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Domestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge Vol4 | by A. F. M. Willich



the Last Volume of the Domestic Encyclopedia in four volumes

TitleDomestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge Vol4
AuthorA. F. M. Willich
PublisherB. McMillan
Year1802
Copyright1802, B. McMillan
AmazonThe domestic encyclopaedia; or, A dictionary of facts, and useful knowledge: Comprehending a concise view of the latest discoveries, inventions, and improvements, ... numerous engravings and cuts in five volumes

Domestic Encyclopedia Or A Dictionary Of Facts, And Useful Knowledge: Comprehending A Concise View Of The Latest Discoveries, Inventions, And Improvements, Chiefly Applicable To Rural And Domestic Economy; Together With Descriptions Of The Most Interestlng Objects Of Nature And Art; The History Of Men And Animals, In A State Of Health Or Disease; And Practical Hints Respecting The Arts And Manufactures, Both Familiar And Commercial.

Illustrated With Numerous Engravings And Cuts.

In Four Volumes.

Volume Fourth.

By A. F. M. Willich, M. D.

Author Of The Lectures On Diet And Regimen, etc. etc.

London:

Printed For Murray And Highley, 32, Fleet-Street; Vernor And Hood, Poultry; G. Kearsley, Fleet-Street; H. D. Svmonds, And Thomas Hurst; Paternoster-Row ; And The Author.

MDCCCII

Printed by B. McMillan, Bow Street, Covent-Garden.

-Ruff
Ruff, or Tringa pugnax, L. a bird of passage, frequenting the fens of Lincolnshire, and various other parts of Britain, early in the spring; and disappearing about Michaelmas. Towards the latter en...
-Rum
Rum, a spirituous liquor which is distilled from sugar-canes. The best state in which rum can be imported or preserved, is that of rectified spirit ; as it may thus be conveyed in one half of its u...
-Rupture
Rupture, or a partial protrusion of an intestine, is one of those complaints which has lately become so general, especially among the labouring classes, as to induce benevolent persons in the British ...
-Rupture-Wort
Rupture-Wort, the Smooth, or Herniaria glabra, L. an indigenous perennial plant, which grows in gravelly soils, and flowers in the months of July and August. - This herb is. according to Dr. Withering...
-Rush
Rush, or Juncus, L. a genus of plants, comprising 36 species, of which, according to Dr. Withering 17, but in the opinion of Dr. Smith 19, are indigenous : of these, the following are the principal; v...
-Flowering Rush
Flowering Rush, or Water Gladiole, Butomus Umlellatus, L. a native perennial plant, growing in slow streams and muddy ditches ; flowering in the month of June or July. - This beautiful herb is a great...
-Hare's-Tail Rush
Hare's-Tail Rush, or Single-Headed Cotton-GrAss, Eriophorum raghiatum, L. a perennial plant, found in marshy heaths, on bogs and moors; principally in the northern counties of Britain. - The who...
-Rush-Grass
Rush-Grass, the Prickly, or LoNg-rooted, Schcenus Ma-riscus, L. a native plant, which grows in marshes, ponds, and bogs, where it flowers in themonths of July and August. - This species is inj...
-Rust
Rust, denotes the calces, or vulgarly the flowers of metals, which are generally produced by exposure to moist air, or in damp situations ; though the former may also be obtained artificially, by corr...
-Rust Rubigo
Rust, or Rubigo, in vegetable economy, is a disorder affecting certain plants. It consists of a ferruginous powder scattered beneath the leaves, principally of the Ladies-mantle, Stone-bramble, and Ra...
-Rye
Rye, or Secale, L. a genus of exotic plants, comprising live species, one of which only is raised in Britain, namely, the Cereale, or Common Rye. It was supposed by LinnAeus to be a native of the Isle...
-Saddle
Saddle, a kind of stuffed seat, fastened to the back of a horse for the convenience of the rider. Saddles are divided into various kinds, according to the purposes for which they are designed; ...
-Safflower
Safflower, or Bastard-Saffron, Carthamus, L. a genus of exotic plants, comprising ten species, the principal of which is the tinclorius, Common or Dyer's Safflower. It is a native of Egypt, and the wa...
-Saffron
Saffron, or Crocus, L. a genus of plants consisting of seven species, two of which are indigenous : namely, 1. The sativus v. officinalis, Common, or Autumnal Saffron, thrives in meadows and pastu...
-Sage
Sage, or Salvia, L. a genus of plants comprising 60 species ; of which the following are the principal, v z. 1. The Pratens is ; and, 2. The Verbenaca. See Clary. 3. The Officina...
-Sago
Sago, is the medullary substance obtained from a species of the Palm tree (Cycas circinalis, L) a native of the Molucca and other of the East Indies. It is used as bread by the natives, who used as br...
-Sail Cloth
Sail Cloth, a strong texture, made of hemp, for the purpose of supplying ships with sails. - Al-though considerable quantities of valuable article are annually manufactured in Britain, yet a...
-Saintfoin
Saintfoin, the Common or Cock's head, Hedysarum Ono-brychis, L. a, native perennial, plant, which grows in meadows and pastures, on chalky soils, where it flowers in the months ...
-Salad
Salad, in general, signifies a, dish of raw or fresh esculent herbs, which are usually seasoned with salt, vinegar, oil, and mustard; to these condiments are sometimes added hard-boiled eggs, sugar, p...
-Salep
Salep, a nutritious preparation obtained from two species of the Orchis. Different methods have been proposed and adopted, with a view to procure this nourishing substance; but the most simple is t...
-Saliva
Saliva, a term applied to the fluid, with which the mouth and continually moistened: it is secreted by the salival glands. This humour is thin and transparent; it cannot be reduced to a concrete f...
-Sallow
Sallow, or Withen, Salix caprcata, L. is an indigenous species of the willow, which, though it will vegetate in damp situations, requires a drier ground than any other of that genus. In a good soil, i...
-Salmon
Salmon, or Salmon L. a ge-nus of fish comprising twenty-nine species, of which the following are the principal, viz. 1. The fario. See Trout. 2. The alpinus. See Charr. 3. ...
-Salt
Salt is one of the component parts of animal, vegetable, and mineral bodies. It may be distinguished from other matters, such as earths, by its solubility in less than 200 times its weight of boiling ...
-Saltpetre
Saltpetre, or Nitre, a concrete saline matter, the nature and properties of which have al-y been stated, vol. iii. p. 268. - Without entering into the particulars relative to the most economical metho...
-Saltwort
Saltwort, or Glasswort, Salsola, L. a genus of plants comprising nine species, of which two are indigenous : namely, 1. The kali, Prickly Saltwort, or Kelpwort, grows frequently on sandy sea-shore...
-Rock Samphire
Rock Samphire, Crilhmum Maritimum, L. a perennial plant, growing on the British Sea-coasts; among gravel and rocks, where it flowers in the month of August. - This vegetable is much relished as a pick...
-Sand
Sand, a genus of fossils, consisting of small grains of silici stones, which are insoluble both in water and acids; being t rent, and vitrifiable by intense heat. They are mixed with various matters, ...
-Sand-Eel
Sand-Eel, or Ammodytes to-bianus, L. a fish, resembling an eel, but seldom exceeding one foot in length. It abounds on the sandy shores of Britain during the summer months, where it conceals itself, a...
-Sand-Piper
Sand-Piper, or Tringa, L. a genus of birds, comprising 45 species, 18 of which are natives of Britain : the principal of these are, 1. The pugnax. See Ruff. 2. The alpina, or Dunling...
-Sand-Stone
Sand-Stone, a genus of fossils found in various parts of Britain, and which is divided into four species, namely : 1. Calcareous Sandstones, which consist of carbonate of lime and marle, with a co...
-Sandwort
Sandwort, or Armaria, L. a genus of plants, comprising 43 species, 7 of which, according to Dr. Withering, but with Dr. Smith 10, are indigenous : the principal of these is (he marina, or Sea-spurrey ...
-Sandal
Sandal, or Sanders the Red, Pterocarpus santalinus, L. a tree which is a native of the East Indies, whence its wood is imported into Britain, in the form of large billets. The best kind is externally ...
-Sandarach
Sandarach, a gummy-resinous substance, exuding from an exotic species of the juniper-tree. It is imported in the form of small pieces or tears resembling pease, which are transparent; of a paleyellowi...
-Sanders
Sanders, the Yellow, or White, Santalum album, L. a native of the East Indies, whence its wood is imported. It is of a pale-yellowish colour, a pleasant smell, has a bitterish aromatic taste, accompan...
-Sandiver
Sandiver, or Salt-Of-Glass, is a species of whitish salt, that is separated from the surface of glass, while in a state of fusion. It is of a pungent, corrosive taste, and is employed by farriers for ...
-Sap
Sap, in botany, denotes the juice of plants, which is prepared by the moisture absorbed by their roots and leaves, whence it is circulated throughout every part, so as to constitute their nourishment....
-Sarsaparilla
Sarsaparilla, or Smilax Sarsaparilla, L. is a native of the West Indies, whence its medicinal root is obtained. This drug has a glutinous, somewhat bitter, and agreeable taste, but is totally devoi...
-Sassafras
Sassafras, is the wood, bark and root of the Sassafras tree, or us Sassafras, L. a native of America, the culture and properties of which we have already described, vol. i. p. 200. It is imported in l...
-Satyrion
Satyrionion, or Lizard-flower, Satyrium hircnum, L. a native perennial plant, growing in chalky meadows and pastures ; flowering in the months of June and July. - Its leaves are very large, and the wh...
-Sausage
Sausage, a well-known preparation of food, consisting of beef, pork, or veal, cut in small nitseasoned with pepper, sage, or other spice ; and then closely stuffed into skins obtained from the intesti...
-Savin
Savin, or Juniperus Sabina, L. an exotic evergreen shrub, which has small, rather prickly leaves, and produces blueberries, only after it has arrived at a considerable age. Its stem attains the. heigh...
-Savory
Savory, or Satureia, L. a genus of exotic plants, consisting of nine species, of which the following are the principal, namely : 1. The hortensis, or Summer Savory, an annual herb, propagated fro...
-Saw-Dust
Saw-Dust, is the coarse powder remaining after any wood or timber has been separated or tut asunder with a saw. It is frequently employed as a substitute for sand, and strewed on the floors of publ...
-Saw-Wort
Saw-Wort, or Serratula, L. a genus of plants, comprising 18 species; two of which only, according to Dr. Smith, are indigenous ; namely : 1. The thicioria, or Common Saw-wort, is perennial; grows i...
-Saxifrage
Saxifrage, the Common, or White, Soaifraga granulala, L. an indigenous plant, growing on dry meadows and pastures, where it flowers in the month of April or May. Its perennial root consists of several...
-Scab
Scab, or Shab, a disorder per culiar to sheep : it is attended with an intense itching and scabby eruptions on the skin, occasioned by an impure state of the blood ; and being most prevalent in wet la...
-Scabious
Scabious, or Scabiosa, L. a genus of plants comprising 42 species, 3 of which are indigenous and perennial, namely: 1. The succisa, or Devil's-bit Scabious, grows in fields and pastures, where it...
-Scalds
Scalds, a term applied to burns, occasioned by boiling water, or any of the corrosive mineral acids improvidently applied to the skin. Different modes of treatment have been adopted, in order to mi...
-Scald-Head
Scald-Head, or Tinea capitis, a disease chiefly incident to dren, born of scrophulous parents : it is infectious only by contact, and appears to be seated in the roots of the hair, which protrude nume...
-Scammony
Scammony, a concrete gummy-resinous juice obtained from the roots of the Convolvulus Scam-mionia, or Syrian Bindweed, an exotic plant, growing in Asiatic Turkey. - The best Scammony is imported from A...
-Scarlet Fever
Scarlet Fever, is a contagious inflammatory disease, attended with a bright-red efflorescence of the skin, which appears on the third or fourth day, with a slight swelling of the face : the redness gr...
-Scirrhus
Scirrhus is a hard, unequal tumor, which occasionally appears in different viscera, such as the liver and womb, but more fre-quently in the grandular parts, for instance, the...
-Scorzonera
Scorzonera, the Common, or Scorzonera Hispanica, L. an exotic plant, which has long been raised in British us for culinary purposes, and especially as an ingredient in soups, on account of...
-Scratches
Scratches, a distemper in the heels of horses. Under the article Grease (vol. ii. p, 400), we have already stated the method which is generally pursued in the treatment of this disorder : we shall ...
-Scrophula
Scrophula, or Evil, is a swelling of the conglobate glands, particularly about the neck and ears ; though sometimes extending to the arm-pit and the groin. In its progress, the joints and bones arc li...
-Scull
Scull, is a conjunction of bones, eight in number, surrounded by a membrane called the pericranium, and forming a cavity for the brain ; which is thus completely inclosed and defended. - In an infanti...
-Scull-Cap
Scull-Cap, the Common, or Blue, or Hooded Willow-herb, Scutellaria galericulata, L. a native perennial plant, gowing on the banks of rivers, and the borders of ponds; flowering in the month of July or...
-Scurvy
Scurvy, or Scorbulus, denotes a putrescent, or rather dissolvent, state of the blood. This term is often misapplied to a variety of eruptive complaints, which have no specific names. The scurvy has...
-Scurvy-Grass
Scurvy-Grass, or Cock-learia, L. genus of plants comprising eight species, five of which are indigenous ; and the principal of these are : 1. The Armoracia, See Horseradish. 2. The off...
-Scythe
Scythe, or Sithe, an implement of husbandry employed for the purpose of cutting grass, and also for the mowing of corn. Before we attempt a description of the latest improvements on this rural inst...
-Sea
Sea, strictly speaking, signifies a large body of water, which is connected with the ocean, and partly encompassed by land ; such are the Baltic, and Mediterranean Seas : though the term sea is, also,...
-Sea-Air
Sea-Air, denotes that part of the atmosphere, which is incumbent on the sea. Experience evinces, that this air is salubrious, and singularly beneficial in the cure of particular diseases ...
-Sea-Sickness
Sea-Sickness, a convulsive affection of the stomach, attended with great nausea and vomiting: it is occasioned by the irregular motion of the vessel. The sea-sickness, generally a tacks persons una...
-Sea-Sludge
Sea-Sludge, or Salt-clod, is the surface, or that part of a saline marsh, which is deposited by the high tides. It is much richer, and less intermixed with sand, than the land which is more regularly ...
-Sea-Water
Sea-Water, denotes the saltwater of the ocean. The salts which this fluid contains, are, 1. Common marine, or culinary salt, compounded of fossil alkali, or Soda, and marine acid ; 2. Salited magne...
-Sea-Wolf
Sea-Wolf, or Anarrhicas Lupus, L. a voracious fish that creeps in the manner of eels, and in the spring frequents the shores of Greenland, Iceland, and Norway, as likewise the coasts of Yorkshire and ...
-Sea-Wrack
Sea-Wrack, or Fucus, L. a genus of vegetables, comprehending 14.5 species, 85 of which grow on the British coasts : of these we shall state the following as the principal : I. The serratus, or SerR...
-Seal
Seal, the Common, or Sea-calf, Phoca vitulina, L. an animal inhabiting the rocky shores of Britain and Ireland, as well as the coasts of Caernarvonshire and Anglesey, in Wales. Seals have a smooth ...
-Sealing-Wax
Sealing-Wax, is a composition of gum-lac, melted and incorporated with resins, and afterwards coloured with some pigment, such as vermillion, verditer, ivory-black, etc. There are two ...
-Sedlitz
Sedlitz, or Seydschutz-Water, is obtained from two mineral springs rising near a village of that name, in Bohemia. It has a very saline, bitter taste ; and when used, is strongly laxative, but does no...
-Self-Heal
Self-Heal, the Common, or Prunella vulgaris, L. a native perennial plant, growing in meadows and pastures; bearing purplish flowers in the month of August. - It possesses an austere taste; and, though...
-Seltzer-Water
Seltzer-Water, one of the most salubrious mineral fluids, is obtained from the springs, which rise in the vicinity of Nieder-Selters, in the Archbishopric of Triers ; whence it is imported in stone-bo...
-Semolina
Semolina, a nutritious preparation, consisting of granulated wheat. In 1780, a patent was granted to Mr. Jacob LEvy, for a method of making Semolina, which hith imported from Poland, where it is ca...
-Senega
Senega, a gum obtained from the Mimosa nilotica, L. and. which greatly resembles that of arabic;-possesses similar properties, while-it is much cheaper ; and is imported from Senegal, and the coast of...
-Senna
Senna, or Cassia senna, L. an exotic shrub cultivated in Persia, Syria; and Arabia, whence its dried leaves are imported. They are of a yellowish-green colour, have a faint, though not unpleasant smel...
-Serpent
Serpent, an appellation given to an order of reptiles comprising, among other kinds, the Viper and Snake. Consistently with our plan, we cannot enter into any disquisition respecting the real or su...
-Serradilla
Serradilla, or Common Bird's-foot (see vol. i. p. 266), a valuable plant, which thrives much better than saintfoin, or any other grass, on poor sandy soils : it is propagated by drilling the see...
-Service-Tree
Service-Tree, or Sorbus, L. a genus of native trees, consisting of three species, namely : l.The aucuparia. See QuiCKEn-tkee. 2. The domestica, (Pyrus domes-tlca of Dr. Smith) or True Service-tree,...
-Shad
Shad, or Clupea alosa, L. a well-known fish, inhabiting the rivers Thames, Severn, and Wye : it commonly weighs from 5 to 8 lbs. - It has a forked snout, and the body is marked with black spots. In...
-Shagreen
Shagreen, or Chagreen, is a kind of rough. leather, pre- -i from the skin of the spotted Shark, . For this purpose, the skin of the fish is first stripped, then extended on a table, and cover...
-Shale
Shale is a black, slaty substance, or a species of clay concreted into a stony consistence, and impregnated with a considerable quantity of bituminous matter. It is of various degrees of hardness, but...
-Shark
Shark, or Squalus, L. genus of fish, comprehending 32 species, of which the following are the most remarkable : 1. The Canicula, Spotted Shark, or Dog-fish, inhabits almost every sea, and grows to ...
-Shaving
Shaving is the aft of removing the hair from the beard, by means of a razor. This operation greatly contributes to cleanliness ; and though, from peculiar Circumstances, a person be prevented from ...
-Shawl
Shawl, a species of fine woollen handkerchief, which forms a principal article of female luxury. The finest shawls are Imported from the East Indies, where they are highly esteemed, and cost from f...
-Sheep
Sheep, or Ovis, a genus of quadrupeds consisting, according to LiNNAEus, of three species; though later naturalists admit only one, and consider the others as varieties. The principal is the aries, or...
-Sheep's-Bit
Sheep's-Bit, or Hairy Sheep's-Scabious, Jasione Montana, L. an indigenous annual plant, growing in meadows, pastures, and heaths, in dry and sandy tions ; where it blows in June and July. - its blue f...
-Shepherd's Purse
Shepherd's Purse, the Common, or Shepherd's Pouch, Thlaspi Bursa pastoris, L. a native plant, growing; among rubbish, on road-sides, walls, in corn-fields, and gravelly walks ; flowering from March to...
-Shingles
Shingles, a disorder of the erysipelatous kind (see Rose), in which numerous pimples of a livid hue, arise in different parts of the trunk, but principally around the waist of the body ; whence it is ...
-Shirt
Shirt, a loose garment, generally worn next the skin. The material of which shirts, are usually made, is linen, though FLANNEL is doubtless a more natural and salubrious covering for the body, on a...
-Shoad-Stone
Shoad-Stone, a term applied to certain loose masses of a fossil, which is generally found at the entrance of mines. Shoad-stones serve as useful guides to miners, in digging for ores; because, if t...
-Shoe
Shoe, a well-known article of dress, which serves to cover the feet. Shoes are generally made of leather, the texture of which ought not only to be sufficiently close, to exclude moisture, but also...
-Shot
Shot, a general name given to small and large balls, employed in fire-arms, but especially to those of a diminutive size. Shot is made either of iron, or of lead : the former metal is chiefly used ...
-Shoulder
Shoulder, is the joint which connects the arm with the body. The principal affection of this limb is LUXATION, or dislocation (see vol.iii.p. 136). when the head of the upper arm-bone is forced from -...
-Shrimp
Shrimp, the Larger, or Can-cer crangon, L. a diminutive shellfish, provided with long slender feelers', and several claws, to which moveable fangs are attached : it has three pair of legs, and seven j...
-Shrub
Shrub, in botany, a term denoting a low tree, of a diminutive size; or, a plant abounding with branches ; and, instead of one single trunk, shooting forth several sets or stems from the parent-root. S...
-Shrub Liquor
Shrub Liquor, a compound liquor, made of ardent spirits, orange-juice, and sugar. Though we do not profess to be acquainted with the exact proportion of the ingredients employed by shrub-drinkers, ...
-Sight
Sight, is the exercise of the sense of vision. This faculty is one of the most important enjoyed by organized beings ; as they are thus enabled to behold the beauties of Nature, and to avoid such obje...
-Silk
Silk, a fibrous production, partaking both of animal and vegetable nature : it is spontaneously drawn spun by the insect, which will be the object of the next article. In this place, therefore, we sha...
-Silk-Worm
Silk-Worm, or Phalaena Bombyx Mori, a native of China, where it propagates on the mulberry-tree, the leaves of which serve as its only natural food. From the labours of this valuable in...
-Silver
Silver, one of the whitest of the perfect metals, is found in various parts of the globe, both in a native state, and alloyed with other ores. The purest silver is imported by the Spaniards, from P...
-Silver-Weed
Silver-Weed, Wild Tan-sey, or Goose-grass, Potentilla Anserina, L. a British perennial plant, growing on the sides of paths and roads, and in low pastures ; flowering in June and July. - Gunner observ...
-Simarouba
Simarouba, or Quassia Simaroula, L. an exotic tree growing in Guiana, and also in Jamaica, where it attains a considerable height and thickness. - Its bark is used in medicine, and is imported in long...
-Sinapism
Sinapism, signifies an external application, in the form of a soft plaster, or poultice, for the same purposes as a Blister, to which we refer. The most usual si: is composed of equal pa...
-Siskin
Siskin, or Fringilla spinius, L. a beautiful bird of passage, which frequents Britain at uncertain periods. Its wings are spotted with yellow, being black at the points. - It is found most frequently ...
-Size
Size, a viscid preparation, consisting of the shreds and parings of parchment, leather, or vellum, boiled in water ; after which they are strained. It is employed by various artisans, but principally ...
-Skate
Skate, or Raja latis, L. a vo racious fish, caught chiefly in the Vistula, and, we believe, also in the Baltic and North Seas : it generally measures 16 feet in th, and is upwards of 2 fee...
-Skating
Skating, a species of exercise upon the ice, performed by means of skates, or wooden soles shod with iron, resembling in shape the keel of a ship : the whole is fastened to the feet, by means of strap...
-Skin
Skin, signifies the general covering of animal bodies. Of all the different integuments, bestowed by Nature on organized creatures, that of mankind is doubt-most admirable : it con-- of three strat...
-Skin Hide
Skin, in commerce, denotes the hide, or pelt, which is stripped, off the bodies of animals, in order to be prepared by the tanner, skinner, parchment-maker, or other artisan, and converted into leathe...
-Skirret
Skirret, the Common, or Sium Sisarum, L. an exotic plant, which is frequently cultivated in British gardens, on account of its utility for culinary purposes, it is propagated from the seeds obtained i...
-Slate
Slate, a fossil, consisting of a compact stone, that may be split into thin plates. There are several varieties of this mineral, chiefly distinguished by their colour, which is in general grey, int...
-Slaters
Slaters, Millepes, or Wood-Louse., Oniscus asellus, 1 . an insect which is generally found in cellars, beneath stones, and in cold humid places. It is of an oval form; of different colours ; and se...
-Slaughtering Of Cattle
Slaughtering Of Cattle, a term used to denote the killing of calves, oxen, or other horned cattle. The instrument at present generally employed for this purpose, is a common axe; by which the anima...
-Sleep
Sleep, is that condition of the body, in which the senses are not ted or affected by external ob-; while the functions of life are regularly performed, though not with the same energy or celebrity, as...
-Sleep Of Plants
Sleep Of Plants, is a certain faculty, peculiar to etc. of assuming, during position essentially from that which takes place principally towards the approach of night, in flowers ; ...
-Sleeping
Sleeping, is that state of the body, in which the animal functions are suspended. The proper duration of sleep must be regulated, according to the different constitutions and ages of individuals. T...
-Sleep-Walking
Sleep-Walking, or Somnambulism remarkable disorder, proceeding from an inflamed or disturbed imagination ; and in which the patient's eyes are widely open; though he can discern no object: at the same...
-Sloe-Tree
Sloe-Tree, Black-Thorn, Or Scrogos, Prunus spinosa, L. an indigenous shrub, growing wild ges, and woods; flowering; in the months of March and April. It gener s the height o from 10 ...
-Slug
Slug, or Naked Snail, Li-max, L. a genus of insects, comprehending eight species; which differ only in colour; being black, white, reddish, ash-coloured, etc. These reptiles are destitute of...
-Small-Pox
Small-Pox is a contagious eruption, attended with inflammatory fever. The patient complains ofhead-ach; nausea, and vomiting; heat beat and cold; respiration is difficult, and the breath fluid. Genera...
-Smalt
Smalt, a species of glass of a dark-blue colour; and which, on levigating it, assumes a beautiful shade; resisting the action of air and fire : hence, if it could be rendered sufficiently fine, it wo...
-Smelling
Smelling, one of the external senses is that faculty by which are enabled to distinguish the odour of different substances. It is exercised by means of papillae, or little warts of the olfactory nerve...
-Smelt
Smelt, or Salmo eperlanus, L. a fish of a beautiful form and colour ; its head is transparent, and skin, in general, so thin that, with a good microscope, the circulation of the blood maybe distinctly...
-Smoke
Smoke, a dense, elastic fume, which is exhaled from burning coals, wood, and other substances. Smoke being not only disagreeable to the senses, hut also frequently detrimental to health ; in genious m...
-Smoking
Smoking, a practice of consuming tobacco, by which the cut leaves of this drug, being previously put into a pipe, are kindled; and the fume or smoke, after being inhaled, is discharged through the mou...
-Food Smoking
Food Smoking, in domestic economy, is a mode of preserving such as hams, bacon, geese, etc. by previously salting, and then exposing them to the smoke arising from a wood-lire. For this purpose, the c...
-Smut
Smut, a disease affecting almost every species of corn, the grains of which become filled with a fetid black powder, instead of containing farinaceous matter. Having already stated (vol. i. pp. I70...
-Snail
Snail, or Helix, L. a genus of testaceous insects, comprising sixty species, of which the following are the most remarkable, viz. 1. The hortensis, or Common Garden Snail, abounds in this Country. ...
-Snake
Snake, the Common, or co-Inter matrix, L. a native reptile, which is often found in bushy places, and in banks, near waters. It is from two to three, and in the south of Europe, often ten f...
-Snake-Weed
Snake-Weed or Polygonum, L. a genus of plants comprehending thirty-three species, ten of which are natives of Britain : the following are the principal, namely : 1. The Hydropiper. See WA...
-Snap-Dragon
Snap-Dragon, or Antirrhinum, L. a genus of plants consist-ing of fifty-three species, eleven of which are indigenous : the following are the principal : 1. The Elatine, or Sharp-pointed Toad-flax...
-Sneeze-Wort-Yarrow
Sneeze-Wort-Yarrow, Bastard Pellitory or Goose-tongue, Achillaea Ptarmica, L. a native perennial plant, growing in moist meadows and shady places; flowering in July and August. - It is eaten by horses...
-Sneezing
Sneezing, a convulsive motion of the muscles of the breast, which is caused by the irritation of the membrane lining the nose ; by acrid, pungent matters floating in the air; or by certain drugs denom...
-Snow
Snow, a meteor, which is formed by the congelation, or zing, of vapours in the atmosphere. Snow differs in no other respect from rain, but that it is frozen in its descent to the ear...
-Snow-Drop
Snow-Drop, the Common, or Fair-Maids-of-February, L. a native perennial plant, growing in orcha meadows, and the sides of hedg flowering in February and March. The snow-drop pr...
-Snuff
Snuff, a well-known preparation, the basis of which is tobacco, reduced to powder ; other matters being incorporated, with a view to impart a degree of pungency and peculiar odour. It would be an e...
-Soal
Soal, or Sole, Pleuronecle solea, I, a fish that abounds on the British coasts, and is of various siizes; those taken on the western shores Weighing from six. to seven pounds each ; while such ...
-Soap
Soap, a composition of fixed alkaline salt, in a state, of combination with animal or vegetable oil: it is sometimes dry and hard, at ethers soft and liquid ; being ma-nufactured in various ways, with...
-Soap-Earth
Soap-Earth, or Steatites, L. a species of fossil, which abounds in Devonshire, Cornwall, and the islands in the vicinity of the Lizard Point. It is generally of a white, or grey colour, intermixed ...
-Soap-Wort
Soap-Wort, the Common, or Bruiskwort, Saponaria officinalis, L. a native perennial, growing in meadows and hedges; flowering in July and August. - The leaves possess a disagreeable bitter taste : if b...
-Soda
Soda, Fossil, or Mineral Alkali, a peculiar salt, which is found native in various parts of the world; but, as the quantity thus obtained, is inadequate to its extensive consumption, various methods h...
-Meadow Soft-Grass
Meadow Soft-Grass, the Meadow, or Holcus Lanatus, L. a native perennial, growing in meadows and pastures, particularly in moist, light situations: it flowers in months of June and July. This grass, th...
-Soil
Soil, signifies the ground or mould, in which vegetables grow; and which serves as a reservoir for receiving and dispensing their nutriment. Having already, -under the articles Arable Land ; Land ;...
-Sweet-Smelling Solomon's Seal
Sweet-Smelling Solomon's Seal, or Convallaria Polygonatum, L. a native perennial, which grows in mountainous woods, and the fissures of rocks, principally in the county of York : it flowers in the mon...
-Common Solomon's Seal
Common Solomon's Seal, or Convallaria multiflora, L. is also perennial; grows in woods and thickets : and flowers in May or June. This plant is eaten by cows, goats, and sheep; it possesses the proper...
-Sorrel
Sorrel, the Common, or Sorrel-Dock, Rumex Acetosus, L. a native perennial, growing in meadows and pastures, where it flowers in the month of June. - This vegetable is eaten by horses, cows, goa...
-Soup
Soup, a strong decoction of beef, veal, or other animal substances ; and which is generally seasoned with aromatic vegetables, pepper, or similar heating spices. Soups form a principal article at t...
-Sow-Bread
Sow-Bread, or Cyclamen Europium, L. an exotic plant, sometimes cultivated in the gardens of the curious. There are five species of this diminutive herb, each of which produces several varieties; all b...
-Sow-Thistle
Sow-Thistle, or Sonchus, L. a genus of plants forming 13 species, four of which are indigenous : the principal are the following: 1. The oleraceus, or Common Sow-thistle, grows on cultivated groun...
-Sowing
Sowing, is the act of committing the seed of vegetables to the earth, in order to obtain a future crop. This operation is performed either in the Broad-cast method, or by Drilling : but, having alr...
-Soy
Soy, or Soeju, a species of liquid condiment, which is imported from India, and is used as a sauce for fish. It is prepared from the leguminous fruit of the Soja (Dolichos soja, L.) a native of Japan....
-Spa-Water
Spa-Water, a chalybeate mineral fluid, which arises from numerous springs, and particularly from that of Pouhon, in the vicinity of Spa, in Flanders. This liquid, when first drunk, possesses the re...
-Spade
Spade, a well-known implement, which is principally employed in horticulture. The lit, or blade of this tool, is composed wholly of iron, being about 8 or 9 inches broad, and a foot in length : the...
-Spaniel
Spaniel, or Canis avicularius, a valuable species of the dog-kind, which is supposed to have been originally bred in Spain. Spaniels are divided into three varieties, namely, 1. Starters, or Pointe...
-Ponderous Spar
Ponderous Spar, Barytes; or heavy earth, a name given to a fossil naturally combined with the sulphuric or carbonic acids, and found in different parts of England, particularly in the counties of York...
-Sparrow
Sparrow, the Common, or Domestic, Fringilla domestica L. a well-known bird, which abounds, in Britain, particularly in the vicinity of villages and towns. Sparrows construct their nest beneath the ...
-Spasm
Spasm, an irregular and involuntary contraction of the muscles, generally accompanied with painful sensations : this complaint has, of late years, made such rapid and formidable progress, especially a...
-Spatling-Poppy
Spatling-Poppy, White Pottle, or Bladder Campion, Cucubalus Behen, L. a native perennial, which grows in cornfields, dry meadows, and pastures : it flowers in July and August. - The leaves of this veg...
-Spearwort
Spearwort, the Great, or Ranunculus Lingua. L. an indigenous perennial, growing in wet pastures, and at the sides of lakes; it flowers in the months of June and July. - The stem of this poisonous plan...
-Specifics
Specifics, are medicinal drugs, or compounds, the virtue and effect of which are supposed to be peculiarly adapted to certain disorders : or they are said to be calculated to expel some hurtful humour...
-Spectacles
Spectacles, a well-known and useful optical contrivance, in order to aid the eyes of the aged, or young invalids of defective vision, by means of two appropriate lenses. Those used by short-sighted pe...
-Speech
Speech, in general, denotes the faculty of expressing thoughts, by means of articulate sounds ; though it is likewise employed by grammarians, to signify a series of words properly arranged. The power...
-Speedwell
Speedwell, or Veronica, L a genus of plants comprehending 54 species, 17 of which are indigenous : the principal of these are the following: 1. The Beccabunga: See Brook-lime. 2. The Chamae...
-Spermaceti
Spermaceti, a flaky, whit ish, somewhat unctuous substance, of smell ; being obtained from the head of the Physeter macro-cephalus, L. a species of whale. As the manner of preparing this expensive ...
-Spice
Spice, a general denomination of aromatic drugs, possessing hot and pungent properties. Such are All-spice, Nutmeg, Pepper, the seeds of the CaRaw ay and CaRda mom, Ginger, Mace, Salt, etc. of which w...
-Spider
Spider, or Aranea, L. a genus of insects comprehending 50 species, of which the following are the principal; namely: 1 The Common House-Spider, is generally of a black-colour; has eight legs, each ...
-Spiderwort
Spiderwort, the Marsh, Marsh-Tofieldia, Or Scotch Asphodel, Anthericum calycula-tum, L. (Toficldia palustris of i and Withering), a native perennial, which grows in bogs, on mountains in Scotland, and...
-Spignel
Spignel, or Spicknel, Aethusa Meum, L. a native perennial, growing in mountainous pastures, principally in the northern counties, where it flowers in the month of May. - The roots and seeds of this ve...
-Spike-Oil
Spike-Oil, the name of an essential oil distilled from the La-ike, considerable quantities of which, are used by varnish-makers, painters in enamel, etc. - See also vol. iii. p. 72. ...
-Spinach
Spinach, or Spinage, the Common, Spinacia oleracea, L. an exotic plant, cultivated in Britain, culinary purposes. If intended for winter-use, it Is propagated by the seed, in beds of light, rich e...
-Spindle-Tree
Spindle-Tree, the CoMMON, Prick-timber, Gatteridge-TREE, or Louse-berry, Evonymus Europceus, L. an indigenous shrub, which, in favourable situations, attains the height of 20 feet: it grows in woods a...
-Spinning
Spinning, is the art of twisting flax, hemp, silk, cotton, wool, or similar matters, so as to reduce them into yarn or thread. Spinning is generally performed, either by means of a wheel, or someti...
-Spirits
Spirits, a general name given to ardent liquors, obtained by distillation. Spirits are divided into two classes, namely, foreign, and British ; the former includes arrack, brandy, and rum: the latt...
-Spirit Of Wine
Spirit Of Wine, an ardent, colourless liquor, destitute of any peculiar flavour : it may be obtained by distilling the farinaceous or saccharine roots, as well as pulpy fruit of vegetables, in general...
-Spleen
Spleen, is a spongy viscus, situated in the left side near the lower part of the stomach, under the ribs. This organ is supposed to be designed by Nature to prepare the blood for the secretion of bile...
-Spleenwort
Spleenwort, or Hart's-Tongue, Asplenium scolopendri-um, L. a native perennial, growing in the fissures of moist shady rocks, old walls, and at the mouths of wells; where it flowers in the months of Au...
-Splents
Splents, in farriery, denote hard excrescences of various shape and size, appearing on the shank-bone of a horse - Unless they arise from blows, or other accidents, few horses put out splents, after t...
-Sponge
Sponge, or Spongia, L. a genus of animal plants, comprehending 50 species, the principal of which is the officinalis, or Common Sponge. It is imported from the Levant: being a soft, porous, light, sub...
-Spots
Spots, are marks or stains accidentally occurring on linen, woollen, cotton, silk, or other stuffs. - Under the head of Cloth (vol. ii. pp. 7-8) we have already-communicated several methods of dischar...
-Sprain
Sprain, denotes an extension of the muscles, ligaments, and tendons, without dislocation : it generally proceeds from external injury; and is attended with pain, swelling, and inflammation. In treatin...
-Sprat
Sprat, or Clupea sprattus, L. a well-known diminutive fish, which is from three to six inches in length, and in shape resembles the Herring. Sprats are caught in numerous shoals in the river Thames...
-Spring
Spring, a fountain, or source, whence water spontaneously rises from the bowels of the earth. Various conjectures have been formed by naturalists, concerning the origin of springs; but, consistentl...
-Spring-Grass
Spring-Grass, the Sweet-scented, or Vernal-grass, An-thoxanthum odorutum, L. an indigenous perennial, growing in meadows and pastures; flowering in the months of May and June. - This is one of the ear...
-Spruce-Beer
Spruce-Beer, a kind of diet-drink, which is prepared in the following manner : Eight gallons of water are first poured into a cask, or other vessel; and a similar quantity of boiling water is added : ...
-Spurge
Spurge, or Euphorbia, L. a genus of plants, comprehending 110 species ; 12 being natives of Britain ; the principal of which are the following : I. The characias, or Red Spurge, grows in woods and ...
-Spurge-Laurel
Spurge-Laurel, or Laurel Mezereon, Daphne Laure-ola, L. an indigenous shrub, found in woods and hedges, principally in the county of York, where it flowers in March and April. - The whole of this vege...
-Spurrey
Spurrey, or Spergula, L. a genus of plants comprising five species; three being natives of Britain. The principal of these is the arvensis, or Corn Spurrey, which grows in corn-fields, and sandy situa...
-Spurs
Spurs, a well-known contrivance, or machines consisting of plated steel, silver, etc. fitted to the hind -quarters of a horseman's boots, and furnished with a rowel, which sqU turns on an axis, in ord...
-Squill
Squill, the Common, or SEa-onion, Scilla maritima, L. an exotic plant, growing on the sandy shores of the Levant, especially on those of Spain, and Portugal, whence considerable quantities of its root...
-Squinting
Squinting, or Strabismus, an affection of the eyes, occasioned by the optic axes not converging ; in consequence of which, the organs of sight appear distorted. Improper habits frequently induce th...
-Squirrel
Squirrel, the Common, or Sciurus vulgaris, L. a lively little quadruped, abounding in the woods of Britain, as well as in other parts of Europe, Asia, and North Ame-rica. Its head, body, legs, and tai...
-St. Vitus's Dance
St. Vitus's Dance, a spasmodic disorder, mostly incident to young persons of both sexes, from the age of ten to fifteen : it is distinguished by continual involuntary motions of the hands and feet; so...
-Stable
Stable, an edifice erected for the reception and accommodation of horses. The principal object in building stables, is the situation, which ought to be, 1. On a gentle declivity, in order that the ...
-Stag
Stag, or Cervus Elaphus, L. an animal of chace, which is common in Britain, as well as in other parts of Europe, in the northern parts of Africa, It is of a with black spots on the a dark stripe in ...
-Staggers
Staggers, or Apoplexy, a disorder in the heads of horses, which becomes evident from the drowsiness ; bad appetite ; watery and inflamed eyes ; and the staggering or reeling gait of the animals. The h...
-Star Of Bethlehem
Star Of Bethlehem, or Ornithogalum, L. a genus of plants, comprising 35 species, 7 of which are indigenous : the principal of these is the Luteum, or Yellow Star of Bethlehem, growing in. woods, and m...
-Star-Grass
Star-Grass, or Callitriche, L. a genus of plants, consisting of four species, two of which are indigenous, namely : 1. The verna, Vernal Star-grass, Water-Starwort, Water-Fennel, or Star-headed Water-...
-Star-Wort
Star-Wort, the Sea, or Aster Tripolium, L. a native perennial, growing in salt-marshes, both on the sea-coast, and in those which are more distant from the shore : it flowers in the months of August a...
-Starch
Starch or Amylum, is a preparation from wheat, obtained by steeping the flour of that grain in cold water, then straining it through a cloth, and suffering the farinaceous particles to subs...
-Starling
Starling, the Common, or Sturnus vulgaris, L. an useful bird, inhabiting various parts of England. It is about eight inches length, and weighs from 3 to 4 ounces: the plumage is black, spotted with bl...
-Stavesacre
Stavesacre, or Delphinium, Staphisagria, L. an exotic plant, growing in the southern parts of Europe, and particularly in Italy, whence its rough, blackish seeds are imported. They possess a disagreea...
-Stays
Stays, an article of female dress, which is usually made of canvas or dimity, supported by whale-bone, and laced behind. Few articles are of greater importance to the health and comfort of females ...
-Steam
Steam, denotes the visible, moist vapour ascending from hot or boiling liquors; and also from substances containing humidity, which is easily evaporated by a degree of heat, that is insufficient for t...
-Steel
Steel, is iron refined in the fire with certain ingredients that render it white, and impart to it a harder and finer grain than that of the original metal. Iron is converted into steel, either by ...
-Steel-Yard
Steel-Yard, or Stilyard, is one of the most ancient machines for ascertaining the weight of bodies, by its counterpoise. It is alluded to in the Pentateuch, and to this day used by the Arabs, and all ...
-Stickleback
Stickleback, the Common, Banstickle, or Sharpling, Gasterosteus aculeatus, L. a well -known fish, abounding in newly-cut ditches, canals, and other collections of water. It seldom exceeds two or thre...
-Stimulants
Stimulants, in medicine, generally denote those subtances, or means, by which the action of certain parts of the body is increased, for instance, the circulation of the blood, or the activity of the m...
-Stirrup
Stirrup, a semi-circular machine, manufactured of steel, plated iron, etc. serving to support the foot of the horseman ; as it enables him to mount, and to maintain a due equilibrium, while seated on ...
-Stockings
Stockings, are those garments which serve to clothe, or shelter, the legs and feet from cold, and moisture. Stockings are manufactured of silk, cotton, thread, or worsted; being either knit with ne...
-Stomach
Stomach is a membranous viscus, serving to receive and digest the various articles of food, conveyed through the mouth and gullet, for the nutrition of the body. It is situated in the e...
-Stone
Stone, or Lithiasis, is a con-ion of calcareous matter, form-n different organs of the body, but particularly in the kidnies, uri-nary passage, and biliary duels ; though other parts are not exempt ...
-Stones
Stones, in general, are defined to be hard, solid bodies, which are neither soluble in water, nor malleable. They are formed in the progress of time, within the bowels of the earth, by the gradual acc...
-Stone-Crop
Stone-Crop, or Sedum, L, a genus of perennial plants, comprising 31 species, 9 being indigenous; of which the following are the most remarkable : 1. The Telephium, or Orpine Stone-crop. See Orp...
-Storax
Storax, a fragrant gum-resin, exuding from incisions made in the Common Storax-tree, or Styrax officinalis, L. a native of Italy and the Levant, where it flowers in July. The best storax is obtai...
-Stove
Stove, in domestic economy, a contrivance, or apparatus, in which fires are made, with the view of conveying heat throughout houses, churches, or other buildings. One of the most ingenious plans de...
-Strains
Strains, in farriery, denote such accidental injuries as sometimes happen to horses, by a violent and unnatural distension or stretching of their muscles or tendons ; in consequence of which, the anim...
-Strangles
Strangles, a disorder incident to colt9 and young horses : it becomes evident from a collection of impure humours, that are discharged by the nostrils, or by suppuration from the glands, situated bene...
-Straw
Straw, denotes the stalk on which corn grows, and from which it is separated by threshing. Straw is an article of extensive utility in rural and domestic economy. - When chopped or cut small, by ...
-Strawberry
Strawberry, or Fragaria, a genus of plants, comprehending three species, two of which are indigenous ; but the principal is the vesca, or Common Strawberry, growing in woods, hedges, and hollow ways; ...
-Strawberry-Tree
Strawberry-Tree, or Arbutus, L. a genus of shrubs, consisting of nine species, three of which are indigenous : namely, 1. The Uncdo, or Common Strawberry-tree, which grows on barren lime-stone roc...
-Straw-Cutter
Straw-Cutter, or Chaff-cutter, as it is commonly termed, denotes a machine for the purpose of cutting straw, with a view to feed horses and cattle to greater advantage. In the year l797, the Societ...
-Sturgeon
Sturgeon, or Accipeuser Sturio, L. a fish, which is sometimes taken in the British rivers ; being, however, generally imported from Russia, or the Baltic sea, as well as from North America : it is pri...
-Styptic
Styptic, a term applied to medicines, which serve to stop hemorrhages, or effusions of blood. Various vegetables maybe advantageously employed as external styptics, such as the Agaric, Puff-ball, e...
-Sublimate
Sublimate, a chemical pre paration, consisting of Mercury combined with the marine acid. Being extremely corrosive, and the manufacturing of this drug being attended with great danger to health, it is...
-Succory
Succory, or Cichorium, L. a genus of three plants, the following of which are the principal ; namely : 1. The IntybuS, Wild Cigho-ry, or Succory, is an indigenous biennial, growing on the borders o...
-Suckling
Suckling, is the art of administering the maternal milk to an infant, by the breast. Having already, in the articles Breasts, Milk (vol. iii. p. 202), and Nipples, stated the particulars relative t...
-Suet
Suet, is the solid fat secreted in the cellular membrane under the skin, and various parts of the animal body, for instance, in sheep, oxen, etc. but not in the human species. The uses of suet, for...
-Suffocation
Suffocation, denotes a suspension of the most important vital function, namely, that of respiring or breathing : without which animal life cannot be supported. This dangerous casualty may arise fro...
-Sugar
Sugar, a sweet concrete juice, ned front the Sugar-cane, or Saccharum officinarum, L. a species of reed or cane, which grows in the East and West Indies. According to modern chemists, however, it is a...
-Sugar Candy
Sugar Candy, is the essential part of the saccharine matter formed into large crystals, by slowly evaporating the clarified syrup. The whole process is managed in strongly-heated chambers, by th...
-Suicide
Suicide, is a term expressing either the crime of self-murder; or it is applied to the person committing such unnatural deed. It is remarkable, that this violation of divine and human law, has prev...
-Sulphur
Sulphur, or Brimstone, a hard inflammable mineral, of a yellow colour: it is insoluble in water; destitute of smell, except by friction, or when heated ; and possesses a peculiar, faint taste. - This ...
-Sulphur-Wort
Sulphur-Wort, the Common, Hog's Fennel, or Hare-strong, Peucedanum officinale, L. a native perennial, growing in salt-marshes ; producing flowers in the months of June and July. - Both the roots and s...
-Sumach-Tree
Sumach-Tree, or Rhus, L. a genus of exotic trees, comprehending 33 species, of which the following are the most remarkable, namely: 1. The Coriaria, or Elm-leaved Sumach, a native of Italy, Spain, ...
-Sun
Sun, the brightest and most important luminary, which imparts light to the world, and the presence of which constitutes the day. The genial warmth of the sun, conveyed to the earth by its rays, evi...
-Sun Dew
Sun Dew, the Round Leaved, Red-Rot, or Youthwort, Dro-Sera Rotundifolia, L. an indigenous perennial, growing in mossy bogs, and flowering in the months of July and August. The whole of this singula...
-Sun-Flower
Sun-Flower, or Helianthus, L. a genus of exotic plants, consist-ing of 14 species, most of which are cultivated in Britain : the principal, however, are : 1. The annuus (corona soils), or Common S...
-Sun-Scorched
Sun-Scorched, is a term employed by gardeners, to express a distemper affecting fruit-trees, in consequence of their sudden exposure to the heat of the sun ; so that the fruit becomes withered. T...
-Supper
Supper is the evening refreshment, or the last meal which is usually taken, shortly before retiring to rest. Since late dinners have, within these few years, become fashionable, suppers are in a gr...
-Surfeit
Surfeit, in physiology, is an indisposition attended with nausea, and the sensation of a load at the stomach, which are generally occasioned by indolence, and excess in eating or drinking ; thou...
-Surfeit Disease
Surfeit Disease, in farriery, a disease chiefly incident to horses : it may be occasioned either by suffering them to drink immoderate portions of cold water, while they are in a profuse perspiration;...
-Surgeon
Surgeon, or Chirurgeon, an appellation bestowed on profes-:.sl characters who exercise that branch of the healing art, which chiefly relates to the treatment of external or local affections. In latter...
-Suspension by the Cord
Suspensionby the Cord , or Hanging, is either the act of suicide, or that of being suffocated, by means of a rope tied round the neck ; in consequence of which, the vital principle is extinguished. As...
-Swallow
Swallow, the Common, or Chimney - Swallow, Hirundo rus-tica, L. a well-known bird of passage, appearing in this country about the middle of April, and generally departing early in October. This bird c...
-Swallowing
Swallowing, or Deglutition, is the act of taking any food, whether solid or liquid, down the throat. It succeeds Mastication, and is performed primarily by the tongue, which propel-, the aliment into ...
-Swallow-Wort
Swallow-Wort, the Common, or Asclepias alba v. Vincetoxi-cum, L. a hardy exotic plant, which is a native of the south of France, Spain, and Italy. In a fresh state, the root of this vegetable possesse...
-Swan
Swan, or Anas cygnus, L. an elegant bird of the goose kind, but much larger, and having a longer neck: there arc two varieties, namely: 1. The ferus, Wild, or Whistling-Swan, a bird of passage, w...
-Sward-Cutter
Sward-Cutter, a machine employed for cutting the sward, or surface of the earth, so as to break every clod that might otherwise resist the action of spiked rollers, or any similar implement of agricul...
-Swearing
Swearing, a term used to denote either the uttering of impious expressions, or the judicial, and also official invocation of the Deity, to attest the truth of an assertion. The security of oaths in...
-Sweat
Sweat, a perceptible moisture, issuing from the pores of the skin, either in consequence of too violent exercise, or from the action of certain medicines, which are hence denominated sudorifics ; thou...
-Sweating-Sickness
Sweating-Sickness, an epidemic which raged in England in 1481, and returned seven times between that period and 1551; in which year it proved so fatal, as to carry off 120 inhabitants of Westminster i...
-Swimming
Swimming, is the art of floating, or supporting the human body on the surface of water, with a progressive undulating motion. This art is in a manner natural to man (see Amphibious Animals); and,...
-Swinging
Swinging, a species of passive exercise, which is performed in certain contrivances, known under the name of swinging machines or cars ; by the undulating motion of which, the body is tossed in an asc...
-Swoon
Swoon, or Syncope, is a su den fainting, in which the action of the heart is diminished, or for a time entirely suspended. It is generally preceded by anxiety, difficult respiration ; the pulse being ...
-Sycamore-Tree
Sycamore-Tree, or Sycamore Maple; Acer Pseudo-platanus, L. a large and beautiful tree, supposed to be a native of Germany, but reared in Britain, principally for the sake of its elegant appearance in ...
-Syllabub
Syllabub, a palatable compound drink, usually prepared by combining three parts of new milk and one of white wine, in which a sufficient portion of sugar has been previously dissolved. Whipt Syllab...
-Sympathy
Sympathy denotes an unison or agreement of affections and inclinations ; or a conformity of natural qualities, or temperaments; in consequence of which two persons are mutually attached to each other....
-Syrup
Syrup, a solution of sugar, frequently employed as a vehicle for various medicines ; forming a sweet liquor, of a thick consistence, which is made by combining saccharine matter with water, vinegar, o...
-Tacamahaca
Tacamahaca, a Gummy Resinous substance, obtained from the Carolina Poplar. The best sort is collected from the fruit of the tree, in gourd-shells : it is somewhat soft and unctuous, of a pale-green, o...
-Talc
Talc, a species of fossil, found in England, Bohemia, Spain, etc. comprehending 3 varieties, namely: 1. The Talcite, or Scaly Talc, is dug in small light scales, which adhere to the fingers : it ...
-Tallow
Tallow, is the fat of certain animals, properly boiled and clarified. It may be procured from almost every creature, excepting worms and insects; though the best and largest quantities are obtained fr...
-Tamarind-Tree
Tamarind-Tree, or Tamorindus Indica, L. a native of the East and West Indies, of America, Arabia, and Egypt, where it attains the height of 30 or 40feet. The fruit of this tree resembles a bean-pod...
-Tanning
Tanning, is the art of pre paring leather from raw skins and hides, so as to render it more pliant and durable. The processes employed for this purpose, are various ; every tanner adopting some pec...
-Tansy
Tansy, the Common, or Tanacetum Vulgare, L. an indigenous perennial, growing in elevated meadows and pastures, on the batiks of rivers, and in swampy situations ; flowering in the month of June. Th...
-Tape-Worm
Tape-Worm, or Taenia, is one of the most tormenting worms, breeding in the bowels of the lower animals, as well as of mankind, and consisting of several species, namely; the armed and unarmed ; the lo...
-Tar
Tar, a thick, black, unctuous matter, extracted from old pine and fir trees, by their combustion in a close, smothering heat; (see vol. iii. p. 384). It may also be procured from pit-coal; and for suc...
-Tarragon
Tarragon, or Artemisia dra-cunculus, L. is a hardy exotic plant, growing in France, as well as in the warmer climates of Europe; and which is cultivated in Britain for culinary uses. It may be propaga...
-Tarras
Tarras, Terras, or Traas, a species of argillaceous earth, found in Germany, and Sweden, whence it is annually imported ; being subject to the duty of 6 1/2d. per bushel. It is of a pale-yellowish col...
-Tartar
Tartar, a concrete saline matter, which separates from wines, after they have undergone complete fermentation: it adheres to the top and sides of the cask, in red or whitish-grey crystals, according t...
-Taste
Taste, in the animal economy, is one of the five senses, or that faculty which enables all organized beings to discern the various impressions produced by different substances on the tongue and the pa...
-Tea-Tree
Tea-Tree, or Thea, L. a genus of shrubs consisting of two species ; namely, 1. the Bohea, or Black Tea; and, 2. the viridis, or Green Tea; both of which are natives of China and Japan, where they atta...
-Teal
Teal, the Common, ox Anas creca, L. a bird of passage, frequenting lakes, ponds, and fenny places : it is about 14 inches in length, has a green spot on the wings, and is marked with a white line, bot...
-Teasel
Teasel, or Dipsacus, L. a genus of plants exhibiting five species : three are indigenous; but the principal is the fullonum (more properly sativus), Manured, or Fuller's Teasel. It is raised from seed...
-Teeth
Teeth, a set of bones, situated in the upper and lower jaws, for the purpose of mastication: in adults, there are 32 in number, or 10 in each jaw-bone. The teeth are of various size, being arrange...
-Telescope
Telescope, one of the most useful optical instruments, consisting of a long tube furnished with several glasses, for the purpose of viewng distant objects. - This term is mostly applied to the larger ...
-Temperance
Temperance, strictly speaking, denotes the virtuous practice of those, who restrain their sensual appetites : it is, however, generally used to express moderation, in which sense it is indiscriminatel...
-Tench
Tench, or Cyprinus tinca, L. a British fish which delights in still waters; being seldom found in rivers. Its back is of a dusky colour; the head, sides, and belly, of a greenish cast, beautifully var...
-Tendons
Tendons, or Sinews, in the animal frame, are ligaments, by which the motion of the joints is performed. The principal affections of tendinous parts, proceed from external violence, by which they ma...
-Tennis
Tennis, a play requiring muscular exertion, and at which a ball is driven, by means of a racket. This game is of French origin, and was introduced into Britain in the 17th century: it is performed ...
-Terrier
Terrier, or Canis terrarius, a variety of the dog-kind, which is of different colours, being sometimes spotted, though generally of a liver, or black hue : its body seldom exceeds 18 inches in length,...
-Terror
Terror, or the apprehension of an evil which we are unable to prevent, is one of the most destructive passions inherent in mankind. Persons of weak nerves, and those who possess a high degree of se...
-Theatre
Theatre, signifies the place in which spectacles, or dramatic representations, arc exhibited. The drama was originally invented in Greece; whence the rules of it have been gradually dispersed ove...
-Thermometer
Thermometer, or Thermoscofe, an instrument for measuring, with accuracy, the degrees of heat or cold in the air, water, etc. - It is probable, that the expansion and contraction of bodies, in conseque...
-Thigh
Thigh, a term applied to that part of the human body, which is situated between the pelvis, or bason, and the knee; thus forming the upper portion of the lower extremity. The principal affections to w...
-Thirst
Thirst, is an uneasy sensation, which arises from a deficiency of saliva, for moistening the mouth, and lubricating the throat. Thirst is generally occasioned by the use of strong, salted, or highl...
-Thistle
Thistle, or Carduus, L. a genus of plants, comprising 38 spe-cies ; 10 of which are indigenous : the following are the principal : 1. The marianus. See Milk Thistle. 2. The lancro...
-Thorn-Apple
Thorn-Apple, the Common, or Datura Stramonium, L. originally a native of America, but now indigenous in some parts of Bri tain, where it grows among rubbish, and on dunghills ; flowering in the month ...
-Thornback
Thornback, or Raja clavata, L. a voracious fish, frequenting the sandy shores of Britain, and sometimes weighing a stone and upwards. The upper surface of its body is of a pale ash-colour, intermixed ...
-Thrashing
Thrashing, or Threshing, in rural economy, is the operation, by which grain is separated from the straw. Thrashing is performed by different methods, in various parts of the globe: thus, in the eas...
-Thread
Thread, a slender twist manufactured by combining the fibres of flax, hemp, cotton, silk; or other vegetable or animal substances ; the primary operation of which is called Spinning. There are vari...
-Thrift
Thrift or Statice, L. a genus of plants comprising 22 species, 3 of which are indigenous : the following are the principal: 1. The Limonium. See Lavender-thrift. 2. The Armeria, Common Th...
-Thrips
Thrips, a genus of insects comprising 11 species, that are variously named, according to the trees which they infest. These vermin are extremely minute; having a small slender body, and a rostrum, or ...
-Throat
Throat, or the cavity behind the tongue and the curtain of the palate: the soft parts, of which it is composed, are the common integuments and the muciparous glands. The principal use of these parts b...
-Throstle
Throstle, or Thrush, Tur-dus musicus, L. a well-known British bird, which, in its melodious notes, is excelled only by the nightingale. Its head, back, and lesser coverts of the wings, are of a deep o...
-Thrush
Thrush, a disorder incident to infants, and of which the following are the principal symptoms: Small whitish or grey pustules appear on the fauces, extending over the surface of the tongue, and adjace...
-Thunder
Thunder, a loud noise occasioned by the explosion of a flash of lightning, that is re-echoed from the inequalities on the surface of the earth, and frequently forms a continued rolling or rumbling sou...
-Thyme
Thyme, or Thymus, L. genus of spicy plants, comprising 17 species, of which the following are the principal, namely: 1. The scrpyllum, CommoN, Wild, or MotheR-of-thyme, an indigenous perennial, ...
-Tide
Tide, denotes the rising and falling of sea-water; a phenomenon which is observable on all the shores of the ocean : it is also termed the flux and re-flux, or the alternate ebb and flow. The water...
-Tile
Tile, a kind of thin brick, principally employed for covering the roofs of houses; though it is sometimes used for paving cellars, kitchens, areas, etc. Tiles are divided into various sorts, a...
-Tillage
Tillage, in agriculture and gardening, denotes the different methods of moving the ground, by means of a plough, spade, or other implement, to a certain depth, so as to bring the soil to the surface, ...
-Timber
Timber, a term denoting every species at wood, that is felled and seasoned, with the view of being employed in building houses, vessels, and other structures. Of the different kinds of timber-trees...
-Time
Time, in general, denotes either the succession of natural phenomena, occurring in the universe ; or, according to Mr. LockS, it is a mode of duration which is marked by certain periods or measures, b...
-Time-Piece
Time-Piece, a term including clocks, watches, and other contrivances, for measuring the propress, or ascertaining the duration, of time. The ancients were not acquainted with other time-pieces than...
-Timothy-Grass
Timothy-Grass, or Phleum, L. a genus of plants, comprehending eight species, four being indigenous ; of which the following are the principal, namely: 1. The nodosum, or Knotty Timothy-gRass, grow...
-Tin
Tin, or Stannum, one of the imperfect metals, which is obtained principally from the county of Cornwall, where it is sometimes dug up in a native or pure state ; though more frequently mixed with a la...
-Tincture
Tincture, in general, denotes a solution of the more volatile and active parts of various bodies, from the three kingdoms of Nature, by means of a proper solvent: see MEnstRuum. This, term is, however...
-Tinning
Tinning, is the process of coating copper vessels, chiefly used for culinary purposes : it is generally performed in the following manner : If the copper be new, its surface is first scoured with s...
-Toad
Toad, or Rana. bufo, L. is the most deformed and hideous of the lower animals. Its body is broad, the back is flat, and covered with a dusky skin marked with pimples; its large belly appears inflated ...
-Tobacco-Plant
Tobacco-Plant, the Common, or Nicotiana Tabacum, L. is a native of America, where considerable quantities are annually raised for exportation; and also in Spain, Portugal, Turkey, and Malta. There ...
-Tolu
Tolu, or Balsam of Tolu, all esteemed drug which is obtained from the Toluifera balsamum-, L. a native of South-America, whence it is imported in small gourd-shells. This balsam is of a transparent...
-Tom-Tit
Tom-Tit, a well-known diminutive bird, abounding in woods and orchards, where it constructs its nest with grass, etc. in which the female deposits from three to five very small eggs. Tom-tits have ...
-Ton
Ton, or Tun, a measure of capacity, varying in its dimensions, according to the nature of liquid or solid articles: thus, a ton of wine contains four hogsheads; a ton of timber comprises a square of 4...
-Tongue
Tongue, in the animal economy, is an organized muscle situated in the cavity of the mouth, moveable in every direction, and destined for the purposes of speech, mastication, deglutition, and suction. ...
-Tonsils
Tonsils, or vulgarly called Almonds, are two round glands situated collaterally at the basis of the tongue; each of them being provided with a large oval passage opening towards the fauces, whence a m...
-Tool
Tool, a general term denoting any small implement, which is used both for manufacturing other complex instruments or machines, and also those employed in the mechanical arts. Tools are divided into...
-Tormentil
Tormentil, the Common, or Sept-foil, Tormentilla erecta v. officinalis, L. is an indigenous perennial, growing in moors, barren pastures, and shady places ; flowering from June to September. - It is e...
-Tortoise
Tortoise, or Testudo, L. a genus of amphibious animals, comprehending thirty-three species, of which the following are the principal : 1. The midas. See Common Turtle. 2. The imbricata, v....
-Touch
Touch, or Feeling, is one of the five external senses, through the medium of which we are enabled to form comparative ideas of hard, soft, rough, smooth, hot, cold, dry, wet, or other tangible propert...
-Touchwood
Touchwood, or Spunk, Boletus igniarius, L. a species of fungus, or sponge, which grows on the trunks, particularly those of cherry and plum-trees ; where it frequently extends to a size of from two to...
-Tourniquet
Tourniquet, in surgery, an instrument composed of rollers, screws, straps, etc. for the purpose of compressing a limb, or other part of the body; in order to prevent too great an effusion of blood fro...
-Tower-Mustard
Tower-Mustard, the Smooth, or Tower-wort, Turritis glabra, L. is an indigenous plant growing in gravelly meadows, pastures, and pits, where the stalks attain the height of two feet, and the ...
-Tragacanth
Tragacanth, a gum obtained from the Astragalus Tragacantha, L. a thorny bush, growing in the Levant, in Candia, on Mounts Olympus, Ida, and Aetna : it pays, on importation, a duty of 3 1/2d. ...
-Transfusion of Blood
Transfusion of Blood, an operation by which that fluid may be conducted from one animal body into another. This singular and daring attempt was first undertaken by Libavius, at Halle, early in the ...
-Transplantation
Transplantation, denotes the act of removing either Cuttings, layers, roots, or entire young plants, from one soil into another. For this purpose, Mr. Forsyth directs the side-shoots of trees to be...
-Traveller's-Joy
Traveller's-Joy, Honesty, Virgin's Bower, or Great Wild-Climber, Clematis Vitalla, L. a hardy, indigenous shrub, growing in hedges and shady places, in calcareous soils, where it flowers in June and J...
-Treacle
Treacle, the Venice, or Mithridate, Theriaca Andro-machi, a celebrated medley of drugs, composed of 60 ingredients; prepared ; pulverized ; and, with honey, formed into an electuary: it was reputed am...
-Tree
Tree, the largest of vegetable productions, rising to a considerable height, with a single stem. Trees are divided into two principal classes, namely, fruit, and timber trees : the former includes ...
-Tree-Mallow
Tree-Mallow, the Sea, or Velvet-leaf, Lavatera arborea, L. an indigenous biennial, growing on the sea-shores, where it flowers from July to October. - This being the only native species of eleven plan...
-Trefoil
Trefoil, or Trifolium, L. a genus of fifty-five species, 16 of which are Indigenous: of these we shall mention the following : 1. The pratense, or Common Clover ; 2. The medium, v. alpestre, o...
-Common Trefoil
Trefoil, the Common Bird's-Foot, or Lotus corniculatus, L. an indigenous perennial, growing in meadows, pastures, heaths, and road-sides, where it flowers from June to August. - This plant is eaten by...
-Trout
Trout, or Salmo fario, L. a fish inhabiting the British lakes and rivers : its head is short and roundish; the tail is broad, and the mouth of a large size; the whole body attaining from one to tw6 fe...
-Troy-Weight
Troy-Weight, is that mode of weighing certain commodities, in which the pound contains ounces, each of them being divided into twenty penny-weights, and the latter into twenty-four grains each: on the...
-Truffle
Truffle, or Trubs, Lyco-perdon tuber, L. (Tuber cibarium of Dr. Withering), is a species of puff-ball, which grows under ground, without any roots or the access of light: and attains a size of from a ...
-Tulip
Tulip, or Tulipa, L. a genus of plants comprising four species, the principal of which is the Gesneriuna, or Common Garden Tulip, a native of Cappadocia.- It fa divided into two sorts, termed the ear...
-Tumbrel
Tumbrel, a machine employed chiefly in the county of Lincoln; for the purpose of giving food to sheep, during the winter. In the 4th vol. of the Repertory of Arts, etc. we meet with a descripti...
-Tumor
Tumor, or Swelling, in animal economy, denotes an enlargement or preternatural tumefaction of any part of the body ; and is either of an indolent nature, such as Cancer, SchiRrus and ScropHula ; or in...
-Tunbridge-Water
Tunbridge-Water, a chalybeate mineral fluid, obtained from numerous springs that rise at Tunbridge, in the county of Kent. When first drawn from the well, it is transparent, being divested of all colo...
-Tunny
Tunny, or Scomber Thunnus, a fish of the mackerel kind, which abounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and sometimes frequents the British coasts : during the Herring season, considerable shoals are found in...
-Turbith
Turbith, or Turpeth, an officinal drug, being the bark from the fleshy roots of the Convolvulus Turpethum, L. an exotic species of the Bind-weed, growing in Ceylon. Turbith is imported in oblong ...
-Turbith-Mineral
Turbith-Mineral, or Yellow-Vitriolated Quicksilver, a medicinal precipitate obtained by cautiously mixing eight parts of vitriolic acid with four of purified mercury; and distilling the whole to dryne...
-Turbot
Turbot, or Pleuronectes maxi-mus, L. is a large fish of a remarkable form, nearly square ; the upper part of its body being ash-co-loured, with numerous black spots of different sizes : the belly is w...
-Turf
Turf, a brown or blackish fossil, consisting of a rich earth combined with the fibrous roots of vegetables, mineral oils, etc. Turf differs from peat, only in its harder consistence ; the latter be...
-Turkey
Turkey, or Meleagris gallo-pavo, L. a bird originally from North America ; but which has long been domesticated in Britain : it has a caruncle both on the head and throat; the breast of the male being...
-Turmeric
Turmeric, or Curcuma, L. a genus of exotic plants, comprehending two species, namely : 1. The rotunda, having a round fleshy root, similar to that of ginger ; and 2. The longa, with long yellow roots,...
-Turnep
Turnep, Turnip, or Knol-Les, Brassica Rapa, L. an indigenous biennial plant, growing in corn-fields, and chiefly in their borders; where it flowers in the month of April. There are many varieties o...
-Turning
Turning, is the art of forming wood, ivory, and other hard bodies into an oval or round shape, by means of a Lathe. This art was carried to great perfection among the Romans ; and is of such import...
-Turnsol
Turnsol, or Turnesol, a valuable dyeing drug, which is prepared chiefly in the village of Grand-Galargues, near Montpel-lier, from the Croton tinctoriurn, L. in French called Maarelle: this plant prod...
-Turpentine
Turpentine, a transparent, resinous substance, which exudes naturally, but is chiefly obtained by incision, from various species of the pine-tree; and is divided into four kinds, namely : 1. The C...
-Turtle
Turtle, the Common, or Giant Turtle, Testudo midas, L. a native of the West Indies and South America. This amphibious animal attains to a prodigious size ; being sometimes three yards long, and six fe...
-Tutsan
Tutsan, or Park-leaves, Hypericum Androsaemum, L. is an indigenous perennial, growing in woods and moist hedges, where it flowers from July to September. - This vegetable deserves to be more generally...
-Type
Type, a term employed by printers, to denote the letters used in printing ; and which includes not only large CAPITALS, Small Capitals, Italics, and LowerCase, etc, but likewise all the points, figure...
-Typhus
Typhus, a malignant contagious fever, attended with remarkable prostration of strength. - Great disputes have prevailed among physicians, respecting the real nature and proper denomination of this mal...
-Valerian
Valerian, or Valeriana, L. a genus of plants, comprehending 22 species; 4 being indigenous, and of Which the following are the most remarkable: 1. The locusta, or Lettuce Valerian. See Corn...
-Vanilla
Vanilla, or Epidendron nectarium, v. Vanilla, L. is an exotic parasitical plant, -growing in Mexico, whence its long slender pods, containing numerous black grains. are imported into Spain, and thence...
-Vapour
Vapour, a term denoting those particles of bodies, that are rarefied by heat: being thus rendered specifically lighter than the atmosphere, they ascend to a considerable height, and are at length tota...
-Varnish
Varnish, a clear liquid composition, which by age, and exposure to the air, becomes hard, without losing its transparency : it is employed by painters, carvers, gilders, and other artisans, for impart...
-Veal
Veal, or the flesh of calves, is highly esteemed, on account of its tender fibres; but these animals ought to be fed chiefly with milk, or hay-tea, and to be at least six weeks old, before they are us...
-Vegetable Kingdom
Vegetable Kingdom, a term including all plants and roots which grow above and under ground ; being nourished by the air, water, :c. - See Food of Plants. The different classifications of pl...
-Vegetation
Vegetation, is the natural process by which plants receive their nourishment. Naturalists have formed various conjectures, to account for the mysterious phenomena occurring in vegetable nature ; an...
-Veins
Veins, in the animal body, are membranous canals, destined for the purpose of re-conveying the blood from the arteries to the heart. They run chiefly by the sides of arteries, but more towards the su...
-Veneering
Veneering, is a species of inlaying or marquetry, in which several thin leaves, or slips of fine wood, are applied to a groundwork of common wood : it is performed in the following manner : The woo...
-Verdigrease
Verdigrease, or Acetite Of Copper, is a kind of rust usually prepared from that metal, by corroding it with vinegar. The best verdigrease is mostly manufactured at Montpelier, in France, by forming...
-Verditer
Verditer, a preparation of copper, which is occasionally used by painters as a blue, but more generally, in combination with a yellow pigment, for a green colour. It is obtained in the following manne...
-Verjuice
Verjuice, an acid liquor prepared from grapes or apples, that are unfit to be converted into wine or cyder. It is also made from crabs; which, after being laid in a heap to sweat, are next stamped or ...
-Vervain
Vervain, the Common, or Simplers Joy, Verbena officinalis, L. an indigenous plant, grow-in waste places, on stone walls, and the sides of roads ; flowering in the months of August and September. - Thi...
-Vetch
Vetch, or Tare, Vicia, L. a genus of plants comprehending 30 species, of which 8 or 9 are indigenous ; and the following are the most remarkable, namely: I. The sylvatica, or Wood Vetch, grows i...
-Vichy-Water
Vichy-Water, is obtained from the tepid mineral springs, that rise in the vicinity of Vichy, in France. On account of its chalybeate and alkaline ingredients, it is taken internally ; being reputed t...
-Vine
Vine, the Common, or Vitis vinifera, L. a native of Japan, and the warmer regions of Asia : it has for centuries been raised in Britain; though its culture is most successful in the temperate climates...
-Vinegar
Vinegar, an agreeable, pungent acid, which is obtained from wine, cyder, beer, or other fermented liquors. Wine-vinegar: - Let any quantity of vinous liquor be mixed with its own lees or feces, or ...
-Violet
Violet, or Viola, L. a genus of plants, consisting of 44 species; of which the following are the principal : 1. The canina. See Dog's Violet. 2. The tricolor. See Heart's Ease. 3...
-Viper
Viper, the Common British, or Coluber Berus, L. a reptile which inhabits the dry, chalky, or stony counties, and particularly the Hebrides. It seldom exceeds 18 inches, or 2 feet, in length ; and is, ...
-Viper's Bugloss
Viper's Bugloss, the Common, or Echium vulgare, L. an indigenous biennial, growing in sandy corn-fields, walls, and rubbish, particularly on the clay thrown out of coal-mines : it flowers from June ti...
-Vitriol
Vitriol, a compound salt, formed by the combination of zinc, copper, or iron, with the sulphuric, or cient in rheumatisms and local palsies. ...
-Vives
Vives, in farriery, a disorder affecting horses, and which differs from the strangles only in this respect, that the tumors in the former do not suppurate; and may therefore be dispersed by covering t...
-Ulcer
Ulcer, is an ichorous or purulent solution of soft parts. This affection may arise from a variety of causes, such as cancer, scro-phula, scurvy, etc. but, as a discussion of these would exceed our lim...
-Umber
Umber, or Grayling, Salmo thymolus, L. a species of the salmon, which frequents rapid, clear streams, and particularly those flowing through mountainous countries. It inhabits principally the rivers o...
-Vomiting
Vomiting, is the inverted vermicular motion of the muscular fibres of the stomach and intestines ; being attended with convulsions of the abdominal muscles and midriff: when this action is so mild as ...
-Urine
Urine, is that part of the blood which is separated by the extremities of the arteries connected with the kidnies. It drops by the ure-ther into the urinary bladder, where it USUally remains a few hou...
-Usquebaugh
Usquebaugh, a strong, compound, spirituous liquor, which is prepared in the following manner : Take of cloves, cinnamon, and nutmegs, each 2 oz.; of caraway, anise, and coriander-seeds, each 4 oz.;...
-Uvula
Uvula, in animal economy, denotes a soft glandular body, of a conical figure, that is suspended from the palate, or posterior part of the roof of the mouth, perpendicularly over the chink of the wind-...
-Wafers
Wafers, are thin circular cakes of paste, employed for sealing letters, and for other purposes. Wafers are made by mixing the finest wheaten flour, either with the whites of eggs, or with a solutio...
-Waggon
Waggon, a species of wheel-carriage, the form of which varies, according to the different purposes for which it is designed. Few implements of husbandry are of greater importance, or admit, perhaps...
-Wagtail
Wagtail, or Motacilla, L. a genus of native birds, consisting of two species, namely : 1. The alba, or White Wagtail, frequents the sides of ponds and rivulets: its head, back, and neck, are black ...
-Wainscot
Wainscot, denotes the timber-work employed for lining the walls of apartments: it is usually made in the form of pannels, and painted, in order to serve as a substitute for hangings. According to t...
-Wake-Robin
Wake-Robin, Cuckow-Pint, or Lords and Ladies, Arum maculatum, L. a native and hardy perennial, growing in shady places, ditch-banks and rough grounds ; flowering in May and June. Both the bulbous r...
-Waking
Waking, or Wakefulness, denotes that state of the body, which is opposed to sleeping. - Both are alike important to the preservation of health; but waking, in particular, ought not to be prolonged bey...
-Walking
Walking, is one of the most salutary kinds of exercise. For this purpose, dry, airy, and elevated situations are preferable to such as are low and moist; though, during the summer, a walk in a meadow ...
-Wall-Cress
Wall-Cress, the Common, or CoddEd Mouse-ear, Arabis thaliana, L. an indigenous plant, growing on walls, roofs, and in dry, sandy pastures : it flowers in the month of May. - The Wall-cress seldom exce...
-Walnut-Tree
Walnut-Tree, or Juglans, L. a genus of exotic trees comprehending 8 species; the principal of which is the regia, or Common Walnut-tree. It is originally a native of Persia, and attains, in this count...
-Walton-Water
Walton-Water, is obtained from a mineral spring, which rises in the vicinity of Tewkesbury, in the county of Gloucester, it contains a small portion of iron dissolved in fixed-air ; of absorbent ea...
-War
War, a contest between two sovereigns, states, or large bodies of people: and as these are unwilling to submit the decision of their differences to arbitration, or equity, they generally resort to arm...
-Warbles
Warbles, in farriery, are small, hard tumors arising on a horse's back, and generally occasioned by the heat, or friction, of the saddle in travelling. As these injuries frequently occur in horses,...
-Warmth
Warmth, a term expressing a moderate degree of heat. The warming of houses, in a climate so variable as that of Britain, is an object of the first importance, both to health and domestic comfort : ...
-Warts
Warts, are small, hard, indolent excrescences, or tumors, that have a rough surface, and appear principally on the face and hands of young persons ; though sometimes settling on other parts of the bod...
-Wart-Wort
Wart-Wort, Churn-staff, Cat's-milk, or Sun-spurge ; Euphorbia helioscopia, L. an indigenous plant, growing in gardens, corn-fields, and cultivated grounds ; flowering in July and August. - This vegeta...
-Washing
Washing, in general, signifies the cleansing of bodies or substances with water, and other ab-stergent ingredients. Washing essentially contributes to cleanliness, and consequently to the preservat...
-Wasp
Wasp, or Vespa, L. a genus of insects comprising 139 species, three of which only are natives of-Britain. 1. The Crabro. See Hornet. 2. The Vulgaris, or Common-Wasp, is from half to th...
-Water
Water, a transparent fluid, destitute of colour, taste, and smell: it was formerly considered as one of the four elements : when perfectly pure, it does not spontaneously undergo any perceptible chang...
-Hydrocephalus
Water, in the Head, or Hydrocephalus, is a collection of serum, either between the bones and common integuments, when it is called external; or between the bones and membranes of the brain, when it i...
-Water-Aloe
Water-Aloe, or Fresh-Water Soldier, Zostera Aloides, L. an indigenous perennial, grow-ing in fen-ditches and slow-streams; flowering in the months of June and July. - This plant affords nou-rishment t...
-Water-Caltrops
Water-Caltrops, or Trapa natans, L. a valuable exotic, originally from Asia, though likewise growing wild in the ponds and ditches or Germany: its fibrous roots strike deeply into the soil; and, when ...
-Water-Closet
Water-Closet, an useful contrivance, the purpose of which requires no explanation. In December, 1789, a patent was granted to Mr. Thomas Rown-tree, for an improvement in the construction of water-c...
-Water-Gladiole
Water-Gladiole, or Cardinal Flower, Lobelia Dortmanna, L. is an indigenous perennial, growing in mountainous lakes, especially in Cumberland, West-moreland, Wales, and Scotland ; where its beautiful p...
-Water-Pepper
Water-Pepper, Lakeweed, or Biting Snakeweed, Polygonum hydropiper, L. an indigenous plant, growing on the sides of rivulets, lakes, and ditches ; flowering from July to September. - The whole of this ...
-Water-Proof
Water-Proof, a term applied to those stuffs, which have undergone certain chemical or mechanical processes, and thus become impermeable to moisture. Having already stated, under the heads of Boot a...
-Wax
Wax, as solid concrete, abounding in the vegetable kingdom, whence it is collected by bees. - In the article Bees-wax, we have stated the manner in which this substance is obtained, and likewise the u...
-Weaning
Weaning, is the aft of gradually removing an infant from the breast, and habituating it to take common food. Weaning requires to be conducted with some precaution : it will, therefore, be advisable...
-Weasel
Weasel, the Common, or Mustella vulgaris, L. a diminutive animal of prey, frequenting barns, granaries, and out-houses: its body seldom exceeds 6 or 7 inches in length, and the legs are remarkably sho...
-Weather
Weather, a term denoting the slate of the atmosphere, with respect to Heat, Cold, Hail, Rain, Snow, etc. Having already discussed, in the course of this work, the phenomena of the meteors above men...
-Weather-Glass
Weather-Glass, or Storm-Glass. - An ingenious contrivance of this nature has lately been announced by Wiegleb, in Germany; and the invention of it is like wise claimed by Mr. Francis Anone, of High Ho...
-Weaving
Weaving is the art of working a web of linen, silk, wool, or any other material, by means of looms. Having, in the article Cloth, given an outline of the manner in which weaving is performed, we sh...
-Weed
Weed, a term applied to all, rank, coarse vegetables, that grow spontaneously, to the detriment of other plants. Weeds are usually divided into two classes, namely, annual, and perennial. With a vi...
-Weigh Wey
Weigh, or Wey, a species of provincial English weight, employed for cheese, wool, etc. : it contains 256 lbs. avoirdupois. A weigh of corn should comprise 40 bushels ; that of barley or malt, amounts ...
-Weight
Weight, denotes a method of ascertaining the quantity of any solid or fluid body, by means of the balance, or otherwise. Having already stated, in the articles Avoirdupois, Troy-weight, Clove, etc....
-Well
Well, a cavity, dug in the ground, with a view to collect the water from the contiguous strata: it is generally of a circular form, and lined with brick or stone. The following method of procuring ...
-Wen
Wen, is an indolent tumor, or an enlargement of the thyroid gland, which is situated in the anterior part of the neck. This affection frequently occurs, and is endemial in some parts of England ; for ...
-Whale
Whale, the Common, or Ba-laena mysticetus, L. is the largest inhabitant of the ocean, frequenting the north seas, where it is from 70 to 00 feet, and in those of the Torrid Zone, to 160 feet in length...
-Wheat
Wheat, or Triticum, L. a genus of plants, comprehending about 16 species, of which the following are the principal: I. The repens See Dog's-grass. II. The cestivum, or Spring Wheat, is p...
-Wheel
Wheel, is a simple machine, consisting of a nave, fellies, and circular brim, or pieces of wood generally surrounded -with iron ; and thus revolving on its axis. Wheels are of various breadths, acc...
-Whetstone
Whetstone, is a kind of sand-stone, dug up chiefly in Derbyshire, and other northern counties. It is of a dusky-yellow colour ; resists the action of acids, though permeable to water : being of a roug...
-Whey
Whey, is the serum or watery part of milk, which remains after the cream and coagulable matter of that fluid are removed, either by churning, or by separating it with Rennet, vinegar, cream of tartar,...
-Whin-Chat
Whin-Chat, or La Rubetra, L. a bird found on British and commons, during the summer months: it is about five in length; the upper parts of its body being blackish, edged with rufous spots...
-Whiskey
Whiskey, a spirituous liquor, chiefly prepared in Scotland and Ireland, by distilling barley. With respect to its relative salubrity, whiskey is doubtless preferable to any home-made brandy drawn f...
-White-Swelling
White-Swelling is a tumor of the joints, but chiefly of the knee: at first, it is not perceptibly enlarged; being of the same colour as the skin; very painful, and diminishing the power of motion. - T...
-White-Washing
White-Washing, is the act of cleansing ceilings and walls, with a solution of lime in water, to which a little'size is occasionally added. The practice of white-washing apartments eminently contrib...
-Whiting
Whiting, or Gadus merlan-gus, L, a well-known fish, of an elegant shape, rarely exceeding 10 or 12 inches in length, and generally weighing from 8 to l6 oz. During the spring, extensive shoals of w...
-Whitlow
Whitlow, or Whitloe, a painful swelling of the extremities of the fingers, beneath the nails, and usually terminating in a discharge of serous fluid, that is frequently so acrid as to corrode the peri...
-Whitlow-Grass
Whitlow-Grass, the Common, or Nailwort, Draba ver-na, L. a native plant, growing on walls and in dry pastures ; blowing in the months of March and April. According to Dr. Withering, the Nailwort is on...
-Widgeon
Widgeon, the Red-headed, ox Anas ferina, L. a bird of passage, frequenting fenny places in the winter season : its breast is black ; the back and coverts of the wings are of a pale grey, intermixed wi...
-Willow
Willow, or Salix, L. a genus of trees comprising 42 species ; 22 being indigenous, of which the following are the principal : 1. The viminalis. See Osier. 2.The capreata. See Sallow. - Be...
-Willow-Herb
Willow-Herb, or Epilobi-um, L. a genus of plants consisting of 13 species, 8 being indigenous ; of which the following are the principal: 1. The hirsutum, Great Hairy, or Large-flowered Willow-h...
-Wind
Wind, is a perceptible agitation or commotion of the atmosphere, occasioned by a strong current of air from one region to another. The temperature of climates being greatly modified, by the winds; ...
-Wind Disorder
Wind, or Broken Wind, a disorder incident to horses : in this affection, they cannot breathe, freely, and their natural functions are impaired : it is usually preceded by a dry cough, and may be known...
-Wind-Gall
Wind-Gall, in farriery, signifies a windy swelling, on both sides of the back sinew, above the fetlocks, in the fore or hind-legs of a horse ; though these tumors may likewise arise in various other p...
-Wind-Instruments
Wind-Instruments, or those which must be played by the breath, are generally opposed to such as are stringed, or those of the vibrating kind. The principal wind-isntruments are the fife, flageolet,...
-Windmill
Windmill, is a contrivance for grinding corn, or raising water: it is put in motion by the action of the wind upon its sails, or vanes. In the 55th vol. of the Gentle-man's Magazine for 1785, we ...
-Wind-Pipe
Wind-Pipe, or Trachea, is a tube composed of cartilaginous rings, and situated in the fore part of the neck, before the gullet. After descending to the. third or fourth joint of the back, it divides i...
-Window
Window, an aperture left in the walls of houses, with a view to admit the light, and which is generally provided with glass, disposed in sashes. A patent was granted in May, 1783, to Mr.William Pla...
-Wine
Wine, is an agreeable, spirituous, aromatic liquor, prepared by fermenting the juices of those vegetables which contain saccharine matter. Its constituent parts are : 1. Sugar, or the sweet juice, usu...
-Winnowing-Machine
Winnowing-Machine, is a Contrivance, employed for separating, by an artificial current of air, the chaff from the grain, after it has been thrashed out of the straw. In the year 1797, a patent was...
-Wire
Wire, is a cylindrical piece of gold, silver, copper, iron, or other metal, forced and drawn through holes of an iron frame: it is made of Various sizes, according to the poses for which it is designe...
-Withers
Withers, a term in farriery, denoting the juncture of the shoulder-bone, at the bottom of the neck and mane. - This important part of the horse's body, is liable to bruises, generally occasioned by a ...
-Woad
Woad, or Isatis, L. a genus of plants comprehending 6 species, of which only the tinctoria, or Wild Woad, is a native of Britain. It is biennial; grows in corn-fields, principally at New Barns, in the...
-Wolf's-Bane
Wolf's-Bane, the Large Blue, or Monk's-Hood, Aconi-tum Napellus, L. is an exotic perennial, growing wild in the mountainous parts of Switzerland and France. - The juice of this plant possesses a disag...
-Wolves-Teeth
Wolves-Teeth, in farriery, frequently occur in old horses, when the upper bones of the mouth considerably project over the lower ones : thus, the almost only inconvenience resulting from this circumst...
-Wood
Wood, denotes the fibrous substance, of which the branches, trunks, and roots of trees, are principally composed. Having already stated the most approved methods of seasoning wood, under the ar...
-Wood-Cock
Wood-Cock, or Scolopax rusticola, L. a bird of passage, generally appearing in England to-ward the latter end of October, and retiring early in March. - It is about 14 inches in length, and, with expa...
-Wood-Pecker
Wood-Pecker, or Picus, L. a genus of birds comprising 10 species, 4 of which are frequently met with in Britain : the following of these are the most remarkable. 1. The viridis, or Green Woodpecker...
-Woodroof
Woodroof, the Sweet, or Asperula odorata, L. an indigenous perennial, growing in woods and shady places ; where it flowers in the month of May. - This plant possesses an exceedingly grateful odour, th...
-Wool
Wool, in general, signifies the hairy substance which forms the covering of Sheep. The growth of wool is always completed in one year, when it spontaneously decays, and is naturally renewed ; in wh...
-Worms
Worms, are the meanest of the lower animals. Those which infest the bowels of the human body, are generally divided into three kinds, namely, 1. the asta-rides, or small round and short white worms ; ...
-Earth-Worms
Worms, or Earth-worms, in husbandry, are very injurious creatures, especially in corn-fields ; where they consume the young roots, and thus destroy the greater part of the crop. To prevent such dep...
-Wormwood
Wormwood, the Sea, or Sea Southern-wood, Artemisia maritima, L. is an indigenous perennial, growing on the sea-coasts, and flowering in the month of August. - In its wild state, the odour of this plan...
-Wort
Wort, is an infusion of malt, from which different kinds of AlE and Beer are brewed. Wort possesses considerable antiseptic properties, and has often proved an excellent diet-drink, which remar...
-Wound
Wound, in surgery, is a recent and violent solution of continuity in a soft, external part of the body ; being attended with an effusion of blood. - To enter into a full discussion of the different ki...
-Woundwort
Woundwort, or Stachys, L.. a genus of plants consisting of 22 species ; 4 being indigenous ; of which the following are the principal. 1. The palustris, or Marsh Woundwort. See Clown's Allheal...
-Wren
Wren, the Common, or Mo-tacilla troglodytes, L. is a very diminutive bird, inhabiting all parts of Europe, and especially England, where it maintains itself during the severest winters. It is from 3 t...
-Wrestling
Wrestling, is a wanton combat, or engagement between two unarmed persons, who exert all their strength and dexterity to throw each other on the ground. Wrestling was in great repute among the ancie...
-Writing
Writing, is the art of conveying our ideas to others, by means of certain characters. As the history of this noble, invention is lost in the remote periods of antiquity, it would be foreign to our ...
-Wry-Neck
Wry-Neck, or Jynxtorquilla, L. is a bird of passage, somewhat larger than a lark ; of a brown and black colour, with wave-like stripes ; appearing in Britain in the spring, and preceding the Cuckow : ...
-Yam
Yam, or Dioscorea bulbifera, L. is a native of Ceylon, whence its culture has been introduced into the West Indies, and other parts of America : it is divided into two varieties, known under the names...
-Yard
Yard, is a measure of length, employed for measuring cloth, stuffs, etc. The English yard contains three feet, or 36 inches : it is converted into ells English, by subtracting a fifth part, or 7 on...
-Yarn
Yarn, in general, denotes the manufacture of wool, hemp, flax, cotton, etc. converted into filaments or threads, which are subservient to a variety of useful purposes. Formerly, all yarn WW spun or...
-Yarrow
Yarrow, the Common, or Milfoil, Achillea Millefolium, L. an indigenous perennial, growing in meadows, pastures, and on road-sides ; blowing from June till August.; - The flowers of this vegetable yiel...
-Yawning
Yawning is an involuntary opening of the mouth ; which is occasioned by weariness, or an inclination to sleep ; though it frequently occurs early in the morning, and immediately after rising. Yawning...
-Yeast
Yeast, or Barm, is the froth or scum which rises on beer, during the act of fermentation. Yeast is an article of the greatest importance in domestic economy ; forming a ...
-Yellow
Yellow, is one of the seven primitive colours. The principal article affording a yellow dye, is the Weld, or Dyer's Green-weed ; of the culture of which, the reader will find an account in that art...
-The Shaggy Spunk, Yellow
Yellow. - The Shaggy Spunk, or Boletus hirsutus, a species of Mushroom, has lately been recommended to public attention by M. Lasteyrie, who has extracted from it a lively and durable yellow dye. This...
-Yellow Fever
Yellow Fever, is one of the most fatal epidemics to which the inhabitants of warm climates are subject. As the opinions of physicians, concerning the nature and treatment of the Yellow Fever, are v...
-Yellow Hammer
Yellow Hammer, or Em-beriza citrinella, L. is a well-known diminutive bird, which inhabits Britain, and other parts of Europe: according to Mr. Pennant, its bill is of a dusky hue; the crown of the he...
-Yellow-Rattle
Yellow-Rattle, Coxcone, or Penny-Grass, Rhinanthus Crista-Galli, L. a native plant, growing in meadows, pastures, and woods ; blowing in the months of June and July. - This vegetable sometimes overspr...
-Yellows Jaundice
Yellows, or Jaundice, in farriery, is a disorder to which horses are occasionally subject: it is known by the dusky-yellow appearance of the eyes, the inside of the mouth, and of the lips. The animal ...
-Yellows
Yellows, a disorder affecting black cattle, which, if it be not timely attended to, will induce the Murrain, and other fatal distempers. Symptoms .- Every morning, a general tremor over the animal...
-Yew-Tree
Yew-Tree, the Common, or Taxus baccata, L. a native of Britain, and other parts of Europe, as well as of America: it grows in mountainous woods, hedges, and rocky soils; producing its flowers in March...
-Yoke
Yoke, in agriculture, is a wooden frame, adapted to the necks of oxen; by means of which they are coupled and fastened to the plough, or other vehicle. It is composed, 1. of a thick piece of wood, tha...
-Youth
Youth, or Adolescence, in general, is that happy period of human life, which commences from childhood ; continues as long as the fibres increase in dimensions or firmness ; and terminates at full grow...
-Zaffre
Zaffre, is the oxyd or calx of cobalt, employed for imparting a blue colour to porcelain and pottery ware : it is prepared, according to Cronstedt, in the following manner. When the cobalt is dug o...
-Zanthoxylon
Zanthoxylon, or, more correctly, Xanthoxylon, Prickly Yellow Wood, or Yellow Hercules, is a native of Jamaica, and other tropical countries, where it grows to the height of 16 feet, and is about 12 in...
-Zedoary
Zedoary, or Kaempferia, L. a genus of exotic plants, consisting of two species ; namely : 1. The galanga, Common Galangal, or Long Zedoary; which has long, thick, tuberous roots, and produces-single w...
-Zinc
Zinc, or Stelter, is a semi-metal, naturally obtained in a state of combination with different minerals, in England, Hungary, and other parts of the globe : it is of a whitish colour, nearly resemblin...
-Zizany
Zizany, the Water, or Zi-zania aquatica, L. is a native of North America, where it glows in wet and marshy situations. - The root of this vegetable is fibrous, and strikes forth many angular, smooth s...
-Citric Acid
Acids. - The citric acid is a concrete juice obtained principally from lemons : it has also been discovered in the red whortleberry, cranberry, bird-cherry, as well as in the fruits of the woody night...
-Anchovy
Anchovy or Clupea Encra-Sicolus, L. a small fish of the herring-kind, taken in immense quan-tities on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, whence they are imported into Britain, in a pickled state. The...
-Anotta
Anotta, is an elegant red colouring substance, prepared from the pellicles, or pulp, which surround the seeds of the Arnotto Tree, or Bixa, L. a native of South America. According to Labat, the Ind...
-Antispasmodics
Antispasmodics are those medicines, which are calculated to relieve persons afflicted with cramps, spasms, or convulsions : such are opium, Peruvian balsam, and the essential oils of different vegetab...
-Art
Art. - Those of our readers, who wish to trace the rise and progress of the arts of architecture, sculpture, and painting, in this country, will meet with ample information, illustrated with appropria...
-Base-Rocket
Base-Rocket, Rocket Yellow-weed, or Wild Mig-Nonette, Reseda lutea, L. is an indigenous plant, growing in meadows, pastures, and corn-fields, chiefly in a calcareous soil; though it is sometimes found...
-Beam
Beam, in architecture, is the largest piece of timber employed in the erection of edifices : it is laid across walls, and serves to support the principal rafters, which arc framed into it. The prop...
-Bittern
Bittern, or Ardea stellaris, L. a solitary British bird, inhabiting chiefly the fen-countries : it has a smooth head, and the plumage, in general, is of a pale-yellow, spotted and barred with black. -...
-Bleak
Bleak, or Cyprinus alburnus, L. a well-known scaly fish, inhabiting British streams, and being from 5 to 6 inches in length. Bleaks associate in large shoals: at certain seasons, they tumbl...
-Books
Books are liable to be stained with grease, tallow, oil, or other fat substances; by which their beauty and value are greatly impaired : hence we shall add the following recipe for restoring them to t...
-Bricks
Bricks. - An important discovery has lately been made by Mr. Whitmore Davis, at Castle Comber, in the county of Kilkenny, Ireland. He observed some persons in the vicinity of a colliery, to employ a m...
-Bur-Weed
Bur-Weed, the Greater, or Bur-Reed, Sparganium erecium, L. is an indigenous perennial, growing in ditches, marshes, and on the banks of rivers, where it flowers in July. - This plant, though refused b...
-Cascarilla
Cascarilla, is the bark of the Croton eleutheria, L. a native of the East Indies, whence it is imported in the form of curled pieces, or rolled up into short quills, about an inch in width; nally rese...
-Chaffinch
Chaffinch, or Fringilla cae-lebs, L. a small beautiful bird, abounding in Britain, and in various parts of Europe: it is chiefly valued for the variety and melody of its song. Chaffinches construct...
-Chaps
Chaps, are flaws or cracks which appear on the skin, and are induced by various circumstances. Chaps in the face generally proceed from the action of external cold ; which, by impeding the perspira...
-Chicken-Pox
Chicken-Pox, or Swine-Pock, Varicella, is a disorder in itself of so little consequence, that we should not have mentioned it, it this affection were not frequently confounded with the Small Pox. T...
-Chocolate-Tree
Chocolate-Tree, or Cacao-tree, Theobroma Cacao, L. is a native of the West Indies, and South America, attaining the height of from 15 to 20 feet : it produces small pale-red flowers, that are succeede...
-Cock's-Foot-Grass
Cock's-Foot-Grass. - This vegetable is propagated by sowing-its seed in moist pastures, and marshy situations. Although its culture is at present very limited 5 vet as it grows with uncommon rapidity,...
-Corn-Flag
Corn-Flag, the Common, or Gladiolus communis, L. a hardy, indigenous plant, growing in cornfields, from one to two feet high ; producing red and white, or purple flowers, in May and June, which are su...
-Cubebs
Cubebs, or Piper Cubeba, L. is a native of Java, whence its small round fruit is imported by the East India Company, in grains or seeds resembling pepper, which pay, on warehousing, the sum of 2l. per...
-Cultivator
Cultivator, is an implement of husbandry, lately invented by Mr. William Lester, of Northampton ; for the contrivance of which, the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, etc. in 1801, rewarded him wi...
-Cummin
Cummin, or Cuminum Cy-minum, L. is an exotic annual plant, propagated in the Isle of Malta, for the sake of its seeds ; which, on importation, pay the duty of 8s. 0 4/5d. per cwt. - They have a bitter...
-Curd
Curd, is the coagulated part of milk, after the whey is separated. As curd contains the most substantial particles of milk, it affords a rich nourishment; and especially when produced by an artific...
-Curtain
Curtain, an article of domestic furniture, consisting generally of calico, dimity, or printed cotton ; which may be contracted or expanded at pleasure, and is usually appended to a bedstead, or to win...
-Cyber
Cyber. - Beside the different modes of fining cyder, already stated, we shall add the following recipes: 1. When the fermentation is nearly completed, let 2 or 3 quarts of neat cyder, or of French ...
-Dew-Berry Bush
Dew-Berry Bush, or Ru-bus caesus, L. is an indigenous shrub, growing in woods and hedges, where its white prickly flowers appear in June or July, and are succeeded by dark-blue berries. - Although thi...
-Diabetes
Diabetes, in farriery, denotes a profuse staling of horses: it is generally occasioned by too violent exercise, or by over-straining, etc. When this malady attacks old horses, or those of a weak con-s...
-Dragon's-Blood
Dragon's-Blood, or Sanguis Draconis, is a gummy-resinous substance, imported from the East Indies, either in oval drops, or in large grains resembling tears. The genuine Dragon's-blood is obtained ...
-Elm-Trees
Elm-Trees are frequently subject to a kind of ulcers ; which, if not timely attended to, eventually destroy them. Such as are planted in marshy grounds, or in the vicinity of rivers, are chiefly liabl...
-Face-Ach
Face-Ach, or Tic douloureux, is an acute pain in the face, which is sometimes accompanied by suppurating tumors: it mostly a tacks persons of delicate habits, and those who are uncommonly susceptib...
-Film
Film, in farriery, is a thick pellicle or skin, that is formed on the eyes of horses; in consequence of which their sight is impaired. In order to disperse the film, it has been recommended to redu...
-Flea-Locust
Flea-Locust, or Frog-hoppER, Cicada, L. is a genus of insects, comprehending 51 species, which are named chiefly from the trees they infest. Their beak is inflected, and the animals are provided with ...
-Food Of Plants
Food Of Plants. - In a select collection of Memoirs, lately published by the Free Society of Agriculture, Arts and Commerce, in the Department of Ar-denne, the following vegetative liquor is recom...
-Guinea Corn
Guinea Corn, or Holcus Sorghum, L. an exotic vegetable, growing on the coast of Africa : its stalks are large, compact, generally attaining the height of 7 or 8 feet, and producing abundance of grain....
-Yellow-Gum
Gum, or Yellow-Gum, is a species of Jaundice, to which infants are liable, in consequence of a retention of the meconium, or when the bowels are obstructed after their birth. This affection may be ...
-Gymnastics
Gymnastics, or the Athletic Art, denotes the dexterous performance of certain exercises of the body, whether for defence, health, or amusement. On the first institution of society, men being aware ...
-Hampstead-Water
Hampstead-Water is obtained from a mineral spring, which rises in the village of that name, in the vicinity of the metropolis. This chalybeate was formerly in considerable repute for it...
-Hawk-Moth
Hawk-Moth, or Sphinx, L. is a genus of insects, comprising 165 species, ten of which are discovered in Britain, and variously named, according to the trees they infest. The generality of hawk-moths...
-Kilburn-Water
Kilburn-Water, is a saline mineral fluid, obtained from a spring at Kilburn-well, about two miles from the end of Oxford-street, London. This water was formerly in great repute, but is at present s...
-Lackey-Moth
Lackey-Moth, or Phalaena Bombyx Neustriae, is a species of moth that commits great depredations on fruit-trees ; around the branches of which it deposits numerous eggs; that exhibit the appearance of ...
-Logic
Logic, is the art of thinking and reasoning with judgment and propriety : or, it may be defined to be the history of the human mind; because it traces the progress of knowledge from the first and most...
-Manmanure
Manmanure. - The utility of clay on poor lands has already been stated in this article, vol. iii. p. l6l : we now submit the following fact to the consideration of our readers. - In the 2d vol. of C...
-Opodeldoc
Opodeldoc, a well-known liniment, which is prepared by digesting 3 parts of soap in l6 parts of the spirit of rosemary, till the former be dissolved; when one part of camphor should be incorporated ...
-Ornithology
Ornithology, is that science which treats of birds ; describing their form, animal economy, and various uses. Having already specified the natural habits, as well as the useful purposes, together w...
-Taint
Taint. - In February 1799, a patent was granted to Mr. Joseph Tidmarsh, for his invention of a compound, which may be either substituted for paint, or be mixed with other pigments, for enlarging their...
-Pichurim Beans
Pichurim Beans are the fruit of the Faba Pichurim, a native of South America; and of which there are two varieties, known under the names of the Greater and Lesser Pichurim Beans, The pods of the latt...
-Plants
Plants. - A simple method of conveying shrubs, and young trees, from distant climates, has lately been published by M. Charpentier De Caussigny. He directs a box to be provided, of a suf...
-Privies
Privies are certain places of retirement, which require no farther definition. - As they frequently emit an odour alike inconvenient and unwholesome, either from neglect in cleansing them, or from the...
-Red Ink
Red Ink. - Although we have already (vol iii. p. 483) inserted two methods of preparing Red Ink, yet as it appears from the experiment made by one of our co respondents, that the second process, extra...
-Scarborough Water
Scarborough Water is obtained from two mineral springs which rise about a quarter of a mile from that town, in Yorkshire. One is a simple chalybeate water, similar to that of Tunbridge; while the othe...
-Sea-Plantain
Sea-Plantain, or Plantago maritima, L. is an indigenous perennial, growing on the sea-coast, where it flowers in June or July. - This plant, when reduced to ashes, affords a considerable quantity of m...
-Slugs
Slugs, frequently harbour near the foundation of walls, and at the roots of pease, beans, lettuces, where they commit great depredations. Mr. Forsyth, therefore, directs them to be picked off, and thr...
-Strangury
Strangury, in farriery, is an obstruction of urine, that is sometimes occasioned by an accumulation of feces pressing on the neck of the bladder; In which case the treatment, stated under the article ...
-Tamarisk
Tamarisk, the French, or Tamarix Gallica, L. is an indigenous bushy shrub, which grows chiefly on the southern coasts of Britain ; where its beautiful white flowers appear in July. - This marine veget...
-Tulip-Tree
Tulip-Tree, or Liriodendron tulipifera, L. a native of North America, in the temperate climates of which it attains the height of from 60 to 100 feet: in colder regions, it degenerates into a bush. - ...
-Waste Lands
Waste Lands. - Having, under various heads, in this work, had opportunities of proving the important national advantages that may be derived from a more general cultivation of the extensive heaths a...
-Water Mills
Water Mills. - Although we are, in this country, provided with many contrivances, in which the united powers of water, steam, and mechanical force, have been successfully applied to the purpose of gri...
-Winnow
Winnow. - Conformably to our promise (p. 339 of this vol.), we have procured an engraving of an improved winnowing machine, manufactured by Messrs. T. and J. PolPreeman, of Long-acre, London ; who h...
-Short Index for Vol. 4
Ruta-baga. See Turnip. Rye-Grass. See Darnel, the Red. Saffron, the Meadow. See Meadow-Saffron. Sal-ammoniac. See Ammoniac Sallow-thorn. See Buckthorn, the Sea. Salting Meat. See ...









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