensible ...
-Kitchen
Kitchen, an apartment or room destined for the dressing of provisions, and preparing them for the table. In 1794, a patent was granted to Mr. G. Stratton, for an improved kitchen-range, or stove, w...
-Kitchen-Garden
Kitchen-Garden, a piece of ground laid out for the cultivation of fruit, herbs, pulse, and other culinary vegetables. A kitchen-garden ought to be situated on one side of the house, adjoining to th...
-Kite
Kite, or Falco Milvus, L. a well-known bird of prey, which is a native of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The kite is, by its forked tail, easily distinguished from the Buzzard. The former is...
-Electrical Kite
Electrical Kite, a well-known machine, which was originally contrived to serve as a toy for children, but which has lately been applied to the more useful purpose of conducting- the electric matter of...
-Knawell
Knawell, or Scleranthus, L. a genus of plants comprising three 6pecies, one of which is a native of Britain ; viz. the annus, Annual Knawell, or German Knot-grass, which grows in sandy soils and corn...
-Knee-Holly
Knee-Holly, or Ruscus, L. a genus of plants, consisting of several species, one of which is indigenous, namely, the aculeatus, Common Knee-holly, Butchers'-Broom, or Prickly Pettigree. It...
-Labdanum
Labdanum, or Ladanum, a resinous juice exuding from the Cistus creticus, L. a native of the Levant, whence it is imported. The best sort (which is extremely rare even in Turkey) consists of very dark-...
-Labour
Labour, in a general sense, implies the exertion of human strength in the performance of any kind of work. The price of labour has, at all times, varied; and, as the poorer classes feel, with addit...
-Laburnum
Laburnum, the Broad-leafed, Cytisus laburnum, L. a valuable exotic tree, introduced from the Alps, into the Highlands of Scotland. This plant is very hardy, and will thrive on poor shallow lands, a...
-Lac
Lac, or Gum-lac, a species of wax, with which the Lac-insect, or Coccus Lacca, L. that frequents several species of the fig-tree, forms cells resembling the honey-combs of bees. Gum-lac has receive...
-Lace
Lace, in commerce, a texture composed of several threads of gold, silver, silk, or thread, which are interwoven and worked on a cushion with spindles, according to the pattern designed. There are v...
-Lacker
Lacker, or Lacquer, is a kind of varnish, applied to brass, tin, and other metals, in order to improve their colour, and to prevent them from tarnishing. The best lacquer is prepared from rectified...
-Lacteals
Lacteals, in physiology, are the absorbing vessels of the mesen-try, and consist of certain small tubes, situated in the intestines; whence they convey the chyle, or that milky fluid which is generate...
-Ladies'-Mantle
Ladies'-Mantle, or Alche-milla, L. a genus of plants comprising four species, three of which are indigenous, and of these, the principal is the vulgaris, or Common Ladies'-mantle, growing frequently i...
-Ladies'-Smock
Ladies'-Smock, or Carda-mine, L. a genus of plants consisting of sixteen species, seven of which are indigenous : the principal of these is the pratensis, or Common Ladies'-Smock, growing in meadows a...
-Lake
Lake, in geography, a collection of waters of a considerable extent, and having no immediate communication with the ocean. Lakes are divided into two classes: 1. Those, which contain fresh water; a...
-Lamb
Lamb, the young of a sheep ; which, if a male, is during the first year, called a wedder, or wether-hog; and if a female, a sheave. The most proper time for ewes to lamb, is from the latter end of ...
-Lameness
Lameness, a weakness that may arise from various causes, in any part of the body. Where this defect originates from natural deformity, it is generally incurable: few instances, however occur in whi...
-Lamp
Lamp, a vessel containing oil, or other inflammable matter, for the purpose of affording light. The utility of lamps in domestic life, is universally acknowledged ; we shall, therefore, proceed to ...
-Lamp-Black
Lamp-Black, is one of the black colouring matters, the preparation of which has already been stated, vol. ii. p. 35. We again introduce this sub-stance, as it possesses several remarkable propertie...
-Lampas
Lampas, in Farriery, denotes an excrescence in the roof of a horse's mouth, which is some-times so luxuriant that it grows above the teeth, and thus prevents his feeding. This malady may be cured b...
-Lamprey
Lamprey, or Petromyzon, L. a genus of fish comprising three species, which are chiefly distinguished by their peculiar back fins. 1. The marinus, or Sea Lamprey, which, in shape, resembles an eel...
-Land
Land, in general, signifies any kind of ground, but is particularly applied to such as is ploughed, or tilled for agricultural purposes. As we treat, in alphabetical order, of the different methods...
-Land-Ditching
Land-Ditching, or Hollow-draining, is practised ch ief-ly in the counties of Essex and Hertford. It consists in digging both main and side-drains, similar to those generally adopted in draining land :...
-Language
Language, signifies the expression of our ideas, and their different relations, by means of articulate sounds. The acquisition of languages is an object of great importance. Without entering into a...
-Lanthorn
Lanthorn, or Lantern, a well-known contrivance, which serves to carry a candle, without exposing it to the air, or otherwise incurring danger. Lanthorns are usually made of glass, horn, or other tr...
-Lapwing
Lapwing, or Tringa Vanellus, L. a British bird, distinguished by its black bill, crown of the head, crest, and throat; red legs, black and white wings and tail: it is above 13 inches in length, and we...
-Larch-Tree
Larch-Tree, or Pinus La-rix, L. one of the most valuable exotics, which was introduced into Britain from the Alps towards the end of the 17th century, and has been lately cultivated with particular at...
-Lark
Lark, or Nauda, L. a genus of birds comprising twenty-eight species, of which the most remarkable are: 1. The arvensis, or Common Sky-laRk; a long-lived, and hardy bird, mounting high, raising its,...
-Lark-Spur
Lark-Spur, or Delphinium, L. a genus of plants, consisting of 14 species, one of which only is indigenous; namely, the consolida, orWiid Lark-spur; Field Lark-spur, or Lark's-heel: it grows in cornfie...
-Lath
Lath, in building, a long, thin, narrow slip of wood, which is nailed on the rafters of a roof, in order to support its covering. Laths are divided into three classes, according as they consist of ...
-Lath-Bricks
Lath-Bricks are a particular kind of that article, made in the county of Stafford, and other parts of Britain : they are 22 inches in length, and 6 inches in breadth, being used as a substitute for la...
-Lathe
Lathe, a very useful engine for turning wood, ivory, metals, and other hard substances. The invention of this instrument is of great antiquity, for, according to Virgil, the ancients availed themse...
-Lavender
Lavender, or Lavandula, L, an exotic genus, of plants, comprising seven species; the principal of Which is the spica, Lavender-spike, or Common Lavender : it flowers in the month of July. This herb...
-Lavender-Thrift
Lavender-Thrift, or Sea Lavender, Statice Limonium, L. an indigenous perennial plant,grow-jng on the sea-shore; in salt-marshes ; and the fissures or clefts of rocks, near the sea-coast: it is in flow...
-Laughter
Laughter, a sudden and convulsive expression of mirth, pe-culiar to the countenance of man ; and which is occasioned by some object that surprizes the fancy. This emotion, however, more frequently ...
-Laxatives
Laxatives, or Aperient Medicines, are such as promote a loose state or disposition of the bowels, for the more easy and regular evacuation of the feces. On account of the gradual effect which laxa...
-Layers
Layers, in horticulture, denote certain tender shoots or sprigs of trees, which are buried or deposited in the ground, till they have taken root; when they are separated from the parent stock, and bec...
-Lazaretto
Lazaretto, or Lazar-house, signifies a public building similar to a hospital; and which is intended for the reception of those who are infected with contagious distempers. It is also more particularly...
-Lea
Lea, a measure used in some parts of England, to express a certain quantity of yarn.The statute 22 Car. II. directs a lea of yarn, at Kidderminster, to contain two hundred threads, on reels tha...
-Lead
Lead, one of the imperfect metals, is of a dull white, inclining to a blue colour ; and, though the least ductile and sonorous, it is the heaviest of metallic bodies, excepting mercury, gold, and plat...
-Lead-Wokt
Lead-Wokt, or Plum logo, L. a genus of exotic plants, consisting of four species ; the most remarkable of which is the Euro-paea : its root is perennial, strikes deep into the ground, and grows natura...
-Leaf
Leaf, a distemper incident to lambs, when about a week or fortnight old.It has received this appellation ; as the creatures fee 1 on oak and hawthorn leaves, which cause them to foam at the mou...
-Leather
Leather, the skins of various quadrupeds dressed in a particular manner, for the use of manufactures.See Currying and Tanning. Dyeing of Leather : Different colours may be imparted to leath...
-Leaven
Leaven, strictly signifies sour dough, which acquires its acidity, when preserved after kneading flour with yeast, in order to ferment a larger quantity of paste. It is a Very imperfect substit...
-Leaves
Leaves, in botany, are defined by Linnveus to be the organs of motion, or muscles of a plant : according to Dr. Darwin, they constitute the lungs of each individual bud.- See Bud. Leaves are of a d...
-Leech
Leech, or Hirudo, L. a genus of insects comprising several species; the most remarkable of which are : 1. The medicinalis, or Medicinal Leech, from three to four inches in length; its body is of ...
-Leek
Leek, or Allium porrum, L. a well-known vegetable, the native place of which is at present unknown, though it has long been cultivated in Britain. The leaves of this plant possess a flavour similar...
-Leg
Leg, the lower extremity of animals, which serves both for their support and motion : it is generally divided into three parts ; 1. the thigh; 2. the leg, properly so called ; and, 3. the foot. The...
-Lemon-Tree
Lemon-Tree, or Citrus Lima, L. an elegant evergreen, indigenous in Persia, rising from 5 to 10 feet in height, producing beautiful large leaves, with a profusion of sweet flowers in the spring and ear...
-Lenitive E
Lenitive Electuary, a preparation kept in the apothecaries' shops, and consisting generally of two parts of pulverized senna ; one part of coriander seeds in powder, incorporated with four parts of th...
-Lentil
Lentil, or Ervum Lens, L. an useful exotic vegetable of the pulse kind, that has long been cultivated in Britain. It is propagated from seeds, which are either sown in the proportion of from one bu...
-Leopard's-Bane
Leopard's-Bane, or Doro-nicum, L. a genus of plants comprising seven species; the principal of which is the only indigenous one, termed Pardalianches, Great Leopard's-bane, or Wolf's-bane, growing on ...
-German Leopard's-Bane
German Leopard's-Bane, or Arnica montana, L. an exotic plant growing wild on the Alps, and on the high mountains of Germany. This vegetable delights in a moist, shady situation : it may be propag...
-Leprosy
Leprosy, or Lepra, a cutaneous disorder, in which the skin is rough, with white eschars resembling bran, though they are sometimes inoist beneath the surface, and accompanied with an intense itching. ...
-Lethargy
Lethargy, or Lethargus, a species of apoplexy, which is manifested by an invincible drowsiness, or inclination to sleep, from which the patient is with difficulty awakened; and, if roused, he remains ...
-Letter
Letter, in its primitive sense, denotes a character of which the alphabet is composed; but it is commonly used to signify a written address to an absent person. The term letter is often, though ironi-...
-Lettuce
Lettuce, or Lactuca, L. a genus of plants comprising 15 species, two of which are natives of Britain : the principal of these is the virosa. Wild or strong-scented Lettuce, that abounds on chalky soil...
-Level
Level, an instrument by means of which a line may be drawn parallel to the horizon, in order to determine the height of one place with respect to another; for laying grounds even, conducting water, r...
-Lever
Lever, a bar made of iron or wood, one part of which is supported by a fulcrum or prop, so that all the others turn upon it as their common centre of motion. Levers are of various kinds, according ...
-Lientery
Lientery, or Lienteria, is a species of diarrhoea, in which the food passes through the intestines, almost without having undergone any change it is not attended with pain, but the patient is frequen...
-Life
Life, in a peculiar sense, denotes the animated state of living creatures, or that space of time during which the soul is united to the body. Longevity has always been highly estimated by man; henc...
-Ligature
Ligature, a bandage or fillet, made of linen, flannel, leather, or any other elastic substance, which is generally tied round the arm, to facilitate the operation of blood-letting. Ligatures are li...
-Light
Light, signifies that invisible fluid which renders objects perceptible to the sight.- The velocity of light is almost inconceivable, though its motion is not instantaneous : the particles of light fl...
-Lightning
Lightning, a vivid, bright flash of fire, which suddenly appears in the atmosphere, and instantly, vanishes: it is sometimes attended with heavy clouds and thunder; but often occurs while the sky is s...
-Lilac
Lilac, or Syringa, L. a genus of exotic plants, natives of Persia, consisting of three species, the principal of which is the vulgaris, or Common Lilac. It has long been cultivated in our gardens, on ...
-Lily
Lily, or Lilium, L. a genus of exotic plants, consisting of ten species, all of which are remarkable, for the beauty of their flowers ; but the two following deserve a. distinguished place: ...
-Lily-Of-The-Valley
Lily-Of-The-Valley, or May-Lily, Convallaria Majalis, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in woods, heaths, and at the foot of hills : it flourishes in the month of May. This vegetable is eat...
-Water Lily
Water Lily, or Nym-phoea, L. a genus of plants comprising nine species, two of which are natives of Britain ; namely, 1. The lutea, Yellow Water-lily, or Watercan ; which grows in gentle river...
-Lime
Lime, a white, soft, friable substance prepared of marble, chalk, or other calcareous earth, by burning them in a kiln. The chief uses of lime aire, 1. As an ingredient in mortar to cement brick o...
-Lime-Grass
Lime-Grass, or Elymus, L. a genus of plants comprising twelve species, three of which are natives of Britain : the principal of these is the arenarius, or Upright Sea Lime-grass, which grows on the se...
-Limes
Limes, the fruit of a variety of the Citron-tree (which see); growing abundantly in Jamaica, and other warm climates : it is the smallest production of the kind; has scarcely any pulp; but con-tains a...
-Lime-Tree
Lime-Tree, or Tilia, L. a genus of trees consisting of seven species ; the principal or which is the Europaea, Common Lime-tree, or Linden-tree, growing in woods and hedges; flowering in the month of ...
-Line
Line, for angling, a series of threads, or horse-hairs, twisted together, suspended on a rod, and furnished at the end with a hook for catching fish. The best material for making lines, is horse-ha...
-Linen
Linen, a well known kind of cloth, made chiefly of Hemp and Flax.- Having already described the different processes which these substances undergo, before they are converted into cloth, we shall at p...
-Liniment
Liniment; in Pharmacy, a composition, the consistence of which is of an intermediate nature, between unguents and oils: it is employed for anointing different parts of, the body.- The common preparati...
-Linnet
Linnet, or Fringilla linota, L. is a very elegant bird, of which there are several varieties: it is of a small size, and a greyish-brown colour; the lower part of its breast is tinged with a line bloo...
-Linseed
Linseed, or Lintseed, is the fruit of the Flax-plant, or Linum^ L. from the stalks of which, linen, cambric, and other sorts of clo:h are manufactured. According to the most experienced cultivators...
-Lint
Lint, in surgery, signifies linen scraped so as to form a soft woolly substance, which is employed in dressing wounds. It is made into various forms, denominated according to the shape of which they c...
-Lips
Lips, in anatomy, are the exterior edges or extremities of the mouth. Lips are subject to few disorders deserving notice, excepting that called the Hare-lip, in which the upper part of the mouth is...
-Liquor
Liquor, a general name for any liquid preparation, but more particularly applied to such as are either fermented, or distilled : of the former class are, beer, ale, wine, etc. ;| of the latter, are br...
-Liquorice
Liquorice, or Glycyrrhixa, L. a genus of exotic plants, comprising two species, the principal of which is the glabra, or Common Liquorice, Its long, thick, creeping roots strike several feet deep in t...
-Literary Property
Literary Property, is that right which an author justly claims in his original literary compositions ; so that no person may, without his permission, either publish the work, or receive any profit fro...
-Litharge
Litharge, or Lithargyrum, a preparation of lead, consisting of soft flakes of a yellowish or reddish colour. It is obtained by expoing calcined lead to a brisk fire, sufficiently strong to melt it...
-Liver
Liver, the largest and most ponderous of the abdominal viscera, which, in adults, weighs about 3lb. It is situated under, and connected with the diaphragm, by means of the suspensory and other ligamen...
-Liverwort
Liverwort, or Lichen, L. a genus of perennial plants, comprising 363 species, the greater number of which are natives of Britain ; - the most remarkable of these are: 1. The calcareus, Calcareous,...
-Lixivium
Lixivium, or Ley, signifies a solution of salts or ashes in water, for the different purposes of bleaching, washing, dyeing, etc- Having, in the progress of this work, frequently employed the term lix...
-Lizard
Lizard, or Lacerta, a genus of amphibious animals, consisting of several species; the most remarkable of which is the Agilis, or Common Green Lizard, a native of Britain. It is extremely nimble ; of a...
-Loading Of Goods
Loading Of Goods, the act of removing ponderous substances, such as timber, corn, or other merchandize, to a cart or waggon. As various accidents happen by the removal of heavy goods, especially on...
-Loam
Loam, in agriculture, a species of earth, less cohesive than clay, but more compact than chalk. There are several varieties of loam ; the most common of which we shall enumerate. 1. The cla...
-Lobster
Lobster, or Cancer, L. a genus of insects comprising 20 species ; the principal of which is the grammarus, or Common Lobster : it has a smooth breast, four pair of legs, six joints in the tail, and ro...
-Lock
Lock, a well-known contrivance for fastening doors, chests, or the likc ; and which is generally opened with a key. From the different structure of locks, adapted to various purposes, they acquire ...
-Locking-Pole
Locking-Pole, an ingenious piece of mechanism, to be affixed to the wheels of waggons or other carriages, when descend-'ing steep hills. As many distressing accidents happen from carts over-powe...
-Locust
Locust, or Gryllus Locusta, L. a family of insects, natives of Asia and Africa, where chiefly two species are remarkable, name-ly: 1. The Shielded Locust, so called from the pectinal shield c...
-Log-Wood
Log-Wood, Heematoxyhtm Campechianum, L. an exotic plant, which grows wild in the bay of Campeachy, Honduras, and other parts of the Spanish West Indies, where it rises from 16 to 24 feet in height....
-Longevity
Longevity has ever been a desirable object among the rational part of mankind; though the licentious epicure appears to measure the duration of his life by the good things he has enjoyed, rather than ...
-Looking-Glass
Looking-Glass, a plain glass mirror; which, being rendered impervious to light, exhibits the images of such objects as are placed before it, apparently at the same distance behind. Looking - glass...
-Loom
Loom, a machine, by means of which several distinct threads are combined into one piece, or contexture. Looms are of various forms, according to the different materials to be woven ; and the variou...
-Loose-Strife
Creeping Loose-Strife, or Lysimachia nummularia, L. an indigenous, perennial plant, growing in moist, shady meadows ; and flowering in the months of June and July.This vegetable affords a whole...
-Lottery
Lottery, a kind of public game at hazard, which, in this country, is managed by commissioners appointed by parliament. It consists of a certain number of tickets, that are drawn out of two different w...
-Lovage
Lovage, on Ligusticum, L. a genus of plants, consisting of thirteen species, two of which are natives of Britain. The principal of these, is the Scoticum, Scottish Lovage, or Sea-parsley, growing on r...
-Love
Love, generally speaking, denotes all those pleasing sensations which are excited by certain objects, or incidents. It, however, more frequently expresses that affection which consists of personal des...
-Love-Apple
Love-Apple, or Solanum Ly-copersicum, L. a native of the East and West Indies, whence it has been introduced into our gardens. It is propagated from seeds, which are sown in the month of Ma...
-Louse
Louse, in zoology, a genus of insects too well known to require any description. Lice are not peculiar to mankind, but infest quadrupeds, birds, fishes, and vegetables. Each class of animals is tro...
-Louse-Wort
Louse-Wort, or Pedicularis, L. a genus of native perennial plants, comprising two species, viz. 1. The -palustris, or Marash Louse-wort, which grows in marshes, ditches, on moist meadows, and in ...
-Lozenge
Lozenge, a form of various medicines moulded into small, flat takes, to be held or chewed in the mouth, till they are dissolved. As lozenges are of considerable utility for various purposes, we sha...
-Lucern
Lucern, or Medicago saliva, L. a valuable exotic plant, which sometimes grows naturally in meadows, pastures, and on ditch-banks; flowers in the months of June and July.- It was introduced from France...
-Lungs
Lungs, in anatomy, denote the two viscera or lobes in the cavity of the breast, by which we breathe. They are connected with the neck, and situated on the right and, left .side of the heart. Being fur...
-Lunt
Lunt quarts of blood should be taken from the animal, on the first day; and four pints, on the succeeding morning. If the unfavourable symptoms do not abate, it will be necessary to draw blood repeate...
-Lungwort
Lungwort, or Pulmonaria, L. a genus of perennial ;plants, comprising six species, three of which are natives of Britain : the principal of these is the officinalis, Common Lungwort, Spotted Lungwort, ...
-Lupine
Lupine, or Lupinus, L. a genus of exotic plants comprising nine species, most of which are cultivated in gardens, on account of their beautiful flowers : they are raised from seed, which may be sown i...
-Lute
Lute, a composition of certain viscid or tenacious matters, which becomes solid, when dry; and which, on being applied to the junctures of vessels, closes them 50 effectually as to prevent the admissi...
-Luxation
Luxation, signifies the dislocation of any bone out of its natural articulation, so as to impede or destroy its proper motion. The general symptoms of this complaint are, inability to move the injured...
-Luxury
Luxury denotes voluptuous- ness, or an extravagant indulgence in whatever pleases the senses, such as the articles of food, dress, and equipage. The utility or detriment of luxury: to a State, ...
-Lymph
Lymph, a tasteless transparent liquid, that is absorbed from the surface; the cellular texture ; as well as the viscera and their cavities throughout the animal body: it is conveyed into the thoracic ...
-Mace
Mace, the Inner coat of the Nutmeg, is a thin unctuous membrane, of a yellowish colour, which it acquires by being dried in the sun. It is imported from India in flakes, about an inch in length, which...
-Madder
Madder, or Rubia, L. a genus of plants, comprising nine species, one of which is a natives of Britain, viz. the R. tinctorum, Wild, or Common Dyers-Madder. It is perennial, and flowers in the months o...
-Madness
Madness, or Mania, one of the most distressing afflictions which humbles human nature. It is usually divided into two kinds, melancholy, and raving; but as they are so nearly allied to, and frequently...
-Maggot
Maggot, the common name of the fly-worm generated in flesh, from the egg of the large blue flesh-fly, known under the name of blue-lottle. Its body is while and fleshy, destitute of legs or feet, and ...
-Magistery
Magistery, a name given to almost every precipitate obtained by solution, as opposed to calx, which is procured wholly by calcination : it is chiefly employed to denote such precipitates as are used i...
-Magnesia
Magnesia, or Magnesia alia, a kind of absorbent earth, first discovered in the commencement of the 18th century. When pure, it is extremely white, loose, and light, being infusible, as it resists the ...
-Magnet
Magnet, or Loadstone, a kind of ferruginous stone, which in weight and colour resembles iron ore, though it is somewhat harder and more ponderous. It is occasionally discovered In iron mines, being so...
-Magnetism
Magnetism, Animal, a Sympathy which was lately believed to subsist between the magnet and the human body ; and, in consequence of which, the former was Supposed to be capable of curing almost every di...
-Magpye
Magpye, or Corvus pica, L. a crafty, and well-known British bird, which is about 18 inches in length, and weighs from eight to nine ounces. It has a black bill, wings, and tail; but the latter are var...
-Mahogany
Mahogany, or Swietenia, L. an exotic tree growing wild in South America, and likewise in the islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and in those of Bahama. It was formerly very common in Jamaica ; when...
-Maiden-Hair
Common Maiden-Hair, Miltwaste, or Spleenwort, Asplenium Trichomanes, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing on old walls, rocks, and shady, stony places; flowering from May to October.Its le...
-Maize
Maize, Guinea-wheat, or Indian Corn, Zea Mays, L. a native of North America, where it is cultivated to a considerable extent, and forms an important article of food. Maize is propagated by setting ...
-Mallow
Mallow, or Malva, L.a genus of plants consisting of 53 species, four of which are natives of Britain : the principal of the latter is the syIvestris, Common Mallow, or Mauls, growing in hedges, foot-p...
-Malt
Malt, denotes barley prepared for brewing, so as to produce, by fermentation, a potable liquor, known under the different names of Beer, Ale, and Porter. The operation of malting is performed by st...
-Man
Man, the chief of the animated world, is distinguished from all living creatures by his superior faculties ; being possessed of reflection, thought, a power of invention, and an ability of carrying hi...
-Mandrake
Mandrake, or Atropa man-dragora, L. an exotic plant, growing in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and the Levant: it is propagated by seeds, and treated in a similar manner with the more tender exotic plants.&#...
-Manganese
Manganese, or Magnesia nigra, a dark-coloured native mineral, found in a more or less impure state, both in iron-mines, and in the lead-mines of Mendip-hills, in the county of Somerset. Common mang...
-Mange
Mange, a disease affecting dogs and swine, in a manner similar to the itch in the human body ; and arising from an insect that works its way beneath the uppermost skin ; where it causes so great an ir...
-Mangel-Wurzel
Mangel-Wurzel, or Root of Scarcity, the Beta albissima, L. is an exotic variety of the Beta Cicla. It is propagated from seeds, one or two of which are deposited, in the month of April or May, in hole...
-Mangle
Mangle, a valuable domestic machine, employed for the purpose of smoothing such linen as cannot be conveniently ironed. Various patents have been granted for improvements in this machinery : but, a...
-Mango-Tree
Mango-Tree, or Mango floral, a native of the East Indies, whence its unripe fruit, preserved in vinegar, is imported under the name of mangoes. This lofty tree attains a considerable size: its frui...
-Manna
Manna, the juice obtained from several species of ash, pani-cularly the Fraxinus rotundifolia and Ornus, growing in Italy and Sicily. When naturally concreted on the tree, this juice is called manna i...
-Manslaughter
Manslaughter, a species of homicide, denotes the unlawful killing of another, without any malice, either express or implied : it may be perpetrated either voluntarily, in consequence of a sudden dispu...
-Manufacture
Manufacture, signifies a commodity, or piece of workmanship, produced from raw materials, whether by hand, or by the aid of machinery. The extensive utility of manufactures to a commercial nation, ...
-Manuscript
Manuscript, signifies a book or paper written by hand, as opposed to those which are printed. Having already pointed out, in the article Deed, the most easy method of restoring written characters t...
-Maple-Tree
Maple-Tree, or Acer, L. a genus of plants, comprising twenty species, of which the following are the principal, viz. The campestris, or Common Maple, which is a native of Britain, grows in thickets...
-Marble
Marble, in Natural History, a genus of stones that admit of a bright and beautiful polish: they are composed of small separate concretions, moderately hard ; not emitting fire, when stricken against s...
-Mare
Mare, the female of the horse kind. Having already stated under the article Horse, the proper management of mares, considered as beasts of labour, we shall at present give a few hints relative to t...
-Mare's-Tail
Mare's-Tail, the Common, or Hippuris vulgaris, Lan indigenous perennial plant, growing in ditches and stagnant waters ; it flowers in the month of May. This weakly astringent vegetable is eaten b...
-Marjoram
Marjoram, or Origanum, L. a genus ofperennial plants, compris- ing 14 species : of these, one only is indigenous, namely, the vulgare, Common, Wild, or Field Marjoram, which grows in thickets and hed...
-Market
Market, a public place in a city or town, where live cattle, provisions, or other commodities are exposed to sale. - In the country, each article sold in markets must be deposited in the usual pl...
-Marle
Marle, a kind of calcareous earth, which is often and advantageously employed as a manure. It is found in various parts of Britain, and generally lies at the bottom of low bogs. Marie is divided in...
-Marriage
Marriage, a contract both civi1 and religious between a man and a woman, by which they engage to live together in mutual friendship, and love, during the remainde of their days. ...
-Marrow
Marrow, in animal economy, an oily matter secreted by the arteries of the internal membrane, which covers the bones. Its particular use, to the living body, has not hitherto been clearly ascertained ;...
-Marsh
Marsh, signifies a tract of ground partly covered with water, yet so as to permit grass or other vegetables to rise above its surface: these, while gradually decaying, occasion putrid exhalations, whi...
-Marsh-Locks
Marsh-Locks, the Purple, or Marsh Cinquefoil, Com Arum Palustre, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in muddy and putrid marshes; flowering in the months of June or July; and producing red berri...
-Marsh-Mallow
Marsh-Mallow, or Althaea officinalis, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in salt-marshes and on the banks of rivers; flowering in the month of August. This useful plant may be easily propagated...
-Marsh - Marigold
Marsh - Marigold, or Meadow-bouts; Caltha palus-tris, L. an indigenous perennial plant, thriving in moist meadows, and on the banks of rivers: it flowers in the months of April and May. This, hardy...
-Martin
Martin, or Hirundo urlica, L. a well known bird of passage, which makes its annual appearance in Britain, from the beginning of April to the middle of May, according to the state of the weather.—...
-Mary Gold
Mary Gold, the Trifid Bur, Trifid Double-tooth, Water-hemP, or Hemp-agrimony ; Bi-dens triparlita, L. an indigenous annual plant, growing in marshy and watery places, and flowering in the months of Au...
-Mash
Mash, a drink given to horses. - It is prepared by infusing half a peck of ground malt in a sufficient quantity of boiling water, then agitating the liquor, till it acquires a sweet taste, and when lu...
-Masterwort
Masterwort, the Common, or Imperatoria Ostruthium, L. is an indigenous, perennial plant growing in damp meadows, and flowering in the month of June. It is cultivated in gardens, on account of its m...
-Mastic
Mastic, or Mastich, the Syrian Herb, or Marum Germander, Ttucrium Marum, L. 3 native of warm climates, and which we have incidentally mentioned, p. 369 of our second volume. Its leaves, distilled with...
-Mastication
Mastication, the act of chewing or grinding the solid parts of food between the teeth, by the united motion of the jaws, tongue, and lips; in consequence of which it is broken into small pieces, mixed...
-Mastich
Mastich, a resinous substance exuding from the mastich-tree, or Pistacia lentiscus, L. a native of the southern parts of Europe. The best is imported from Chios, in the Levant, in small transparent gr...
-Masticot
Masticot, or Yellow Lead, is the calx or ashes of lead, obtained by slow calcination, in consequence of which that metal acquires a lighter or deeper yellow colour, according to the degree of heat. &...
-Mastiff
Mastiff, Canis villaticus, v. catenarius, L. a valuable species of the dog-kind. This bold animal is alike remarkable for his loud voice in barking, his extraordinary size, and surprizing strength....
-Matching
Matching, a method of preparing vessels for the preservation of wines, cyder, or similar liquors, from becoming sour. It is effected in the following manner : Let any quantity of sulphur be melted in ...
-Matlock Waters
Matlock Waters, are those mineral springs which issue from the limestone-hill or rock,on which the village of Matlock, in Derbyshire, is situated. They are remarkable for their purity; and are both co...
-Matweed
Matweed, the Sea, Helme, Sea-reed, or Marram, arunda arenaria, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing only on the driest sandy shores, and flowering in the month of June or July. This useful reed p...
-Maze
Maze, or Labyrinth, in Gardening, denotes a piece of ground, planted and arranged in various meanders, so as to render it difficult, after entering the walks, to find the leading avenue. Labyrinths...
-Mead
Mead, an agreeable liquor prepared of honey and water, with the addition of spices. Various methods are practised in the brewing of mead ; which, however, do not essentially differ from each other:...
-Meadow
Meadow, generally signifies pasture, or grass land, that is annually mown for hay ; but it more particularly denotes such traces of ground as are too low, and too moist for cattle to graze on them dur...
-Meadow-Grass
Meadow-Grass, or Poa, L. a genus of plants comprising 53 species, 16 of which are natives of Britain : the principal of these are: 1. The aquatica, or Reed Meadow-grass, growing in marshes and on ...
-Meadow - Saffron
Meadow - Saffron, or Tuberoot, Colchicum autumnale, L. an indigenous perennial plant, being the principal of three species ; growing in meadows; flowering in the months of August 3nd September. The...
-Meadow-Sweet
Meadow-Sweet, the Common, or Quee-of-the-mea-dows, Spircea ulmaria, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in moist meadows and on the banks of rivers ; flowering in the months of June and July. It...
-Measles
Measles, or Rubeola, a contagious disease, accompanied with inflammatory fever, sneezing, de-fluxion of a thin humour from the eyes, and a dry hoarse cough.-On the fourth day, or sometimes later, sma!...
-Measure
Measure, in a legal and commercial sense, denotes a certain proportion or quantity of any commodity, whether dry or liquid, that is bought, sold, valued, etc. Measures vary according to the lent ki...
-Meat
Meat, a general appellation for the flesh of animals when prepared for food..As we have already, under the article Flesh-meat, given the most, effectual methods of preserving it in a fresh stat...
-Medicine
Medicine, is the art of preventing, curing, or alleviating those diseases, with which mankind are afflicted. The history of medicine is lost in the remotest antiquity ; and the researches of the mo...
-Medick
Medick, or Medicago, L. a genus of perennial plants, comprising twelve species ; the principal of which are the following : 1. The sativa. See LUCERN. 2. The falcata, Yellow Me-dick, ...
-Medlar-Tree
Medlar-Tree, the Common, or Mespilus germanica, L. a native of Britain, growing in hedges, and flowering in the month of May. This hardy shrub is cultivated in gardens, either for the sake of its f...
-Melancholy
Melancholy, or partial insanity without any affection of the stomach, is one of those humiliating diseases which are peculiar to mankind. Innumerable are the causes which may induce this most dread...
-Melic-Grass
Melic-Grass, or Melica, L. a genus of perennial plants, comprising 14 species, of which the following are the principal: 1. The nutans, or Mountain Melic-grass, which abounds in the mountainous woo...
-Melilot
Melilot, the Common, Melilot-trefoil, King's-claver, or Harts-clover, Trifolium Me-lilotus officinalis, L. an indigenous plant, growing on a stiff soil; on ditch banks ; in thickets, hedges ; corn-fie...
-Melon
Common Melon, or Musk-Melon, Cucumis me/o, L. an exotic plant growing wild in Asia, whence it has been introduced into the south of Europe, and is also cultivated in Britain, on account of its delicio...
-Memorandum
Memorandum, a term implying a note, or mark, made either on paper or otherwise, with a view to assist the memory. In the present artificial state of society, the convenience of a memorandum-book is...
-Memory
Memory, a mental faculty, which consists in the power of reviving former impressions of our ideas, or the particular circumstances which occasioned and accompanied them. Memory may be divided into ...
-Menstruum
Menstruum, in general, signifies all liquors employed as solvents of other bodies, with the minute particles of which the former combine, so as to produce a new, uniform compound : they are chiefly us...
-Mercury
Mercury, or Quicksilver Hydrargyrus ), a mineral fluid, about fourteen or fifteen times heavier than water: it is so remarkably thin, that it requires the intense cold of 40 degrees below O, of Fahre...
-Mesentery
Mesentery, in animal economy, signifies that fat membrane, or membranous duplicature, which is situated in the middle of the abdomen, for preventing the intestines from entangling with each other, as ...
-Metal
Metal, signifies a ponderous, opaque body, which, in general, is fusible by fire 5 but, when cold, coagulates and concretes into a solid mass, that is capable of being distended under the hammer.̵...
-Mezereon
Mezereon, Spurge-olive, Spurge-flax, or Dwarf-baY, Daphne Mexereum, L. an indigenous low shrub, growing in woods and shady places, and flowering in the month of February or March. When cultivated in g...
-Mica
Mica, Muscovy-glass, Glimmer, or Glist, a genus of mag-nesian earths, of which there are two species ; viz. 1. The colorala martialis, coloured martial glimmer, of which there are many varieties,...
-Microscope
Microscope, an optical instrument, consisting of lenses or mirrors, by means of which, small objects appear of a larger size, than they naturally are to the naked eye. This valuable instrument, tho...
-Midwifery
Midwifery, or the obstetrical art, a branch of mediciue which requires no farther definition.In most countries of Europe, and in other parts of the globe, it is prac-1 by women ; for it compreh...
-Mildew
Mildew, or Erysiphile, a disease of plants, consisting of a thick, clammy, sweetish juice, that is supposed to exhale from, or descend on, the leaves and blossoms of vegetables. The mildew occurs m...
-Miliary Fever
Miliary Fever, or Miliaria, a disease which affects both sexe6, at every age, but particularly recluse and sedentary women. It is accompanied with continued fever, anxiety, a sensation of punctures in...
-Milk
Milk, a well-known, nutritious fluid, with which Nature has wisely furnished the breasts of females, and the udders of animals, for the support of their young. Milk consists of three parts, namely ...
-Milk-House
Milk-House, a building designed for the reception and preservation of milk, previously to its, undergoing the various processes of the dairy. As we have already, under the head of Dairy-house, trea...
-Milk-Thistle
Milk-Thistle, or Ladies Th istle, Carduus marianus, L. an indigenous plant, growing on ditch-banks, road-sides, the borders of corn-fields, and on rubbish: it flowers in the month of August. ...
-Milk-Vetch
Milk-Vetch, or Astragalus, L..a genus of indigenous, perennial plants, consisting of 80 species ; the principal of which is the glycyphyl-los, Common or Sweet Miik-vetch, Liquorice-vetch, Wild-liquori...
-Milk-Weed
Milk-Weed, the Marsh, Wild Parsley, or Wild Milky Parsley, Selinum palustre, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in damp and marshy situations, where its stalk attains the height of three or fou...
-Milk-Wort
Milk-Wort, the COMMON, or Polygala vulgaris, L. an indigenous perennial plant, thriving on heaths and dry pastures ; flowering in the months of June and July.This herb is eaten by cows, the mil...
-Mill
Mill, a machine for grinding corn, etc. of which there are various kinds, according to the different methods of applying the moving power ; such as water-mills, those worked by horses, wind-mills, etc...
-Mill-Reek
Mill-Reek, a dreadful disease, caused by the poisonous fumes of melted lead, which affect not only those who are employed in the smelting or preparing of that metal, but likewise all who reside near t...
-Mill-Stone
Mill-Stone, signifies the large circular stone, by means of which, when put in motion by machinery, corn is ground into flour. The diameter of the common mill-stones is, in general, from five to se...
-Millet
Millet, or Milium, L. a genus of plants, consisting of five species ; of which the following are the principal; namely : 1. The panicum, or Common Millet; which is a native of India, and seldom cul...
-Mineral Kingdom
Mineral Kingdom, an expression comprising all bodies that are dug out of subterraneous places, or mines, being totally inanimate, and devoid of the power of vegetation. From the preceding definitio...
-Mineral Waters
Mineral Waters, include all such fluids as are naturally impregnated with heterogeneous matter, which they have dissolved within the bowels of the earth, whether sulphureous, metallic, or saline; and,...
-Mint
Mint, or Mentha, L. a genus of plants comprising 24 species, 12 being natives of Britain ; of which the following are the principal: 1. The Pulegium : See Pennyroyal. 2. The Arvensis, or...
-Misseltoe
Misseltoe, the Common, White Misseltoe, or Missel; Vis-cuni album, L. a parasitical plant growing on Apple and Pear-trees, the Hawthorn, Service, Oak, Maple, etc.; flowering in the month, of May. F...
-Mite
Mite, or Acarus, L. a genus of insects, consisting of 35 species, the principal of which is the Asiro, Common, or Cheese-mite. It is very small, and when first hatched, is so extremely minute as to be...
-Mitridate-Mustard
Mitridate-Mustard, or BASTARD-CREss, Thlaspi, L. a genius of plants comprising fourteen species, six of which are na-tives of Britain : the principal of these is the arvense, Smooth Mi-thridate -Musta...
-Moffat-Waters
Moffat-Waters, are those sulphureoas springs winch issue from a rock, in the vicinity of the village of Moffat, North-Britain.-The smell of this water corresponds with that of Harrogate ; its taste is...
-Moisture
Moisture denotes a property peculiar to certain bodies that absorb humidity from the atmosphere; such are, sugar, salt, sponge, etc. but which again exhale the watery particles, when exposed to a drie...
-Molasses
Molasses, or MeLasses, the gross fluid matter, which remains after refining sugar; and which cannot by simple boiling be reduced to a more solid consistence than that of common syrup, vulgarly called ...
-Mole
Mole, or TaLpa, L. a genus of quadrupeds, consisting of seven species, of which the Europaeus, or European Mole, only is found in Britain. It abounds in all parts of Europe, excepting Ireland. This...
-Mole-Cricket
Mole-Cricket, or Gryllus gryllo-talpa, L. a destructive insect, in the vicinity of rivers, infesting moist meadows, and gardens, in which it does great injury to the plants and roots ; destroying whol...
-Molten-Grease
Molten-Grease, a disorder in horses, consisting of a fat or oily discharge with the faeces : it arises from a colliquation or melting down of the animal's fat, in consequence of violent exercise in ve...
-Molybdoena
Molybdoena, a mineral that is frequently confounded with black-lead ; though possessing properties widely different from the latter -It is of a laminated texture, or formed of plates which slightly co...
-Money
Money, a piece of metal, which by public authority bears a certain weight and value, so that it may serve as a circulating medium in commerce. Money is, in general, divided into two kinds, viz. ima...
-Moon
Moon, in astronomy, one of the heavenly bodies, usually, though erroneously, classed among the planets ; for it is with more propriety considered as a satellite, or secondary planet. The mean dista...
-Moor
Moor, or Moor-Land, a black, light, soft soil, remarkably loose, without any admixture of stones, and containing a very small pro-portion of clay, or sand. This earth usually forms the uppermost st...
-Mordants
Mordants, or Mordicants, in dyeing, signify those substances, which are employed for the purpose of macerating the stuffs, and rendering them capable of imbibing the tinging matter. Of this nature are...
-Morocco-Leather
Morocco-Leather, the skins of goats tanned and dyed in a peculiar manner by the Turks , but which processes were originally invented in the kingdom of Morocco. The skins are prepared in parcels, co...
-Mortar
Mortar, a preparation of lime and sand, mixed with water: it serves as a cement, and is employ ed by masons and bricklayers In erecting walls, houses, etc. Mortar being an article of extensive utility...
-Mortification
Mortification, or Sphacelus, in the animal economy, is generally defined to be a total extinction of the natural heat of the body, or rather of a particular part; in consequence of inflammation. Un...
-Moschatel
Moschatel, the Tuberous, or Adoxa Moschateklina,L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in damp woods, and shady, places where it flowers in the months of April and May.- The ripe fruit of this low ...
-Moss
Moss, in Botany, a term for a numerous family of plants, which may be called the dwarfs of the table kingdom. Mosses were formerly supposed to be a mere excrescence from the earth, and trees, yet t...
-Moss In Horticulture
Moss In Horticulture, in horticulture, is a disease which greatly impedes the growth of trees, and at the same time very materially injures the fruit of orchards. The remedy usually employed 5s, to...
-Marsh Moss
Marsh Moss, or Mnium, L. a genus of perennial plants, comprising 32 species, most of which are natives of Britain.The following only deserves to be mentioned, namely, the fontanum, or Fountain ...
-Moss-Land
Moss-Land, an expression used in Scotland, and also in various parts of England, for denoting what is more properly called a Morass, Bog, or Fen. The theory of mosses is foreign to our plan ; and a...
-Moss-Rush
Moss-Rush, or GhoosecorN, Junius squarrosus, L. a native perennial plant, growing on heaths and barren turfy bogs flowering in the months of June and July. This vegetable indicates a la\ wil...
-Moth
Moth, or Phaleana, a genus of insects comprehending several hundred species which it would be needless to enumerat they are uniformly bred from eggs and no socner hatched than they in which t...
-Motherwort
Motherwort, the Common, Lion's Tail, or Leonurus Cardiaca, L. an indigenous plant, growing in hedges, rubbish, on dunghills, and calcareous soils ; flowering from June till August. The leaves of th...
-Mould
Mould, a general name for the soft earthy substance that serves as the upper stratum of land; and in which all kinds of vegetables Strike root and thrive. Mould consists of the following ingredient...
-Mouse
Mouse, or Mus, a genus of quadrupeds, comprising sixty species, of which the following are found in Britain, namely l.The sylvaticus, or Long-tailed Field-mouse, the length of which is in general from...
-Mouth
Mouth, in anatomy, a part of the face, comprehending the lips, gums, inside of the cheeks, palate, etc. The mouths of different animals are admirably adapted to various uses, according to their siz...
-Mowing
Mowing, the act of cutting down grass, etc. with the scythe. This method of reaping has hitherto been practised chiefly on oats, clover, and the grasses ; but there is no doubt that it may, with ad...
-Mud
Mud, the slime or miry earth-usually found at the bottom of ponds, and stagnant waters. It also signifies the dust or dirt of streets and roads, rendered fluid by rain. Mud is chiefly useful as a m...
-Mugwort
Mugwort, or Artemisia, L. a genus of perennial plants, comprising 49 species, five of which are indigenous : among these;, the following are the principal. 1. The maritima. See Wormwood,...
-Mulberry-Tree
Mulberry-Tree, or Morus, I a genus, of exotics, comprising seven species, of which only the nigra, or Common Mulberry-tree, is cultivated in Britain, on account of its black fruit. It is propagate...
-Mule
Mule, or Equus Mulus, a mongrel kind of quadrupeds, partaking both of the nature of a horse and an ass. Mules are very hardy animals, and therefore much used in warm climates, where they are prefer...
-Mullein
Mullein, or Verbascum, L. a genus of plants, comprising 17 species, five of which are indigenous : the principal of these are : 1. The Thapsus, GreatWhitb Mullein, High TapeR, Cow's-lungwort, o...
-Mullet
Mullet, or Mugil, L. a genus of fishes, consisting of two species, principally distinguished by the number of rays in the back-fin. Both frequent the sandy coasts of this island, and particul...
-Mum
Mum, a kind of malt-liquor which is in great request on the Continent, whence considerable quantities are imported. It is prepared in the following complicated manner : Seven bushels of wheaten malt, ...
-Mummy
Mummy, in horticulture, signifies a kind of wax employed by gardeners, in grafting and planting the roots of trees. It is prepared as follows: Take one pound of black pitch, and a quarter of a pound o...
-Mumps
Mumps, or Cynanche parotit doea, a contagious disease, that chiefly affects the lower classes, and is often epidemic. - It is distinguished by an external moveable swelling, that arises on one side of...
-Mundic
Mundic, or Marcasite, a species of copper-pyrites found in the tin-mines of Cornwall, and in other parts of the world. It is of various colours, being sometimes yellow, green, or white; but is easily ...
-Murrain
Murrain, a contagious disease incident to cattle; it is known by the animals hanging down their beads, which are swollen; by short and hot breathing; palpitation of the heart; staggering; an abundant ...
-Mussel
Muscle, or Mussel, Mytilus, L. in ichthyology, a genus of shellfish, consisting of several species; the following of which are the principal; viz. 1. The margaritiferus, or pearl-bearing muscl...
-Muscle
Muscle, in animal economy, a fleshy, fibrous part, destined to be the instrument or organ of motion. A muscle is composed of a great number of thin parallel plates, each of which is divided into sm...
-Mushroom
Mushroom, or Agaricus, L. a genus of plants, comprising numerous species, of which more than 300 are natives of Britain ; among these, the following deserve to be specified : 1. The semi-g/obatus, ...
-Music
Music, denotes the art of producing and combining sounds, in such a manner as to render them agreeable to the ear. Music forms a pleasing recreation, and is calculated to produce the happiest effec...
-Musk
Musk, a drug resembling clotted blood, which is obtained from the musk-bearing animal (Moschus Moschiferus, L.) a native of the South-eastern parts of Asia, Siberia, and China : it is secreted in a sm...
-Muslin
Muslin, a kind of fine cloth, loosely woven of the finest cotton yarn. Formerly, all muslins were imported from India ; but. at present, very considerable quantities are manufactured in Manchester,...
-Mustard
Mustard, or Sinapis, L. a genus of plants, comprising nineteen species : three of which are natives of Britain : namely, 1. The arvensis. See Charlock. 2. The alba, or White Mustard,...
-Hedge Mustard
Hedge Mustard, or Erysimum, L. a genus of plants, comprising ten species, four of which are natives of Britain. 1. The officinale, Common Hedge-Mustard; Worm-Seed; Bank-cresses ; or Scrambling-Roc...
-Mutton
Mutton, denotes the flesh of sheep, after they have been deprived of life. The best and most nutritive mutton, is that of sheep which are at least three, but not more than six years old; and which ...
-Myrrh
Myrrh, a gummy-resinous, concrete juice, obtained from a shrub growing in the East Indies, but of which we possess no certain account. The best myrrh is somewhat transparent, of an uniform brownish...
-Myrtle
Myrtle, or Myrtus, L. a genus of exotic trees, comprising forty-two species ; of which the communis, or Common Myrtle-tree, only is cultivated in Britain. There are several varieties, known tinder the...
-Nails
Nails, in anatomy, are horny lamina or plates growing over the ends of the fingers and toes of men, as likewise over the lower extremities of the inferior animals. The nails apparently possess simi...
-Nails in Building
Nails, in building, are small pointed spikes, generally with a flat, or convex head, made of brass, iron, or other metal; which, when driven into wood, serve to connect several pieces, such as boards ...
-Narcotics
Narcotics, a term comprehending opiates, anodynes, or paregorics, and all other drugs which induce sleep, or occasion stupe-faction. The narcotics chiefly employed in medicine are, opium, henbane,...
-Nausea
Nausea, or Sickness, denotes a propensity and exertion to vomit, which may be induced by various causes, such as apoplexy, fevers, violent pain, crude aliment, indigestion, diseases of the liver, e...
-Neck
Neck, in animal economy, that part of the body which is placed between the head and the thorax, or chest. As the description of the different veins, vertebrae, etc. that compose this part of the hu...
-Nectarine
Nectarine, a variety of the common peach-tree, from which it differs only in having a smoother rind, and firmer pulp. There are several varieties of this fruit, known under the different names of S...
-Needle
Needle, the Common Shepherd's, Venus-comb, CRake-m,F., or Needle-chervil, Scandix Pecten, L. an indigenous plant, growing in corn-fields, and flowering in the months of June and July.- This weed frequ...
-Needle-Furze
Needle-Furze, Petty Whin, or NeedleGreenweed, Genista anglica, L. an indigenous plant, growing on heaths, and moist spongy ground: it flowers in the months of May and June.Dam-boubxey made expe...
-Negus
Negus, a well-known compound beverage, prepared of one part of Port-wine, and two parts of water, to which is usually added a small quantity of sugar, lemon-peel, etc. This liquor is salubrious ...
-Nerve
Nerve, in anatomy, denotes certain white, round, delicate substances, similar to cords, which proceed from the brain or spinal marrow, and are divided into numerous smaller fibres or branches, ...
-Nettle
Nettle, or Urtica, L. a genus of plants, comprising 57 species, three of which are natives of Britain ; namely, 1. The urens, or LesseR StiNging Nettle, which is frequent on rubbish and cultivated ...
-Nettle-Hemp
Nettle-Hemp, or Galeopsis, L. a genus of native plants, consisting of four species, the principal of which is the Tetrahit, Common Hemp nettle, or Nettle-hemp All-heal. It grows in hedges, corn-fields...
-Nettle-Rash
Nettle-Rash, or Urticaria, a cutaneous disease, thus denominated, from the resemblance of the eruption to that produced by the stinging of nettles. Numerous pimples appear on the skin, often suddenly ...
-Newspapers
Newspapers, arecertain publications, which appear daily, weekly, or at other stated periods of the week, in order to communicate the most important political, domestic, or literary information. The...
-Nickel
Nickel, a semi-metal, the use of which has hitherto been very limited. It is rarely found, and almost exclusively in cobalt-mines.. The regulus of nickel is in the ore mineralized with sulphur, and m...
-Nightingale
Nightingale, or Motacilla lucinia, L. a small bird, remarkable for the melody of its notes : the feathers of the head, neck, and back, are sallow; the wings and tail brighter than the rest of its body...
-Night-Mare
Night-Mare, or Incubus, a singular affection, occasioned by a spasmodic state either of the lungs or the abdomen ; by a redundancy of blood, or a partial stagnation, in its passage through the heart a...
-Nightshade
Nightshade, or Solamon, L. a genus of plants, comprising 66 species ; of which only two are natives of Britain ; namely, 1. The Dulcamara, Bitter-sweet, or Woody-Nightshade, growing in moist brake...
-Deadly Nightshade
Deadly Nightshade, Dway-Berries, Or Deadly Dwale ; the Atropa Belladonna, L. indigenous plant, growing in hedges, among lime-stone and rubbish; it flowers in the month of June or July.The wh...
-Nipple
Nipple, a small prominence arising from the middle of the female breast. The lacteal tubes terminate in these projections, through which the milk is drawn in the act of sucking. The nipples of fema...
-Nipple-Wort
Nipple-Wort, or Lapsana, L. a genus of plants, comprising five species ; one of which is indigenous, namely, the communis, Common Nipple-wort, or Dock Cresses. It grows in hedges, shady places, and on...
-Nitre
Nitre, or Salt - petre, is a species of salt, which, in Persia and the East Indies, is extracted from certain native earths. It is likewise artificially produced in several parts of Germany, Hungary, ...
-Nose
Nose, in anatomy, the external organ of smelling, or that part which projects from the middle of the human face. The nose is subject to various affections, such as ulcers, luxations, fractures, etc...
-Nostrils
Nostrils, are two apertures or cavities of the nose, through which the air passes, and which serve to convey odours, and to carry off the pituitous matter separated in the sinus of the base of the cra...
-Nostrum
Nostrum, denotes any medicine the composition of which is supposed to be secret, and confined to the knowledge of one, or a few individuals. The natural desire of health and longevity, has in all a...
-Novel
Novel, a fictitious history, Written with a view to exhibit the emotions of the human heart ; the happiness and misery of private life; the effects of indulging the passions, and especially that of ...
-Nourishment
Nourishment, in animal economy, denotes the reparation of the continual waste which bodies undergo in consequence of exercise, the effects of air, hunger, thirst, sleep, etc. Nutriment is afforded...
-Nurse
Nurse, a woman who professes to rear young children, or to attend sick persons. The duties incumbent on nurses, whether intended for the management of infants, or of patients, are equally import...
-Nursery In Horticulture
Nursery, in horticulture, a piece of land selected for raising or propagating plants and trees, with a view to supply both gardens and plantations. As we state, under distinct heads, the mode of cu...
-Nursery
Nursery, in domestic life, denotes an apartment devoted exclusively to the rearing and accommodation of children. The room designed for this purpose ought to be lofty, perfectly dry, and in the att...
-Nutmeg-Tree
Nutmeg-Tree, or Myris -tica moschata, L. an exotic plant growing in India; resembling in size and growth the common cherry-tree ; and bearing fruit through out the year. Nutmegs have long been em...
-Nux Vomica
Nux Vomica, a fiat, compressed, round fruit, about an inch in diameter, of a greyish-brown colour, of a horny consistence ; and the surface of which is somewhat wrinkled. It is the produce of a tree g...
-Oak
Oak, or Quercus, L . a genus of plants, consisting of 29 species, two of which, according to Dr. Withering, are indigenous. The principal of these is the Robur, or Common Oak, found in various parts...
-Oat
Oat, or Avena, L. a genus of plants, comprising 33 species, of which the following are the principal : and the six first mentioned are natives of Britain; namely, I. The nuda, Naked Oat, Pilcorn, ...
-Ochre
Ochre, in natural history, a genus of argillaceous earths, slightly coherent, and composed of line, smooth, particles, rough to the touch, and readily diffusible in water. Ochres are of various col...
-Odour
Odour, is that property of bodies by which they affect the sense of smell at a distance, whether in a pleasant or disagreeable manner. It has been ascertained by numberless observations, that ever...
-Oil
Oil, an inflammable, unctuous fluid, drawn from various natural bodies, belonging either to the mineral, animal, or vegetable kingdoms of Nature. I. Mineral oil is that fluid denominated petroleu...
-Ointment
Ointment, a preparation consisting of certain unctuous matters, whether animal or vegetable, for the cure of sores, burns, ulcers, and tumors. Ointments differ from plasters only in their consisten...
-Olibanum
Olibanum, a gummy-resinous substance, obtained from the Juniperus lycia, L.It is imported from the Levant, or the East Indies ; consisting of drops or tears, resembling those of Mastich, though...
-Olive-Tree
Olive-Tree, or Olea, L. a. genus of plants, consisting of six species, the principal of which is the Europaea, or Common Olive-tree.It is a native of the Southern parts of Europe, especially It...
-Onion
Onion, the Common, or Allium Cepa, L. an exotic plant, pro bably originating from Asia. There are several varieties of the common onion, the principal of which are known by the names of Stra...
-Opium
Opium, an inspissated gummy-resinous juice, which is obtained from the White Peppy (Papavcr album v. somniferum, L.) a plant cultivated in Persia and Arabia, where it. attains the-height of 20 or 30 ...
-Orache
Orache, or Atriplex, L. a genus of plants, comprising seventeen species ; of which the follow-ing are the principal, and indigenous : 1. The portulacoides, Shrub-by-Orache, or Sea-Purslane ; growi...
-Orange-Tree
Orange-Tree, or Citrus Aurantium, L. an exotic shrub, highly esteemed on account of its pleasant and cooling fruit. The Orange-tree is divided into several varieties, of which the most esteemed are...
-Orchal
Orchal, ARGOL, or Cud-Bear ; Lichen Roccella, L. an indigenous plant, growing upon the rocks on the coast of Guernsey ; the Isle of Portland ; and, we understand, also in some parts of the Highlands ...
-Orchard
Orchard, in horticulture, a tract of land appropriated to the growth of standard fruit-trees, with a view to furnish a supply of the most useful kinds of fruit. Orchards are sometimes confined to t...
-A Catalogue Of The Most Eligible Kinds And Varieties Of Fruit-Trees
I. For plantations of talle-fruit only. 1. The Easter, or Pasque Apple, is one of the principal and finest Calvilles: it is large, with high pro-jecting ribs, and of a bees-wax colour; has a white...
-Apples
1. The White Italian Rosemary-Apple (MeladiRosmarino), a very beautiful species of the Calville, having no ribs, but a most glossy skin, which resembles the finest virgin wax ; is on ail sides marked ...
-Pears
a. The Muscadel-Pear of Metx, a smooth-round, and very sapid winter-pear; whitish-green, but yellow when ripening on the floor, and red on the south side ; having a mellow pulp with an agreeable sacch...
-Plantations Of The Most Useful Fruit-Trees In Domestic Economy
1. The Red Stettin, Rostock, or Iron Apple, is large, globular, dark-red, sometimes light-green on the shaded side; has a glassy, hard pulp, containing a large proportion of an excellent vinous juice...
-On The Most Advantageous Method Of Arranging The Espaliers
An orchard that is encompassed by a wall, or railed with suitable boards, not only affords protection to the fruit, but its value may be considerably enhanced by the rearing of dwarf-trees. The most p...
-Cherries, Plums, and Early Grapes
1. The Large Glass-Cherry, is the most bulky of these early productions, and one of the finest bright-red morels; having a white juice and a short stalk : its pungent taste is accompanied with an ag...
-Hazel-Nuts
In the enumeration of the following excellent varieties, we have adopted the botanical characters given by Bechstein, both on account of their precision, and the appropriate nomenclature, which Mr. Ch...
-Currants
As these berries, which remain for several weeks on the bushes without decaying, progressively become sweeter and more vinous, we would recommend the culture of the following varieties, as the most va...
-Gooseberries
There are numerous sorts of this excellent fruit, which have been raised from the seeds, principally by English gardeners, who at present enumerate not less than 280 varieties : from these we have sel...
-More Plantations Of The Most Useful Fruit-Trees In Domestic Economy
For an account of the most eligible and productive species of the Raspberry, as well as the Strawberry, we refer the reader to these articles, in the progress of the alphabet. It will, however, not...
-Orchis
Orchis, or Orchis, L. a genus of plants, comprising sixty-five species, nine of which are indigenous; and the most remarkable of these are : 1. The mascula, Early Orchis, or Male Fool - stones, g...
-Orpiment
Orpiment, a bituminous mineral, consisting of arsenic and sulphur, often found native in the earth, though it may also be artifi-cially prepared. This ore has also lately been discovered in the cou...
-Orpine
Orpine, the Common, or Or-pine-Stonrcrop, Sedum Tele-phium, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing on pastures and in hedges; flowering in the month of August. This luxuriant herb may be easily ...
-Ortolan
Ortolan, or Emberza hor-tulana, L. a delicate exotic bird, inhabiting France, Italy, and the southern parts of Europe ; though it also visits Germany, Sweden, and Britain, in which countries these bir...
-Osier
Osier, or Salix viminalis, L. an indigenous plant, growing in woods, and hedges, especially on boggy land: it flowers in the months of April and May. This shrub is very valuable; as its leaves are ...
-Osmund Royal
Osmund Royal, Flowering Fern, or Royal Moon wort; Osmundu regalis, L. an indigenous plant, growing in watery places and boggy marshes ; bearing flowers in the months of July and August. It is remar...
-Ostrich
Ostrich, or Struthin Came-bis, L. the largest of the feathered tribe, and a native of Africa and Arabia. It is usually six. or seven, and sometimes eight or nine feet high from the top of the head ...
-Otter
Otter, the Common, or Mus-tela lntra, L. an amphibious animal that inhabits Europe, North America, and Asia; it is, in general, about the size of the badger (which sec), but has shorter legs ; and it;...
-Oven
Oven, a kind of domestic furnace, used for baking bread, pies, tarts, etc. Ovens are generally constructed of brick-work in a semi-circular form, with a very low roof, and the bottom of which is la...
-Over-Reach
Over-Reach, in farriery, signifies a wound upon the coronet, towards the back part of the foot, or heel of a horse : it is occasioned solely by striking the sinew of the fore-heel with the toe of the....
-Owl
Owl, the Common, or Strix Flammea, L. a well-known British bird, the elegant plumage and other good qualities of which, amply compensate tor the ugliness of its form. This species of the owl may be...
-Ox
Ox, a general appellation for male black-cattle; but which strictly denotes a castrated bull. Having already treated, under the heads Bull, Cattle, etc. of the best mode of feeding and fattening ox...
-Ox-Eye
Ox-Eye, the Great White, Greater Daisy, Moox-flower, Corn Marigold, or Daisy Goldins ; Chrysanthemum Leucan-themum, L. an indigenous plant, growing in dry meadows, pastures, and on walls : it flowers ...
-Common Ox-Tongue
Common Ox-Tongue, the Common, or Lang-de-boeuf, Picris echioides, L. an indigenous plant, growing on the borders of corn-fields, and flowering in the months of July and August.- When young, this veget...
-Oxyd
Oxyd, a term, in the antiphlogistic system of chemistry, denoting those compound bodies which are formed by the decomposition of oxygen-gas, either by means of metals, or certain other substances. ...
-Oxygen
Oxygen, is a term invented by the French chemists, and at present employed to express the acidifying principle. Oxygen is considered as an elementary something, utterly inca-pable of decomposition ...
-Oxymel
Oxymel, in pharmacy, a mixture of honey and vinegar, which are boiled to the consistence of a syrnp. Oxymel of Garlic, is prepared by boiling, for a short time, half a pint of vinegar together with...
-Oyster
Oyster, or Ostrea, L. a genus of shell-fish, comprising thirty-one species, which are distinguished chiefly by the peculiar formation of their shells.- The principal of. these is, the Common Oyster, t...
-Paint
Paint, a term used to express more particularly the preparations employed in painting houses. The principal article in the various compounds being white-lead, the grinding of which is extremely det...
-Palate
Palate, or the organ of taste, consists of that flesh which composes the roof, or the upper and inner part of the mouth. It has a similar structure with the gums, but a greater number of glands, situa...
-Pales
Pales, denote planks or pieces of larch, oak, or other hard wood, which are driven into the ground, and serve as a fence for parks, paddocks, gardens, and similar in-closures. As pales are exposed ...
-Palm-Tree
Palm-Tree, or Date-tree, Phaemix dacty/ifera, L. a native of syria, Palestine, Egypt, and other hot climates, where it grows to the height of 100, and even 150 feet. As it will net flourish in ...
-Palpitation
Palpitation of The: Heart, a violent and iiregular action of that muscle, accompanied with great uneasiness and op-pression of the breast. This affection is obvious from the vehement pulsation of t...
-Palsy
Palsy, or Paralysis, a disease in which the patient is partly deprived of the power of voluntary motion ; and which is often attended with sleep. One of the most frequent forms of the palsy is that, i...
-Panada
Panada, or PAnado, a preparation consisting of bread boiled in water, and sweetened with sugar. It is often given as an article of diet to children, and invalids; but such dish ought never to be made ...
-Panic-Grass
Panic, or Panick-grass, Panicum, L. a genus of plants, comprising 97 species, five of which are natives of Britain ; viz. 1. The vertlciliatum, Rough-panick, or Kneed-grass, growing in corn-fields...
-Paper
Paper, a thin flexible leaf, which is generally prepared of vegetable substances, for the purposes of writing, printing, etc. The original invention of paper being lost in the uncertainty of tradit...
-Parchment
Parchment, the skins of sheep or goats, prepared in such a manner, as to be subservient to the purposes of binding books, the re-ception of ink, etc. The wool is first stripped off the skins, whic...
-Parent
Parent, a term of relation applied to those persons from whom we derive our temporal existence. The moral duties of parents towards their offspring, being a subject not immediately connected with o...
-Paring
Paring of Land, an ancient practice in agriculture; but which, has, within a few years, been exploded in various parts of Britain. It consists in cutting off old turf at such a thickness as the labour...
-Park
Park, a tract of ground-in-closed, and privileged for the retention and propagation of animals of chase, either by the King's grant, or by prescription. In order to constitute a park, it is necess...
-Parrot
Parrot, or Psittacus, L. a very numerous genus of birds, occasionally imported from the East and West-Indies: they are too familiarly known to require any description. Parrots, in their natural sta...
-Parsley
Parsley, the Common, or Apium Petroselinum, L. is a native of Sardinia, whence it has been introduced into Britain. It is propagated by seed, which, according to MILLER, should be drilled (early in th...
-Parsley-Piert
Parsley-Piert, or Aphaves arvensis, L. a low, indigenous plant; growing in corn-fields, and in dry gravelly lands ; flowering from the month of May till August.It is eagerly relished by sheep, ...
-Parsnep
Parsnep, or Parsnip, Pasti-?iaca, L. a genus of plants, com-prising three speciestof which only the sativa, or Common Wild Parsnip, is indigenous. It grows on the borders of ploughed fields, in calcar...
-Water Parsnep
Parsnep, the Water, or Sium, L. a genus of plants, comprehending sixteen species ; four being natives of Britain ; and the most remarkable of these are the following : 1. The latifolium, Broad-Leav...
-Partridge
Partridge, or Tetrao Percix L. a well-known bird to the sportsmen of Britain. In shape, it resembles a quar, but is of more than double the size; its whole plumage is beautifully variegated, and it ha...
-Passion
Passion, a term employed to denote the actual degree of desire, or aversion, prevalent in the human mind, on realizing certain affections. The passions may be divided into two classes ; namely, tho...
-Paste
Paste, a composition of flour, mixed to a certain consistence with milk, water, or other fluids. It is. used to form the crusts of pies, tarts, and similar articles of pastry. -Confectioners also empl...
-Paste-Board
Paste-Board, a kind of thick paper, which is usually formed by pasting several single sheets, one upon another. The principal use of such boards is for binding books, making letter-cases, etc. - Under...
-Pastry
Pastry, a term denoting that branch of cookery, which is appropriated to the making of pies, tarts, etc. It is likewise, though erroneously, used to express the articles exposed to sale by confectione...
-Pasturage
Pasturage, or Pa sture, signifies either the business of feeding tame animals, or such land as is expressly reserved for the grazing of cattle. Pasture ground is, at present, often preferred to cor...
-Patents
Patents, or Letters Patent, are privileges obtained from the King under the Great Seal, in order to convey the title, property, and exclusive right to an invention, discovery, or peculiar establishmen...
-Pattens
Pattens, are a contrivance serving as a substitute for wooden shoes : they are furnished with an iron ring, and worn by women during wet weather, to protect the feet from moisture. As pattens forme...
-Pea
Pea, or Pisum, L. a genus of leguminous plants, consisting of four species ; of which the following are the principal 1. The maritimum, or Sea-Pi:a, is a native of Britain ; growing on the sea-coa...
-Peach-Tree
Peach-Tree, or Amygdalus Persica, L. a well-known exotic fruit, originally brought by the Romans from Persia to Italy. There are numerous varieties of this tree, cultivated on account of their deli...
-Peacock
Peacock, the Common or Pavo Cristatus L. a well known bird, about the size of a common Turkey, and acquiring, about the third year of its age, exquisitely beautiful plumage. This creature is origi...
-Pear-Tree
Pear-Tree, or Pyrus com-munis, L. a valuable indigenous tree, growing in woods and hedges, in various parts of Britain; and flowering in the months of April and May. The pear-tree delights in rich ...
-Pearl
Pearl, a hard, white, glossy, and roundish concretion, which is usually found in the shell of the East-Indian pearl-oyster; though it is also occasionally met with in the shell-fish of Europe.A...
-Pearl-Ash
Pearl-Ash, a kind of fixed alkaline salt, prepared in various parts of Europe, and also in America, by melting and extracting the salts from the ashes of burnt vegetables ; and, after evaporating the ...
-Pearlwort
Pearlwort, the Procumbent, Trailing Pearlwort, Of Break-stonk, Sagina procumbent, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing on walls; in sandy and boggy situations ; in garden-walks, and paved ...
-Peat
Peat, a well-known inflammable fossil, which is used in various parts of the would as fuel. There are two species of this re-markble substance: 1. A yellowish - brown peat, found in Scotland, Ho...
-Pebbles
Pebbles, a genus of fossils, comprising 34 species, which are again divided into numerous varieties. They chiefly consist of siliceous earth or flint, being insoluble in water and acids, except the fl...
-Pectorals
Pectorals, a term employed to express such medicines as are appropriated to the diseases of the chest and lungs. They are administered either with a view to allay an irritation prevailing in the organ...
-Pedometer
Pedometer, or Podometer, a contrivance for measuring distances, which is usually constructed in the form of a watch, and consists of several wheels with teeth, that are arranged in the same plane, and...
-Pellitoky-of-the-Wall
Pellitoky-of-the-Wall, the Common, Parietaria officinalis, L an indigenous plant, growing on old walls, and among rubbish; flowering from May to September. The leaves of this vegetable, when dry, e...
-Felt-Rot
Felt-Rot, a disorder incident to sheep, in which the hair or wool falls off spontaneouslyIt arises from various causes, but more especially in consequence of a sudden change from scanty or bad ...
-Pennyroyal
Pennyroyal, or Mentha Pulegium, L. an indigenous plant) growing on moist heaths and pastures ; flowering in the mouths of August and September.This herb possesses properties similar to those, o...
-Marsh Pennywort
Marsh Pennywort, or H .drocotyle vulgaris, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in marshy or inundated grounds; and flowering in the months of May and June.This herb is supposed to occasio...
-Pepper
Pepper, an aromatic berry, chiefly em ployed for culinary purposes.There are three species of this spice at present in use, which are known under the names of black, white, and long pepper. ...
-Pepperwort
Pepperwort, Dittander Pefperwort, or Poor-man's-Pepper ; Lepidium latifoium, L. an indigeneous plant, growing in meadows and pastures, where it flowers in the months of June and July.The whole ...
-Perch
Perch, the Common, or Perca fluvifluviatialis, L. is a well-known British fish, of a middling size, being covered with rough scales, and the back furnished with spiny fins. It frequents fresh water ri...
-Perfume
Perfume, generally speaking, denotes those volatile odour.-, which arise from certain substances or liquids, and stimulate the organ of smelling ; but this term more particularly alludes to the matter...
-Perriwinkle
Perriwinkle, the Lesseer, or Vinca minor, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in woods and hedges, principally in the vicinity of Hampstead, and also in the environs of Manchester : it flowers i...
-Perspiration
Perspiration, in animal economy, signifies the exhalation of humours through the pores of the skin. It is cither sensible, that is, sweat ; or insensible, namely, such as cannot be perceived. In the ...
-Peruvian Balsam
Peruvian Balsam, an esteemed drug, which is obtained from the Myroxyln peruiferum, L. a native of Peru. This balsam is of the consistence of thin honey, and of a reddish-brown colour, inclining ...
-Peruvian Bark
Peruvian Bark, or Jesuits' Bark, a well-known medicine obtained from the Cinchona, a native of South America and the West Indies. Of this valuable tree, botanists have discovered ten species ; but the...
-Pewit
Pewit, or Larus ridibundas, L. a bird of passage, frequenting the British shores, the fens of Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, etc. but, after the breeding season, retiring to the sea-coasts. Formerly...
-Pewter
Pewter, a compound metal employed in the manufacture of plates, dishes, spoons, and similar domestic utensils. The basis of this metal ought to be tin, one cwt. of which being melted with 15lbs. of...
-Pheasant
Pheasant, or Phasianus, L. a genus of birds, comprising several species, of which the following are the principal ; viz. 1. The Gallus. See Cock and Hen. 2. The Colchicus, or Common Phe...
-Pheasant's-Eye
Pheasant's-Eye, the Autumnal, Corn Adonis, Adonis Flower, Red Maithes, or Red Morocco; Adonis autumnalis,lj. an indigenous annual plant, growing in corn-fields, and flowering in the months of June and...
-Phosphorus
Phosphorus, a term gene-raily given to such bodies as are luminous in the dark, without emitting heat or flame. According to modern chemists, phosphorus is a simple, inflammable substance, which ca...
-Physician
Physician, an appellation given, in general, to those persons only, who exercise the medical profession, under the sanction of a diploma granted by an university, after a regular course of study. ln a...
-Pickle
Pickle, a kind of brine or liquor, which is generally prepared of salt and nitre, with the occasional addition of spices, or aromatic herbs, for the preservation and seasoning of flesh-meat.:Pi...
-Picture
Picture, a specimen, or piece of painting, in which particular persons, or subjects, are represented in colours, on wood, paper, canvas, etc. Pictures form a valuable, though not a necessary, part ...
-Pigeon
Pigeon, or Columba, L. a genus of birds, consisting of 70 species, of which the oenas, or Domestic Pigeon, is a native of Britain. It is in general of a blueish ash-colour, and weighs from twelve to s...
-Pigeon-House
Pigeon-House, or Dovecote, a structure usually erected of wood, for the accommodation and rearing of pigeons. Dove-cotes ought to be built of a moderate height, and spacious, so that the birds may ...
-Pigments
Pigments, are preparations in a solid form, chiefly employed by painters, for imitating particular colours, and imparting them to the surface of bodies. Pigments are obtained from ani-mal, vegetabl...
-Pike
Pike, or Esox Lucius, L. an exceedingly bold and voracious fish, inhabiting most of the lakes of Europe, and likewise the ditches in the vicinity of the Thames, as well as the shallow water of the ten...
-Pilchard
Pilchard, a fish, which greatly resembles the common her-ring ; and though its body is somewhat shorter, yet it is considerably thicker ; and contains a larger proportion of oil. Pilchards are fish...
-Piles
Piles, or Haemorrhoids, are small round excrescences appearing on the verge of the anus, without any apparent swelling :if attended with a discharge of blood, they are termed the bleeding piles...
-Pilewort
Pilewort, the Common, or Lesser Celandine, Ranunculus Ficaria, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in meadows and pastures; and flowering in the month of April.This herb may be eaten in t...
-Pill
Pill, a form of medicine resembling a small pea, and which is designed to be swallowed entire. Drugs that operate in minute doses, and the offensive taste or smell of which requires to be concealed...
-Pimpernell
Pimpernell, the Bastard, or Small Chaffweed, Centun-culus minimus, L. an indigenous low plant, which grows in salt-marshes and meadows near the sea-coast; flowers in the month of June, and seldom exce...
-Pin
Pin, a well-known little instrument, usually made of brass-wire, blanched., and which is chiefly employed by females, in adjusting their dress. Notwithstanding the apparent simplicity of pins, thei...
-Pinchbeck
Pinchbeck, a factitious metal, the colour of which resembles that of gold ; and which has received this appellation from its inventor.It is produced by melting one part of zinc with five or six...
-Pine-Apple
Pine-Apple, the Common, or Brome/ia ananas, L. is a native of Mexico and the Brazils, whence it has been introduced into Europe. It is propagated in Britain, -y planting either the crowns or excrescen...
-Pink-Tree
Pink-Tree, or Pinus, L. a genus of trees consisting of 30 species, of which the following are the most remarkable: 1. The pineaster, or Wild Pine, is a native of the mountainous parts of Italy, and...
-Pink
Pink, or Dianthus, L. a genus of plants-consisting of 28 speicies six of which are indigenous, viz. 1. The Armeria, or Deptford Pink, which grows in gravelly meadows, and flowers in July or August....
-Pistachia-Tree
Pistachia-Tree, or Pistacia terebinthus, L. is a native of Arabia, Persia, and Syria; where it grows to the height of 25 or 30 feet, and is cultivated on account of its fruit; which is imported into E...
-Pitch
Pitch, an adhesive gummy-recuious substance, which is prepared by inspissating Tar, or the. liquid drawn from Fir and Pine-trees. Considerable quantities of pitch are manufactured in Britain ; but...
-Plague
Plague, or Pestis, is one of the most fatal disorders that have often depopulated extensive regions of the earth : it is defined to be a very contagious, nervous fever, attended with extreme debility....
-Plaise
Plaise, or Pleuronectes platessa, L. a well-known fish, caught in numbers on the British and Dutch coasts; sometimes weighing 15 lbs.; though, in general, not exceeding eight or nine pounds. Th...
-Plane-Tree
Plane-Tree, or Plalanus, L. a genus of trees, comprising two species, viz. 1. The orientalis, or Eastern Plane-tree, which is a native of Asia, and the Levant, where it a tains a stupendous heig...
-Plant
Plant, an organic fibrous body, consisting of roots and other parts: though capable neither of sensation, nor spontaneous motion, it attaches itself to other bodies, in such manner as to derive nouris...
-Plant-Louse
Plant-Louse, Puceron, or Vine-fretter, Aphis, L. a genus of insects, comprising many species and varieties, all of which are denominated from the plants they infest. Their rostra or beaks are inflecte...
-Plantain
Plantain, or PLantago, L. a genus of plants, comprising 39 species ; the following of which are indigenous, and deserve attention. 1. The major, Greater Plantain, or Way-brEad, is perennial ; grows...
-Plantation
Plantation, a term denoting, in general, a tracts of land assigned to a planter, or person who engages to settle in a new colony. It also signifies a particular spot of ground planted with young trees...
-Ornamental Plantations
As there are many situations which may be easily provided with beautiful vegetable productions, without incurring great expence, we have subjoined a list of the most elegant shrubs, but chiefly of per...
-Planting
Planting, in gardening and agriculture, inplies the setting of a plant or tree ; which, on being removed from its former place, is fix I in a fresh cavity proportioned to its size. The best season ...
-Plashing
Plashing of Hedges, a term employed by farmers to denote an operation, which is performed on quickset hedges at certain seasons, with a view to assist their growth, and promote their durability. For t...
-Plaster
Plaster, an external application of a more solid consistence than ointments, and which is usually spread on linen, leather, or tow, according to the nature of the wound or ulcer. Plasters are prepa...
-Plaster Of Paris
Plaster Of Paris, a preparation of several species of gyp sum, which are obtained principally from Mont Martre, in the vicinity of that city. The best plaster is hard, white, and somewhat resembles...
-Platina
Platina, one of the most precious metals that was discovered in South America, about the middle of the eighteenth century. It is found chiefly in the river Pinto, and near Carthagena, in small, irregu...
-Plethora
Plethora, or Fulness, is that state of the human fluids, and particularly of the blood, in which they abound to such a degree, as to prove hurtful to the animal functions. Young persons that lead a...
-Pleurisy
Pleurisy, or Pleuritis, is an inflammation of the membrane, called the pleura, which lines the cavity of the chest, and covers internally the ribs, intercostal muscles, and lungs. The characteristi...
-Plough
Plough, in agriculture, a machine for breaking or turning up the soil, by the draught of cattle ; and which, in general, consists of a train or carriage, furnished with two large irons (the one being ...
-Ploughing
Ploughing, in rural economy, denotes the stirring and turning over of land with the plough. This is one of the most essential operations in the culture of the earth, and requires to be performed wi...
-Plover
Plover, the Common, or Charadrius Pluvialis, L. a well-known bird of passage, frequenting chiefly the Northern parts of Britain, particularly the Hebrides, where they sometimes appear in flights of ma...
-Plum-Tree
Plum-Tree, or Primus, L,. genus of plants, comprising fifteen, but according to Bechstein, thirty species ; five of which are reared in Britain, namely : 1. The Padus, or Bird-cherry; and, 2. ...
-Plume
Plume, or Plumage, denotes the feathers of birds, which are frequently worn by military men, and females, as ornaments to the head-dress; a custom originally derived from barbarous nations. Althoug...
-Poison
Poison, a term denoting any matter that may prove detrimental, and frequently fatal, to the life of animals, whether it be taken in small portions by the mouth, mixed with the blood, or applied to the...
-Poker
Poker, a well-known instrument, generally manufactured of iron ; and employed for stirring the fire-As many casualties occur from negligence, or imprudence, in leaving pokers in the fire, we shall sta...
-Pole-Cat
Pole-Cat, or Mustela puto-rius, L. an animal of prey, of a dusky-yellow colour, with whitish ears and muzzle : it inhabits most parts of Europe ; and, in temperament, manners, disposition, and form, r...
-Poll-Evil
Poll-Evil, in farriery, is an abscess formed in the sinuses between the poll-bone, and the uppermost vertebra of the neck of a horse. When this malady is occasioned, by blows, bruises, or any exter...
-Pollen
Pollen, or Farina fecundans, denotes the fertilizing powder, found in the anthers, or tops of the stamina of plants; and which, when sufficiently mature, is conveyed to the pistils for the purpose of ...
-Polishing
Polishing, in general, denotes the act of smoothening and imparting brightness to hard substances, such as metals, marble, glass, etc. by rubbing them with certain matters adapted to the purpose. H...
-Polypody
Polypody, or Polypodium, L. a genus of plants comprising. 142 species ; 18 of which are indigenous, but the following only deserve to be mentioned: 1. The vulgare, or Common Polypody, is perenn...
-Pomatum
Pomatum, an unguent, which was formerly prepared from apples, lard, and rose-water, triturated together to the consistence of an ointment. At present, it is generally compounded by beating up la...
-Pomegranate-Tree
Pomegranate-Tree, or Punica, L. an exotic, growing-in chalky soils, and consisting of two species : l. The granatum, or Common Pomegranate-tree, which is a native of Italy, and other southern parts...
-Pond
Pond, a small pool, or collection of standing water. Ponds are of great utility in agriculture, and for various other purposes : hence different methods and expedients have been devised, with a vie...
-Pond-Weed
Pond-Weed, the Broad-leaved, or Potamogelon nutans, L. an indigenous perennial plant, growing in ponds and slow rivers ; flowering in the months of July and August.The leaves of this weed float...
-Poor
Poor, an appellation given to persons, whose situation is so reduced as to render them chargeable to the parish. Previously to the Reformation, the poor received alms, and other benefa6tions, from ...
-Poor-House
Poor-House, an asylum appropriated to the accommodation of those aged, sick, or helpless poor, who are unable to support themselves : but, as such design is generally combined with work-houses, or bui...
-Poplar
Poplar, or Populus, L. a genus of trees comprising 13 species, of which the following are the principal, and the three first are natives of Britain : 1. The alba. White Poplar, or Abele-Tree, grows...
-Poppy
Poppy, or Papaver, L. a genus ants comprising nine species, eight of which are indigenous : the following, of these, are the most remarkable: 1. The Rhoeos, Red Poppy,. Corn-rose, Cop-rose,...
-Horned Poppy
Poppy, the Horned, or Celandine, Chelidonium, L. a genus of plants consisting of six species, four of which are natives of Britain; the most remarkable of these are the following: 1. The majus, Gre...
-Porcelain
Porcelain, or China-Ware, a most refined, and almost vitre-fied, species of earthen-ware, which is not only manufactured in China, but likewise in England, France, Holland, and Germany : the most este...
-Pork
Pork, is the flesh of hogs, killed for culinary purposes. Having already, in the article Hog, treated of the relative salubrity of this aliment, when eaten in a fresh state ; and likewise stated th...
-Porter
Porter, a well-known malt-liquor, which differs from ale and beer, in consequence of its being brewed with malt that has been highly dried. As porter constitutes the principal beverage of all ranks...
-Portland-Powder
Portland-Powder, a particular compound, the recipe for which was imported from Switzerland, by an ancestor of the Duke of Portland. It consists of equal parts of Round Birth wort (Aristo-lochia rotund...
-Post
Post, a stake, or piece of timber, which is fixed in the ground. Posts are used both for the purposes of building, and of fencing; but, as the .strength of the fabric, or of the fence, depends grea...
-Pot-Ash
Pot-Ash, denotes an alkaline salt, or, with more propriety, a compound of different salts, obtained by reducing large quantities of wood to ashes: this process is termed, by chemists, incinera-iion. T...
-Pot-Ash-Cake
Pot-Ash-Cake, a kind of biscuit, much used in the United States of America ; and which is baked in the following manner: Take two pounds of wheaten flour, and half a pound of butter: to these m...
-Potatoe
Potatoe, the Common, or Solamum Tuberosum, L. a valuable root, originally a native of America, whence it was introduced into Ireland ; and subsequently into Britain, about the commencement of the 17th...
-Poultice
Poultice, an external application employed for promoting the suppuration of tumors, or abating painful inflammation, and which is sometimes also called a Cataplasm. Poultices are generally prepared...
-Poultry
Poultry, a term including every kind of domestic fowls which are heared about yards, such as cocks, hens, ducks, turkeys, etc. Poultry constitutes part of every farmers stock, but the rearing of it...
-Powder
Powder, a form of medicine, which is prepared, by breaking and reducing sustances to minute particle either in a mortar, or by chemical process. In the preparation of powders, especial care ...
-Pregnancy
Pregnancy, a certain state of tie animal body, which requires no farther explanation. The first duty of persons, in that prosperpus condition is, a constant and redoubled attention to all the. surr...
-Preservation
Preservation, in domestic economy, is the art of preserving animal and vegetable substances, with the least trouble and expence. In the articles Bacon, Beef, Butter, Cheese, Flesh.-me.at, Pickle, e...
-Primrose
Primrose, or Primula, L. a genus of plants comprising 19 species ; four of which are indigenous : the following are the principal : 1. The vulgaris, or Common Primrose, is perennial, grows in wood...
-Print
Print, an impression taken from a copper-plate. As prints are more durable than paintings, and form a valuable part of the furniture of almost everv house, we shall subjoin a method of cleaning and...
-Printing
Printing, the art of taking impressions from figures or characters, on paper, linen, silk, etc. It is divided into three distinct branches; namely, 1. From copper-plates, for pictures, which is...
-Privet
Privet, Prim, or Print ; Li-gustrum vulgare, L.; an indigenous shrub, growing on rocks in the most exposed situations towards the Western Sea, and flowering in the months of June and July. The Priv...
-Prong-Hoe
Prong-Hoe, an implement of husbandry, employed for the hoeing or breaking of ground near, or among the roots of plants. It consists of two hooked points, six or seven inches in length ; and, when stri...
-Pronunciation
Pronunciation, a term denoting the manner of articulat-ing or sounding the words of a language. Pronunciation is the most difficult, and at the same time the most defective part in grammar, t...
-Propagation
Propagation, in general, signifies the act of multiplying the kind or species 5 but, in this place, we propose to treat only of vegetable nature. Beside the usual modes adopted by gardeners and agr...
-Pruning
Pruning, in gardening and the culture of forests, denotes the lopping off exuberant or diseased branches, with a view to render trees more fruitful; to make them grow higher, and with greater re-gular...
-Pudding
Pudding, a well-known dish, frequently found at the tables of our English readers. The most wholesome dishes of this nature, are doubtless those made of bread, milk, and eggs , and which ar...
-Puff-Ball
Puff-Ball, or Lycoperdon, L. a genus of fungous plants, consisting of many species, 25 of which are indigenous : the principal part of these are the following : 1. The equinum, orEauESTRiAN Puff-...
-Pulmonary Consumption
Pulmonary Consumption, or Phthisis pulmonalis, a wasting of the lungs, attended with fever, cough, and expectoration of matter : it is one of the most fatal disorders to which mankind is subject, and ...
-Pulse
Pulse, in animal economy, a term denoting the alternate dilatation and contraction of the heart arteries, in consequence of which the blood, being ejected from the left ventricle of that organ, is imp...
-Pulse In Botany
Pulse, in botany, a term applicable to all grains or seeds that are gathered with the hand ; being opposed to corn, etc. which are reaped or mown. It is more particularly employed to denote the seed o...
-Pumice-Stone
Pumice-Stone, a hard fossil, that is frequently ejected from volcanoes : it is very light, with numerous pores, being of a white, grey, reddish-brown, or black co-lour. This mineral is usefully emp...
-Pump
Pump, a well-known hydraulic machine, employed for the raising of water by the pressure of the atmosphere. The utility of pumps, in domestic life, being universally acknowledged, various contrivanc...
-Pun
Pun, an expression, in which the same word is applied to different meanings. The practice of punning is a miserable subterfuge employed by those who assume the character of wits, without possessing...
-Punch
Punch, a compound liquor, much used in Britain, but more frequently in Jamaica, and other parts of the West Indies.The basis of this beverage ought to be good spring-water; which, being being r...
-Puncheon
Puncheon, a vessel of capacity for measuring liquids ; it is chiefly employed for the conveyance of rum from the colonies, and contains 130 gallons, according to the wine-measure. ...
-Puncture
Puncture, in farriery, a species of wound to which the feet of horses are much exposed ; and which has received this name from the minuteness of the orifice; the injured parts closing up easily, so th...
-Punishment
Punishment, or the penalty which a person incurs on the commission of a crime, or trespass. The necessity of adopting rigorous measures, in cases where either natural or public law is violated, has...
-Purgatives
Purgatives, or Purging Medicines, are such as evacuate the crudities of the bowels by stool, and which are sometimes called Cathartics. Purgatives constitute one of the most important branches in t...
-Purslane
Purslane, the Common, or Portulaca oleracea, L. is a tender exoticplant, which is annually raised either on a hot-bed, or warm border, for culinary purposes : it is propagated from seed, and forms an ...
-Putrefaction
Putrefaction, is one of the natural processes, by which all organized bodies are dissolved, and reduced into what may be termed their original elements. The bodies, most liable to putrefaction, are...
-Pyrmont-Water
Pyrmont-Water, a celebrated mineral spring, discovered at Pyrmont, in the Circle of Westphalia. It is of an agreeable, though strongly acidulated taste, and emits a large portion of gas; which affects...
-Quackery
Quackery, or Empiricism, a term of extensive signification; as it relates to all those who pretend to medical knowledge and skill in the exercise of the healing art; though they aft upon mere principl...
-Quack-Medicines
Quack - Medicines, are those preparations of drugs, sold in the shops under the stamp-act whence they pay a certain duty to Government, from which the medicines given by regular practitioners, are who...
-Quail
Quail, the Common, or Tetrao coturnix, L. a bird of passage, frequenting various parts of Europe, and appearing in Britain in the spring, whence some of these wild-fowl depart in autumn, while others ...
-Quaking-Grass
Quaking-Grass, or Briza, L. a genus of plants, consisting of seven species, three of which are indigenous; and the principal of these is the media, Common Quaking-grass, Middle Quake-grass, Cow-quakes...
-Quarter-Evil
Quarter-Evil, a disorder which chiefly affects calves, and other young cattle : in Staffordshire, it is termed the irons; in Leicestershire, black-legs ; and in Shropshire, it is called stricken. T...
-Quassia
Quassia, or Quassia, L. a genus of trees, consisting of three species, the principal of which is the amara, or Bitter Quassia ; a native of the West Indies and of South America. The root, wo...
-Quay
Quay, a large wharf, or artificial bank, on a sea or river, and which is destined to facilitate the loading or unloading of merchandize from vessels. The utility of commodious quays to a commercial...
-Quicken-Tree
Quicken-Tree, Mountain-Ash, or Roan-tree, Sorbus aucu-paria, L. (Pyrus aucuparia of Dr. Smith), an indigenous shrub growing in woods and hedges: in mountainous and buggy situations ; principally in Wa...
-Quills
Quills, are the large feathers plucked from the end of the wings of geese, crows, etc. They are termed first, seconds, and thirds, from the order in which they grow in the wing: the two last, however,...
-Quince-Tree
Quince-Tree, the Pyrus Cydonia of Linnaeus, but which is considered by Miller, and other botanists, as a distinct genus of fruit-trees, under the name of Cydonia; and consists, according to them, of t...
-Quinsy
Quinsy, or Sore-Throat, is an inflammation of the internal parts of the mouth, throat, and windpipe, attended with fever. As this frequent affection is divided into several species, each of which r...
-Quittor-Bone
Quittor-Bone, in farriery, a malignant tumor which is attended with great pain, inflammation, and a considerable swelling around its basis. It is generally occasioned by long-neglected Punctures (whic...
-Rabbit
Rabbit, the Common, or Le-pus cuniculus, L. a well-known .animal resembling a hare ; though it is smaller, has shorter hind-legs, and its ears are thinly covered with hair: it was originally introduce...
-Radish
Radish, or Raphanus, L. a genus of plants comprehending eight species, of which the following are the principal: 1. The Raphanistrum, White-flowered or Jointed Charlock, or Wild Radish, an indigen...
-Rag-Stone
Rag-Stone, a genus of siliceous fossils, discovered in various parts of Britain. It is of a greyish colour ; contains a large proportion of particles resembling talc; and splits easily into thin scale...
-Ragwort
Ragwort, the Common, Groundsel, Sbggram, or St. James's Wort ; Senecio Jacobaca, L. a native perennial plant, growing in meadows, pastures, and on road-sides; and flowering from July to August. Whe...
-Rail
Rail, or Rallus, L, a genus of birds, comprising twenty-four species, of which the following are the principal : 1. The crex, or Land-Rail, a bird of passage, which appears in Britain in the spring...
-Rails
Rails, are pieces of timber, placed on stair-cases, and also on balusters, both as a support, and to prevent accidents. They also denote those pieces of wood which are fixed within pales, in order to ...
-Rain
Rain - a well-known meteor, which descends from the clouds in drops of water. Various conjectures have been formed by natural philosophers, to account for the origin of rain : it appears, however, ...
-Raisins
Raisins are grapes which have been suffered to remain on the vine, till they have attained to maturity ; when they are either dried in ah oven, or the fruit being tied together in clusters, and dipped...
-Ram
Ram, the male of a sheep. As we propose to treat of the proper management of Sheep, in that article, we shall at present only state the general marks that should characterize the appear...
-Rape
Rape, or Coleseed, Brassica Napus, L. a valuable indigenous plant, of the uses of which we have already given a concise account, vol. i. p. 413 : - we shall, therefore, add a few particulars relative ...
-Raspberry
Raspberry, the Common, BrambLe, Framboise Hind-Berry, or RasPis ; Rubus Idaeus, L. an indigenous plant growing in clamp woods and hedges; in thickets, and gravelly places near rivulets : it flowers ...
-Rat
Rat, or Mus, L. a genus of quadrupeds, comprising 60 spe-cies, of which the following are the principal: 1. The decumanus, Brown or Water Rat, which is a native of the East Indies; whence it has, w...
-Rat-Tails
Rat-Tails, in farriery, denote certain excrescences that gradually extend from the pastern to the middle of a horse's shanks ; and which are thus denominated, from the resemblance they bear to the tai...
-Ratafia
Ratafia, a species of liqueur prepared by imparting to ardent spirit the flavour of various kinds of fruit, especially that of cherr ies : there are different sorts of this compound, known under the n...
-Rattle-Snake-Root
Rattle-Snake-Root, or Poly gala Senega, L. is a native of North America, whence it has been introduced into Britain. It is propagated by planting the roots in beds of light rich earth, and sheltering...
-Raven
Raven, or Corvus corax, L. a well-known British bird, about two feet in length, and weighing in general three pounds : it much resembles a crow, but is of a blacker colour, finely glossed with a rich...
-Ray-Fish
Ray-Fish, or Raja, L. a genus of the finny tribe, subsisting on muscles, small fish, etc. comprising nine species, of which the following: are the most remarkable. 1. The batis. See Skate....
-Razor
Razor, an instrument employed for the purpose of removing the hair from the human beard or head. As shaving is to many persons a painful operation, cutlers have ap-plied all their skill and ingen...
-Reading
Reading, is the art of deliver-ing written language, with precision, energy, and a proper adapta-tion of voice: This art is one of the most pleas-ing in domestic or civilized life ; yet - there are...
-Reaping
Reaping, the operation of cutting corn, whether by the sickle, or by the scythe. The most common practice of reaping is with sickles ; though, where the scythe can be conveniently employed, it is c...
-Receipt
Receipt, in Commerce, is an acquittance or discharge in writing ; the purport of which is, that the party has received a certain sum of money, either in full for the whole of a debt, in part, or on ac...
-Red
Red, is one of the simple or primary colours, into which the rays of light divide themselves, on being refracted through a prism. The principal reds employed in painting are, carmine, rose-pink, re...
-Red-Breast
Red-Breast, or Robin-Red-Breast, Motacilla rubecula, L. a little bird, the body of which is of a greenish ash colour; and the forehead, throat, neck, and breast, are marked with a rufous orange shade....
-Reddle
Reddle, Raddle, or Rud-dlE, a species of marle, found in various parts of Britain, particularly in the counties of Stafford and Derby. This mineral is of a deep-red colour; and, on being handled, ...
-Reed
Reed, or Arundo, L. a genus of plants, comprising ten species ; five being natives of Britain ; of which the following are the principal, namely : 1. The arenaria (Calamagrostis arenaria of...
-Rennet
Rennet, or Runnet, properly denotes the coagulated milky substance which is found in the stomachs of calves, that have received no other nourishment than the maternal milk. It is, however, generally a...
-Reservoir
Reservoir, a place artificially constructed for the collection and retention of water, in order that it may be conveyed to distant places, by means of pipes. Reservoirs are at present chiefly emplo...
-Resin
Resin, a viscid, tenacious juice, which either exudes naturally, or is obtained by incision, from different trees, and shrubs, such as the pine, fir, etc.it is some what trans-parent hard and brittle...
-Rest-Harrow
Rest-Harrow, the Thor ny, Cammock, Petty-Whin, or Ground-Furze; Ononis spinosa, L. (the arvensis of Dr. Smith) an indigenous perennial plant; growing on barren pastures, hedge-banks, and paths ; it fl...
-Revenge
Revenge, is one of the most detestable passions that torment the human breast, and which consists in a vindictive desire of avenging real or imaginary wrongs. It widely differs from the transient or s...
-Rheumatism
Rheumatism, a painful disease which principally affects the muscular parts, and larger joints of the body, in the direction of the muscles; such as the shoulder, hip, knees, etc. - If attended with fe...
-Rhodium
Rhodium, an odoriferous essential oil, obtained from the wood of a species of the Aspalathus, or African Broom ; and which has received its name from the Island Of Rhodes, whence it is said to be impo...
-Rhubarb
Rhubarb, or Rheum, L. a genus of exotic plants, comprising seven species, of which the following are the principal: 1. The rhaponticum, or Common Rhubarb, a native of Thrace and Syria, which has l...
-Ribs
Ribs (Costae), in the human frame, are certain long bones of a semicircular figure. There are twenty-four in number, namely, twelve on each side the twelve vertebrae of the back, or the spinal c...
-Rice
Rice; or Oryxa, a genus of plants consisting, according to LinnAEUS, of only one species, viz. the sativa, or Common Rice though later botanists enumerate three or four species each of which is div...
-Rickets
Rickets, a disease peculiar to infants from the age of nine months, to the third year; and which seldom continues till they attain to puberty. Its principal symptoms are, a large head, a prominent fo...
-Rickets in Sheep
Rickets, in Sheep, a disorder which occurs chiefly in the county of Huntingdon, whither it is by some farmers supposed to have been introduced from Holland. This malady is one of the most fatal tha...
-Ridges
Ridges, in agriculture, are long but narrow tracts of rising sod, that intervene between two furrows. Ploughing in ridges, is chiefly practised on wet lands ; in order that the water may discharge...
-Riding
Riding, in general, .signifies, the act of being carried along in any vehicle, or on the back of an animal. Riding is one of the most useful species of exercise, particularly to convalescents...
-Ring-Bone
Ring-Bone, in farriery, denotes a hard swelling on the lower end of the pastern, generally extending half way round the forepart of the horse's leg: it is thus termed, from its resemblance to a ring. ...
-Ring-Worm
Ring-Worm, or Tetter. (Herpes miliaris), an eruption on the face, which consists of numerous small pustules, that rise closely in contact with each other ; appearing generally in a circular form, and ...
-River
River, a current or stream of fresh water, which flows in a bed or channel, from its spring or source, and empties itself into the sea. Rivers form one of the chief or-naments of the globe : while ...
-Roach
Roach, or Cyprinus rutilus, L. a well-known British fish. found in ponds, and still, deep rivers: its body is broad, though thin; the back much elevated, and sharply ridged; the scales are large and d...
-Road
Road, an open way, or public thoroughfare, which forms a communication between two distant places. Roads being frequently disfigured, and otherwise injured by the deep ruts which are necessarily ma...
-Rocket
Rocket, or Brassica Eruca, L. an exotic species of the cabbage, which was formerly cultivated to a considerable extent in gardens. It is divided into two varieties, known under the name...
-Roe
Roe, in ichthyology, denotes the eggs or spawn of fish. The roes of male fishes are usually denominated soft roes, or melts; as those of females are known under the names of hard roes, or spawn....
-Roller
Roller, a well-known implement of agriculture, the cylinder or which consists either of stone, wood, or iron. The principal design of rolling land, is to render loose soils more compact; by which ...
-Rook
Rook, or Corvus frugilegus, L. a well-known British bird, differing but little in size or colour from the common Crow ; excepting in its whitish bill, which the former frequently thrusts into the grou...
-Room
Room, a chamber, parlour, or other apartment of a house. The principal object to be attained in tire arrangement of rooms, is, doubtless, conveniency, and their adaptation to health: hence the rect...
-Root
Root, in botany, denotes that part of a plant, which imbibes the nutritious juices from the earth, and conveys them to the stem, leaves, blossoms, and fruit. Botanists have divided roots into three...
-Root-Steamer
Root-Steamer, an useful machine, employed in America, for steaming potatoes, carrots, and other roots, with the view of feeding cattle ; and which, for the simplicity of its contrivance, and the facil...
-Rope
Rope, a continuation of several twists or strings of hemp, combined by means of a wheel, and in that state employed in various branches of naval, military, and civil architecture, as well as in rural ...
-St. Anthony's Fire
Rose, St. Anthony's Fire, or R0S or Erysipelas, is an inflammation and swelling of the skin, which disappear upon pressure, but suddenly return; being attended with an ardent fever, the principal symp...
-Rose
Rose, or Rosa, L. a genus of shrubs, consisting of 25, but, ac-cording to some botanists, of 90, species, of which the following are the principal, though the first five only are indigenous, namely:...
-Rose-Bay
Rose-Bay, or Nerium, L. a genus of exotic plants, consisting of tive species, the most remarkable of . which are the following, viz : 1. The Oleander, or South Sea Rose, a beautiful shrub, cultivat...
-Rosemary
Rosemary, or Rosmarinus officinalis, L. an exotic plant, consisting of two varieties 1. The angustifolio, or Narrow-leaved Rosemary; and, 2. The lalifolia, or Broad-leaved Rosemary. Both t...
-Rose-Wort
Rose-Wort, theYeLLow, or Rose-root, Rhodiola communis v. rosea, L. an indigenous plant, which grows on rocks, and in mountainous situations : it flowers in the months of June and July. The pere...
-Rot
Rot, a very fatal disorder,which exclusively affects sheep. It is known by the dullness of the animal's eyes ; the livid hue of the gums; foulness of the teeth ; the ill scent of the breath ; and the ...
-Rotten-Stone
Rotten-Stone, a fossil obtained from the mines of Derbyshire. : which is of an ash-brown colour, moderately hard, and stains. the ringers. It does not effervesce with aqua-fortis; but breaks easily in...
-Rouen
Rouen, or Row en, a term denoting the aftermath, or aftergrass of meadows, which is suffered to grow till the ensuing spring, when sheep and other cattle are admitted to depasture on such land. The pr...
-Rowel
Rowel, in farriery, signifies a kind of issue, artificially formed in horses, with a view to drain super-duous humours. Rowels are introduced into the abdomen, the inside of the thighs, the breast,...
-Ruby
Ruby, a genus of precious stones, which display a variety of shades, and are divided into four classes : namely, 1. The deep-red ruby, is found in various parts of the East Indies, and also in Bra...
-Rue
Rue, or ruta, L. a genus of exotic plants, comprising seven species, the principal of which is the graveolens, or Common broad-leaved Garden Bluc. it flower- in the month of June. This plant is, fo...
-Short Index for Vol. 3
Il-wort. See Whitlow-Grass the Common. Impatient. See Balsamine. Imposthume. See Abscess. Inclosures See Commons, Fence, And Hedge. Incubus. See Night-Mare. Indian Berry. See ...









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