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The New Student's Reference Work Volume 5: How And Why Stories



This is volume 5 of The New Student's Reference Work Containing How And Why Stories

TitleThe New Student's Reference Work: Volume 5
AuthorElinor Atkinson
PublisherF. E. Compton And Company
Year1911
CopyrightF. E. Compton And Company

The Student's Reference Work has long been known and valued as supplying just that reference material which is needed by teachers and pupils in elementary and secondary schools. While partial revisions have been made from year to year, yet in order to keep fully abreast of the times a radical revision and the introduction of much new material have become necessary.

Accordingly we now present The New Student's Reference Work, which practically is a new work. New material has added more than one third to its volume, while the articles which appeared in the former work have been largely rewritten and entirely reset. In its preparation we were able to secure the cooperation of specialists and educators whose standing will be recognized upon inspection of our list of editors and contributors. Advantage has been taken of suggestions which have come to us from many teachers during years of experience in the use of the former work, and it is believed that the present work will be found adequate and satisfactory.

THE NEW STUDENT'S REFERENCE WORK

FOR TEACHERS STUDENTS AND FAMILIES

EDITED BY

CHANDLER B. BEACH, A.M.

VOLUME V

CONTAINING HOW AND WHY STORIES

By ELINOR ATKINSON

AND LESSON OUTLINES

CHICAGO

P. E. COMPTON & COMPANY

1911

Copyright, 1911, by C. B. Beach Copyright, 1909, by C. B. Beach

Other volumes of this work:

Once Upon A Time.

Part I: Geography

-Stories In Geography: Children Of Our Own And Other Lands
Editors' Note to Mother and Teacher. The study of descriptive and political Geography is introduced into the very first year of school, through travel stories.
-Children Of Our Own And Other Lands. I. The Red Child Of The Forest
You are proud of being an American boy, aren't you? Perhaps you will be surprised to learn that there is another boy who has a better right to the name than ...
-II. The Little Pale Faces Who Came Over The Sea
Six year old Faithful was knitting a stocking. Her home was a pretty stone cottage with a thick roof of straw. It was in a village, in England. Roses grew ...
-III. Little Wooden Two Shoes
Let us follow the Mayflower as it sails back home. All the white children who came to America had to cross the Atlantic ocean. We won't stop when the ship ...
-IV. Ship Loads Of Politeness
Very near Holland lived other children who came to America. They were French. Their names were Louis and Jeanne. French people did not like to live alone, on ...
-V. Little Friends In Furs
Before they came to America to live, the English and Dutch people were great sailors and traders. If they heard of anything they wanted, in far-away lands, ...
-VI. Children From Spain
Other ships sailed away for sugar. They found sugar right here in the New World. When Columbus came across the sea, before any other white man, he came in a ...
-VII. The Little Black Children Who Lived in a Zoo
It was noon but the little boys and girls were all asleep, in the huts under the palm trees. No, they were not still asleep. They had got up with the sun, but ...
-VIII. Babes In The Woods
Once they got started, people kept coming and coming and coming to America as if they never would stop! In our own part of North America, that is now the ...
-IX. Pioneer Days And Ways
It was a cold morning in mid-winter, one hundred years ago. Around the little log cabin the snow lay deep among the stumps of trees in the clearing. A zig-zag ...
-X. What "Liebe Mutter" Brought To America
Once upon a time a woman was packing everything, just as the Puritans did, to come to America. She was a German woman. The children called her Hebe mutter ( ...
-XI. The Miraculous Pitcher
If the German people brought the Christmas tree to America the Irish brought us something for every day in the year. It was like the milk in the mi-rac-u-lous ...
-XII. The Golden Fleece Of America.
Did you ever hear the old Greek story of Jason who sailed away to find the golden fleece? Many people think this a story of the world-old hunt for gold mines.
-XIII. Alice In Wonderland
Alice never forgot the time she went to California with her grandpapa. Grandpapa was going back to California. The first time he went in an ox-wagon, when he ...
-XIV. The Children Of Topsy-Turvy Land.
Wouldn't you like to visit some children who never cry when they are babies? No, they are not Indians, although they ride around on their mother's backs. Their ...
-XV. All Work And No Play For Little Wung Foo
If Wung Foo had studied very hard at school, and learned as many as twenty-five new sign words, his grandmother told him stories in the evening. Wung Foo was a ...
-XVI. All Play And No Work For Manuelo
Manuelo was a little brown Filipino boy who played nearly all day long. He did not care how many Chinese boys came to his home in The Philippine Islands to be ...
-XVII. Children Of "The Arabian Nights"
You have taken a long journey since you sailed through the Golden Gate at San Francisco. Now it is time to go home. There is more than one way of going home ...
-XVIII. The Little Country Of The Big Mountain
After you have watched the ships of the desert sail away across the sea of sand, with Mehemet and Zaidee, you go down to a seaport town and get on a real ship.
-XIX. The "Front Door" Of America
The very nicest time to get home to America is on a summer morning. You have been on the water nearly a week. You have crossed the same Atlantic ocean, that ...

Part II: Land

-Wonders Of The World We Live On
Editors' Note to Mother and Teacher. When the writer was a child, Physical Geography was a high school study. A hard name often makes a simple thing difficult.
-The Story Told In The Rocks
The story of the earth is long. It is found recorded in the rocks. These pictures tell a part of it. You see a stream which ages ago flowed down through the ...
-I. Land
When you went around the world you found that this earth we live upon is made of just land and water. But what a number of things were made with them. No two ...
-I. Land. Part 2
Water is very heavy. A little boy or girl cannot carry a wooden pail full of it very far. Every pint of water weighs a pound. The ocean is deep. There are ...
-II. Water
The other thing this round world is made of is water. In going around the earth you crossed oceans, lakes and rivers. You saw ice or frozen water. You saw ...
-II. Water. Part 2
These get so heavy that they roll down the glass. They roll down the walls, too, and drop from the ceiling. If vapor is not turned out of doors it makes a room ...
-II. Water. Part 3
Jack Frost is busy with you, too. He takes the vapor of your breath and per-spi-ra-tion, as you lie warm in bed, and makes pictures with it on the cold window ...
-III. Air
Besides land and water on the earth, there is something that is all around it, and all through both land and water. You cannot see it, or feel it, or taste it, ...
-III. Air. Part 2
Sometimes air rivers flow up and down so rapidly, pushing each other out of place that they make what? See the leaves blowing on the trees. Wind! Wind is air ...

Part III: Plants

-The Story Of Life. Part I. Plants
Editors' Note to Mother and Teacher. A little child is interested, first of all, in the world outside of himself; but parts of himself seem external. A baby is ...
-I. We Meet The Fairy Godmother
What if you had never seen an apple, or an apple tree! Little Esquimo boys and girls never saw them. So, just imagine that you never saw them, either. Then, if ...
-II. How The Yeast Plant Grows In A Loaf Of Bread
Which would you rather do, get inside a loaf of bread, or put the bread inside of you? That makes you laugh. But you never tried getting inside a loaf of bread.
-III. Sailor Plants And Robinson Crusoes
The first little plants were sailors. As they floated about in the water, the living drop of jelly or protoplasm, soaked food through the thin walls of the ...
-IV. Water Babies That Live On Land
Did you ever see a tad-pole? A tad-pole is a baby frog, you know, but it looks more like a baby fish. It breathes through feather-like gills. You can keep one ...
-V. Pygmy Plants And Their Wonderful Labors
Next above the liver-wort, is a plant that will tell you how to find your way home if you ever get lost in the woods. One of the very first lessons a little ...
-VI. How The Fern Grew Bones And Babies
In order to stand alone you must have a backbone. And you must have bones in your legs, too. Your bones are on the inside and are covered with muscles. A ...
-VII. How Fairy Fungi Turned Into A Dandelion
That was a great day in your family when you stood alone for the first time. It was just as great a thing in the plant world when the first fern leaf lifted on ...
-Dandelion, Showing Plant, Flowers And Seed Heads.
The palm, in some ways, is simpler than the pine. It has less bark, and its stem does not branch. Its bark often seems to be mere bundles of loose, dry fibres ...
-VIII. Why Plants Are Like Squirrels
Did you ever see a squirrel gathering acorns and nuts in the autumn? All summer long squirrels eat their food as they find it, bring up their babies, grow fat ...
-VIII. Why Plants Are Like Squirrels. Part 2
The leaves are little plant-food factories. In them they have water and minerals from the roots, and oxygen, nitrogen and carbon-dioxide from the air. Oxygen ...
-IX. Plants Have Visitors And Travel Abroad
What a great thing it is for little boys and girls to have play mates. How many more things you learn to know and to do, and how much better a time you have, ...
-X. How Plants Are Promoted To A Higher Class
A long time ago people thought that flowers were given their beautiful colors and perfumes just to make the world a pleasanter place for people to live in. But ...

Part IV: Animals

-Part II. Animals. I. The Little Animal That Walks With Its Stomach And Eats With Its Feet
Don't you like the menagerie part of the circus best? And the Zoo in the city park? Wild animals are so strange and interesting. In every pond and creek there ...
-I. The Little Animal That Walks With Its Stomach And Eats With Its Feet. Part 2
As the cells of plants change into roots or leaves or bark, when leaves or roots or bark are needed, so all the different parts of animals, from the amoeba up ...
-II. Water Babies That Live In A Village
If the amoeba is ever to get up in the world very far, it must stop using all its parts for everything. The first little creature to make a stomach on the ...
-III. A Sea Flower That Eats With Its Petals And Moves When It Wants To
The sponge, the jelly fish and the coral builder are hollow-bodied animals. They are higher than the amoeba because they have more different parts. The ...
-III.2 A Sea Flower That Eats With Its Petals And Moves When It Wants To
The sea-anemone not only looks like the flower of that name, but it has something that reminds us of the vine called the Virginia Creeper. The anemone is ...
-IV. The Web Of Life: Mother Nature At Her Loom
Big boys and girls, when they finish high-school, have to write graduation essays. One of the subjects they often choose to write about is The Web of Life is ...
-V. Starfish, And Sea Urchins That Play With Live Dolls
Animals like the sponge and the sea-anemone rank higher in the scale of life than the amoeba because they are hollow-bodied. The next higher step is taken by ...
-VI. A Long Speech By A Little Worm
All worms are of a higher order than the spiny-bodied animals such as the sea-urchin and the starfish. This is not exactly because some of them do such bright ...
-VII. The Earthworm Puts On Armor
You needn't be afraid of him, little friend Earthworm. This armored monster, with his long feelers, his stalk eyes and his great crooked arms with battle axes ...
-VII. The Earthworm Puts On Armor. Part 2
The blood of the crawfish circulates very much as the blood of the earthworm does. He has two long tubes for carrying it. One of these tubes runs along his ...
-VIII. How The Worm In Armor Counts By Twos And Threes
Like ourselves, the crawfish is divided into three main parts, but differently. The front third of him carries his brain, his arms and legs, his eyes and ...
-IX. Mr. Crawfish And His Table Manners
When Mr. Crawfish was an earthworm he felt his way along with his pointed nose. Now that he is shut up inside of his shell nose and all what is he going to do?
-X. The Crawfish, The Spider And The Fly
If you were giving Mr. Crawfish, Mr. Spider and Mr. Fly their places in the long line of march, wouldn't you put them in the order I have named: first Mr.
-XI. Why The Crawfish Crawled Into A Shell
If I were to ask you What is the best part of an oyster, or a clam? You would say: The inside, of course. And you would be right; but you might not mean just ...
-XII. The Oyster Learns To Swim
Of course no oyster ever did learn to swim, because when he did learn he was no longer an oyster. It looks more as if he once knew how to swim and then forgot.
-XIII. The Oyster-Fish That Climbed On Shore
Why we can almost see him do it. What? Why see Mr. Frog change into himself from a fish Right under our eyes, if we have him in an aquarium, where we can watch ...
-XIV. Birds Of The Water And Birds Of The Air
What animals build nests? And lay eggs in the spring and early summer? And go in large companies with their mates from one part of the world to another, at ...
-XV. Water Babies And Other Babies That Drink Milk
As we have seen all the way through and will see a great deal more, the more we look carefully at the picture in Nature's wonder book, the higher forms of life ...
-XV. Water Babies And Other Babies That Drink Milk. Part 2
As we have seen that the lowest forms of life, both animal and vegetable, begin in the water so, in each new class of animals, there is this same grading up.

Part V: Flowers

-Nature Study. Part I - Flowers
Editors' Note to Mother and Teacher One day, more than sixty years ago, a group of young men in Harvard University were assigned a lesson in Zoology, by a new ...
-I. A Wild Garden And Its Tenants
This is the story of a wild garden that was found near a public school on the edge of a big city. None of the children had the tiniest garden, and they were ...
-I. A Wild Garden And Its Tenants. Part 2
Lower down, hidden in wire grass, were yellow-flowered sorrel, with acid leaves that the children liked to nibble. There was many a sturdy bunch of butter and ...
-II. Little Lion Tooth And Its Cousins
In the spring, the grass that bordered the cement walk around the wild garden was not two inches high before it began to be dotted with the golden rosettes of ...
-II. Little Lion Tooth And Its Cousins. Part 2
Did you ever split a hollow stem of dandelion in strips, and pull it through your mouth to make a bunch of curls? It tasted bitter, didn't it? Every part of ...
-III. A "Good Luck" Family
Did you ever find a four-leafed clover? It's good luck to find one. With a four-leafed clover in your shoe you can walk right in among goblins and witches in ...
-III. A "Good Luck" Family. Part 2
If you see pussy prowling around a clover field, leave her alone. Pussy eats' field mice. Field mice eat baby bumble bees. If the mice were so many that they ...
-IV. The Bonny Briar Bush
It was a little bird that told how the wild rose came to be growing in the wild garden. There wasn't another wild rose anywhere in the neighborhood. Roses are ...
-IV. The Bonny Briar Bush. Part 2
Thorns are curious things. They start to be leaves or branches but get nipped, in some way, so they turn into thorns. They are very useful to roses. They help ...
-IV. The Bonny Briar Bush. Part 3
Yes, those plants are cousins of the rose. They have the same bright-barked, thorny, woody stems; the same spiny, compound leaves, and the many five-petaled ...

Part VI: Trees

-Trees. Part II. A Year In The Forest
Editors' Note to Mother and Teacher. Do you remember Eagle Heart, the little red American boy? His home was in the forest. We cannot find such a beautiful ...
-I. Spring: "Rockaby Babies"
Where do you look for flowers in the Spring, and when? Why, on the ground, of course, and in late April or early May. The Indian boy looked up, in March. He ...
-I. Spring: "Rockaby Babies". Part 2
The snow is still trickling away in little icy streams when the first willow pussies come out for an airing. You will not find them on the big willow trees, ...
-I. Spring: "Rockaby Babies". Part 3
The acorn is really a kind of nut. And you might say that all of our forest nuts are made in much the same way as acorns. The chestnut seed-cone grows on the ...
-II. Summer: "In The Tree Tops"
Summer is the leafy season. But the time to begin to study leaves is in the early spring. On nearly all trees the leaf comes as soon as the blossom falls. The ...
-III. Autumn: "When The Wind Blows"
What is it the magician says in fairy stories, when he makes the most surprising things happen? Presto, change! and he claps his hands. Jack Frost is this ...
-III. Autumn: "When The Wind Blows". Part 2
Chestnuts are very near relatives of the oaks. The cups are closed burs, very stiff and woody, with prickly thorns. You have to let Jack Frost open them for ...
-IV. Winter: "The Cradles Will Rock"
Who says there is no use in going to the forests again until spring? What a funny mistake! It's worth while going if only for the pictures in black and white.
-IV. Winter: "The Cradles Will Rock". Part 2
But we are forgetting our winter pictures in black and white.' There are other trees with white, or silvery gray bark as well as the birches. Some willows and ...
-IV. Winter: "The Cradles Will Rock". Part 3
Winter is the best time for studying the cone-bearers. Perhaps you call all of these trees pines. Many people do. Only one of their family is a pine, and you ...

Part VII: Insects

-Part III - Insects, Etc. I. Mrs. Musca Domestica Calls
Were you speaking of me? Here I am. A very dignified little visitor, about a quarter of an inch long, drops out of the nowhere in the most surprising way! But ...
-I. Mrs. Musca Domestica Calls. Part 2
Well! with a little bristle of wings. No wonder! You ought to see where I have to bring up my babies. I can't carry them around, all legs and no arms as I am, ...
-II. Mrs. Garden Spider "At Home"
Mrs. Garden Spider won't come to see you and buzz by the hour. If you go to see her she'll tell you plainly that she doesn't care for society. It takes all her ...
-II. Mrs. Garden Spider "At Home". Part 2
Finished? No, indeed. When men build houses they first put up the frame work, then cheap scaffolding to stand on. Mrs. Spider sets up scaffolding to walk on.
-III. Gulliver Man And His Lilliputian Enemies
Once upon a time a baby was born. It was a very, very small baby, and almost too feeble to move. Yet, the very first day of its life, it ate two hundred times ...
-III. Gulliver Man And His Lilliputian Enemies. Part 2
Wheat has three insect enemies the chinch bug, the Hessian fly and the wheat midge. When ground into flour the meal worm often hatches out and makes it unfit ...
-IV. Pygmy Friends That Fly And Hop And Creep
Lions and tigers are such terrible beasts that you are very glad they live in circus menageries, park zoos and far-away jungles. As for dragons, very likely ...
-IV. Pygmy Friends That Fly And Hop And Creep. Part 2
There is another insect something like the dragon fly that looks as if it might sting. It has a long, wire-like tail that it can curl over its back and poke ...
-IV. Pygmy Friends That Fly And Hop And Creep. Part 3
Did you ever catch a pretty red, black-spotted lady-bird beetle on a rose bush, and say: Lady-bird, lady-bird, fly away home. Your house is on fire, your ...

Part VIII: Birds

-Part IV - Birds. A Bird-Lover'S Outdoor Aviary
Editors' Note to Mother and Teacher. Your mother and grandmother can remember the time when it wasn't thought to be so very wicked to rob birds' nests, or even ...
-I. Bird Songs And Colors
The doctor was never quite sure which of his little friends in feathers arrived first in the spring the bluebird, the song sparrow or the phoebe. Some morning ...
-I. Bird Songs And Colors. Part 2
If ever you do that take a thrush for first choice. The robin, the bluebird, the brown thrasher and the mocking bird are thrushes. Nearly all the thrushes have ...
-I. Bird Songs And Colors. Part 3
No blackbird is shy, you may be sure. The orioles always fly about in plain sight, and talk freely of themselves and their affairs. A hot-headed, blustering ...
-I. Bird Songs And Colors. Part 4
The cinnamon-brown, spotted-breasted hermit-thrush of our northern pine woods can throw his voice, too. He is as shy as the tanager. Perhaps both of them do ...
-II. Bird Nests And Babies
One spring the doctor got all ready to put a new roof on the kitchen wing of the house. Mrs. Doctor said it leaked ter-ri-bly every time it rained. The ...
-II. Bird Nests And Babies. Part 2
Oh how her mate sings to her ! He flashes about the tree, chasing away other birds. He relieves her when she wants a lunch. He brags and trills ; he tumbles ...
-II. Bird Nests And Babies. Part 3
You wouldn't expect as wild and silent a bird as the scarlet tanager, to build a nest ten feet from the ground, at the end of the limb of a wild crab-apple ...
-II. Bird Nests And Babies. Part 4
What a hurried, worried time it is for the parent birds when the baby birds are out of their shells. The nests must be cleaned of the egg-shells and dirt, and ...
-III. Little Friends In Feathers
One sunny Saturday afternoon in June, a tanned, dusty-legged boy came to the doctor's side porch. In one hand he had a soft, limp bundle of snow-white, dead- ...
-III. Little Friends In Feathers. Part 2
A barn-swallow, hurt in some way on its northward flight, had fed on cotton-boll weevil, in flying over the young cotton plants in the south. And she had eaten ...
-III. Little Friends In Feathers. Part 3
We have taken the trouble, here, to find out for you, from many bird books, and from farmer's bulletins printed by our government, just what our commonest wild ...

Part IX: Wild Animals

-Wild Animals You Would Like To Know
Editors' Note to Mother and Teacher. Wild animals have a wonderful fascination for children. About the traits, habits and homes of those most commonly to be ...
-I. Big Brother Bear
W'y, wunst they wuz a Little Boy went out In the woods, to shoot a Bear an' he Wuz goin' along an' goin' along, you know, An' purty soon he heerd somefin go ...
-I. Big Brother Bear. Part 2
That must have been one of the smaller black bears that used to be so common everywhere in American woods. The black bear is so bright that the Indians called ...
-I. Big Brother Bear. Part 3
All wild animals are fond of their mates and babies, and will fight for them. But there are few that are as brave and loving as the polar bears. Explorers and ...
-II. Pet Pussy And King Lion
Men have known lions longer than they have bears. They have lived right next door to lions for thousands of years, but they never called a lion brother. They ...
-II. Pet Pussy And King Lion. Part 2
There's one thing that lions can't do that cats can. They can't climb trees. But tigers, leopards, panthers and all the other big wild cats are great climbers, ...
-II. Pet Pussy And King Lion. Part 3
Ostriches must admire the lion's roar, for they seem to try to imitate it. African travellers say they do it very well, too. Hunters can be sure of one thing.
-III. Here Come The Elephants!
That is what the children shout when a circus parade marches through a town. The elephant is the children's delight. Draped in purple and gold he walks with ...
-III. Here Come The Elephants!. Part 2
It takes an elephant thirty years to grow up to eleven feet in height, twelve in length, with tusks and trunk six or eight feet long, and a weight of three ...
-III. Here Come The Elephants!. Part 3
Elephants live in herds like buffaloes. There are from twenty-five to one hundred in a herd. They wander about together in the woods and on the open plains of ...
-III. Here Come The Elephants!. Part 4
Elephants hate flies. The flies and stinging insects of hot countries are large and thick and tough as is the elephant's hide they manage to get into the folds ...
-IV. The Animal Acrobat And Clown
Can you think of anything that will collect a crowd of children so quickly, or keep them happy so long as an organ grinder with a monkey? The music is often ...
-IV. The Animal Acrobat And Clown. Part 2
Some of these monkeys have the prettiest homes! They camp out all the year round. They love the dense woods of very hot countries. In the beautiful tropical ...
-IV. The Animal Acrobat And Clown. Part 3
Another South American monkey is the Saki. He has a ruddy back, and an almost human habit of cupping a hand and dipping up water when he wants to drink. He is ...
-V. The Ship Of The Desert
There is one baby animal that rides when he goes bye-bye. He isn't carried on his mother's back, or in her breast pocket. He rides in a hammock on the back of ...
-V. The Ship Of The Desert. Part 2
In the hot, dry desert regions the camel is the horse, the cow and the sheep of the Arabian herders and traders. He carries all the burdens, he furnishes flesh ...
-V. The Ship Of The Desert. Part 3
It is a wonderful thing to see a camel caravan start from a town on the edge of the desert. There are hundreds of animals in a great yard, tons of goods in ...
-VI. Kangaroo And 'Possum, Too
If you like to be surprised, all of a sudden, just stand by the kangaroo pen in a park zoo awhile. In fact, if you are lucky, you will be surprised twice. You ...
-VI. Kangaroo And 'Possum, Too. Part 2
There is only one other animal in the world that has a pouch just like the kangaroo's. Curiously enough this little cousin of the Australian kangaroo lives in ...
-VII. The Graceful Camelopard
If anyone ever held his head high in this world it is Mr. Giraffe. If you could keep him for a pet he could easily poke his head in at a second-story window, ...
-VII. The Graceful Camelopard. Part 2
If closely pursued, a giraffe can escape through a jungle of thorn bushes where men and horses cannot follow, and come through without a scratch. His skin ...
-VIII. Mr. Nose Horn And Mr. River Horse
How do you say them? And which is which? That is what the very little boy asked about the rhinoceros and the hippopotamus when he came home from the London ...
-VIII. Mr. Nose Horn And Mr. River Horse. Part 2
It is the rhinoceros, or nose horn, that ought to have hippo (horse) in his name. He is a very distant relation of the horse. He has teeth like a horse and a ...
-IX. Wild Animals Near Home
Do you live on a farm? Or in a small town with woods and fields around it? There is a creek, perhaps, a swamp, hillside pastures, stone or rail fences bordered ...
-IX. Wild Animals Near Home. Part 2
No country in the Old World has so many true ground squirrels as we have. Prairie dogs, gophers and woodchucks are ground squirrels. The gopher is the ill- ...
-IX. Wild Animals Near Home. Part 3
When crossing a field in winter, stop and listen at hay and Straw stacks, and shocks of corn fodder. On the stillest, frosty day you may hear a crisp rustling ...

Part X: Typical Industries

-Typical Industries
Editors' Note to Mother and Teacher: And children coming home from school Look in at the open door; They love to see the flaming forge, And hear the bellows ...
-I. Big Businesses From Little Seeds
What did you have for breakfast? Bread and butter, toast, muffins, batter cakes. You had other things, too, but all of you had some kind of bread made of wheat ...
-I. Big Businesses From Little Seeds. Part 2
How is the soil everywhere wheat grows? Is there enough rain? Or too much? Owners of railroads and ships are interested in the size of the next wheat crop, for ...
-I. Big Businesses From Little Seeds. Part 3
In every town in a wheat-growing country there is an elevator and a grain buyer. How is the wheat taken from the low wagon bed and put into the high elevator?
-II. The Wonderful Gift Of Good King Cotton
Did you ever sing Dixie Land? Dixie is a loving nickname for our warm southern states, where cotton grows over hundreds of miles of country. The white men who ...
-II. The Wonderful Gift Of Good King Cotton. Part 2
The pickers in the field carry big brown bags that will hold many pounds of bolls. When a bag is full it is emptied in a wagon bed. When the wagon is full a ...
-II. The Wonderful Gift Of Good King Cotton. Part 3
Perhaps you think all cotton is alike. It isn't. There are as many kinds of cotton as there are of apples. Most of the little cotton hairs are less than an ...
-III. Iron. The Little Pig That Goes To Market
Oh! The baby's little big toe! No, that is just a play to amuse the baby. This is a real pig. Then, it's the squealy little fellow that pays the rent of the ...
-III. Iron. The Little Pig That Goes To Market. Part 2
There are iron mines in a great many of our states. The biggest ones that are now worked are near the shore of Lake Superior. The ore is found deep in the ...
-III. Iron. The Little Pig That Goes To Market. Part 3
The furnaces where iron is melted out of the ores, are tall towers of iron plates bolted together and lined thick with fire clays that will not melt. The ...
-IV. Pottery. The Wonderful Art Of Making Mud Pies
Isn't it fun to make mud pies? You get dreadfully dirty, but no natural child minds that. Mama is apt to say that washing dishes is a much more useful thing to ...
-IV. Pottery. The Wonderful Art Of Making Mud Pies. Part 2
Now the Dutch had wind-mills that did the hard work of pumping water, sawing wood and grinding grain. So it was only natural that these clever people should ...
-IV. Pottery. The Wonderful Art Of Making Mud Pies. Part 3
Saucers and bowls and plates and many, many articles are molded over plaster of paris shapes. For a plate or saucer a sheet of clay, like a rolled piecrust, is ...
-V. Woodworking. When A Tree Is Lumber
Have you a wooden top to spin? As it spins, it stands upright on its tip. But the first time your top spun was when it was made. It was held between two pivots ...
-V. Woodworking. When A Tree Is Lumber. Part 2
But first a road has to be made for the sledges. A snowy track is cleared of stones, trees and underbrush and is packed hard by the horses and sledges. Then it ...
-VI. Matches. Just To Light A Fire
When the Puritans came to America they had to bring everything you could think of with them even pins and needles and matches ? Oh, dear no! There were no ...
-VI. Matches. Just To Light A Fire. Part 2
To make the square match sticks, a round block of wood quite twelve or fifteen inches long is turned against a strong knife blade of the same length. The block ...
-VII. Glass Making. A Look Through A Window Into One Of Nature's Workshops
When you make taffy, you drop a spoonful of the boiling mixture into a glass of cold water to find out when it is just right to pull. Wouldn't it surprise you ...
-VII. Glass Making p2. A Look Through A Window Into One Of Nature's Workshops
Clean, white sand, soda and lime are put into enormous pots of fireclay in very hot furnaces. Some broken glass is added. For seed? Perhaps. It may be that the ...
-VIII. Rice Growing. The Bread Of Nogi, Wung Foo And Manuelo
If you should ever go to Japan, one of the very first things you would want to buy is a fat little image that is to be found in all the curio shops. It will ...
-VIII. Rice Growing p2. The Bread Of Nogi, Wung Foo And Manuelo
In China, the rice field are in the flood lands along the big rivers. There, it is often a question of keeping the water out when it is not wanted. So banks ...
-IX. Watches And Clocks. Brownie Tick-Tock And The Stars
It's great fun to hold a watch up to a baby's pink ear. He is so as-ton-ished by the busy tick-tick-ticking. One little girl remembers thinking a Brownie did ...
-IX. Watches And Clocks. Brownie Tick-Tock And The Stars. Part 2
The whole duty of a good clock is to drive the hour hand at a regular rate of travel around the dial, twice in twenty-four hours. So the barrel turns entirely ...
-IX. Watches And Clocks. Brownie Tick-Tock And The Stars. 3
The first things you see in a watch factory are spinning wheels little whirling tables no bigger than the head of mama's sewing machine. There are rows and ...

Part XI: Good Health

-Good Health
Editors' Note to Mother and Teacher. Do you remember the first time you opened the old-fashioned text-book on Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene? It. began by ...
-I. Your Own Health
You live in a little house all by yourself. You were born in it. You will have to live in it all your life. It is your body. People who own houses are proud of ...
-I. Your Own Health. Part 2
When you were rubbing yourself dry, after a bath, did you ever rub little rolls up on your skin? That was dead skin, dust, dried sweat and oil. An air-tight ...
-I. Your Own Health. Part 3
Fresh air never made anyone catch cold. But impure air, living in houses that are too warm and close, sitting in drafts when overheated, and sitting with wet ...
-II. The Family Health
As each person has to live in his own little body house, so we all have to live with other people, in houses that have been built of wood or stone or brick.
-II. The Family Health. Part 2
Heat is the next important thing. You do not want a hothouse. Hot-houses are useful for growing delicate plants. Hot dwelling houses grow delicate people. The ...

Part XII: Soldiers Of Peace

-I. Soldiers Of Peace. Fighters For Everybody's Health
In the story about America's Front Door you learned that United States health officers meet every ship that enters an American harbor. If there is one case of ...
-I. Soldiers Of Peace. Fighters For Everybody's Health. Part 2
Snow is one of the hardest things in a city to deal with. It cannot be allowed to lie on the ground as in the country, where it packs into hard, white roads.
-II. Fire Fighters
Do you have fire drills in your school? If you do, the fire signal is struck on the gong at the most unexpected times. That is the way a fire happens, you know.
-II. Fire Fighters. Part 2
Never drop a match. Even if it is unlighted, some one may step on it and set it on fire. Keep matches in covered metal or china boxes, away from children and ...
-II. Fire Fighters. Part 3
Do you know how quickly a fire company can get to a fire ? You ought to be in a city engine house sometime at midnight, when an alarm is turned in. It's like a ...
-III. Fighters For Law And Order
When you grow older you will study the Declaration of Independence. This is a paper that was signed by some heroes who started our United States. They wanted a ...
-III. Fighters For Law And Order. Part 2
Policemen are often in as great danger as firemen. Sometimes they beat the firemen to a fire. If they do, it is their duty to go into a burning house and help ...

Part XIII: How And Why Of Common Things

-How And Why Of Common Things
Editors' Note to Mother and Teacher. There is a period in a little child's life when he is just an animated question mark. He wants to know the how and why of ...
-What Are Tears For?
That is what a little blue-eyed girl asked her mama, when told that she shouldn't cry so much. She had the perfectly right idea that there must be some good ...
-Doggie Knows With His Nose
If you have a dog it will be very interesting to find out in what way he knows you. Mr. John Burroughs says he appeared one day before his dog in a new outing ...
-What Is Smoke?
That depends upon the kind of fuel that is burned. Smoke from a fire of dry hard wood, from anthracite coal or from a gas flame is chiefly a column of hot air.
-What Is Color Blindness?
There are a certain number of people in every hundred whose eyes seem to be perfect except in color seeing. One doctor has discovered that one person out of ...
-Why The Needle In The Compass Points North
Have you a little iron horse-shoe magnet? It looks like any-other bent bar of iron, but pins, needles and other bits of metal will cling to the ends of the ...
-How The Moon Causes Tides In The Sea
Did you ever go to the sea shore for a vacation? And did you build forts and dig caves in the sand on the beach? Then, when you went to play the next morning, ...
-Sound Waves And The Telephone
Hello, central! Hello! The answer comes back in a second. You don't know, perhaps, that as soon as you unhook the receiver, a tiny knob of light flashes out ...
-The Gas We Burn
When coal was first mined in England, it was noticed that an ill-smelling gas often escaped from the seams of the coal and made miners ill. In several mines ...
-Birds And Balloons, Kites And Air Ships
The Chinese and Japanese people have a kite-flying day. Most of their kites are made in the shapes of birds and butterflies, with wide-spread wings. They make ...
-Why Rain Falls In Drops
It's very lucky for us that it does. If rain fell from a cloud in a continuous stream, like a river, anyone caught under it would be drowned. There are two ...
-How To Find Your Way By The Stars
Away down in the kindergarten the little tots sing a song: This way's east and this way's west, Soon I'll learn to know the rest.'' They do learn, too. They ...
-How The Days Were Named
Sunday gets its name from the Sun. In olden times many peoples worshiped the sun, the heat and light giver. The sun was believed to be the source of all life.
-How The Months Were Named
Four of the months aren't named. They just have numbers, but as the numbers are given in Latin, and Latin is a dead and by-gone language, their numbers pass ...
-What Are "Dog Days?
This is a very interesting question. To answer it completely one would need a book. It goes away-way back, farther than history, into many strange beliefs of ...
-Why An Apple Falls To The Ground
Foolish question ! You think. It falls because nothing holds it up. Exactly. But nothing seems to pull it down, either. Why doesn't it fall up, instead of down?
-What Is An Eclipse?
Do you know the poem : I have a little shadow that follows after me? The little boy's shadow puzzled him. If he had only known it, there are big shadows that ...
-What Makes The Hum Of A Bee?
Hm! Hm! Let's see. A bee isn't the only thing that hums. A wheel, turning rapidly, whirs. A teakettle sings when the water boils. A violin string quivers with ...
-Why Onions Make You Cry
Your eyes really water a little all the time. All of our special sense organs the tongue, the nose, the ears and eyes are kept moist by special glands. They ...
-Why We Count By Tens
We count by tens because we have ten fingers five on each hand. Nature is very fond of counting by fives. Five fingers on each hand; five toes on each foot; ...
-Why Does Iron Rust?
When you grow up and are very, very wise you will not say that iron rusts. You will say it becomes oxidized. That means that the surface of the iron is burnt ...
-Why Does Heat Make Water Boil?
I'll read you your riddle, if you'll read mine? When is water not water? When it's ice or vapor! Right. Water is very uncertain. Most of the time it is a ...
-Why An Iron Ship Does Not Sink
If you put a nail or a lump of iron in a vessel of water it sinks at once. A piece of wood of the same size floats. So, until fifty years or so ago, people ...
-Why We Have Two Eyes
Have you a stereoscope with views? The views show two photographs, almost alike, mounted side by side on the same card. Yet when you look at them through the ...
-Alva And His Electric Lamp
Is your house lighted by electricity? Did you ever stop to think that every other kind of light of a candle, an oil lamp, or of gas, must have the oxygen of ...
-What Keeps A Moving Car On The Track?
A great many boys will think they know the answer to that. They will say it is because of the rim, or flange, that is on the inside edge of the car wheel. That ...
-What Sours Milk?
You know milk turns sour when it is a day old, sometimes. But you can buy milk that is a year old, or more, that is just as sweet as it was when it came from ...
-Children, Birds And Teakettles
Guess why they are alike. They all sing. They all sing in much the same way, too. Watch very close and find out how you sing. You fill your lungs with air.
-Water And A Duck'S Back
What is quite so wretched looking as a wet hen ? She is drenched by a hard rain just as quickly as you are. But you never saw a wet duck, did you? Yet a duck ...
-Why Frozen Water Bursts Pipes
Nearly everything we know is expanded or swollen by heat, and contracted or shrunken by cold. But water is queer. It's ; particles huddle closest together, and ...
-Why We Are Tanned By The Sun
To tan has two meanings. One is to turn anything a yellowish-brown color. The other meaning is to toughen and harden skins into leather. In the making of ...
-Why And How We Sleep
Why do we go to sleep? That is what the little why boy asked his mama. Because we are sleepy. Why do we get sleepy? Because we are tired. But why do we get ...
-The Ages Of Animals
No one knows exactly how long animals live in a wild state, but records have been kept of animals that have been tamed by men. And scientists are able to come ...
-How Bears Live All Winter Without Eating
One-half of the answer to this is: As bears sleep most of the time in a warm place in winter, they do not need as much food as when they are active. The other half is that they eat themselves. ...
-What Makes The Sky Look Blue?
That is a hard question! But it isn't a foolish one, by any means. It was only about fifty years ago that a great English scientist named John Tyndall worked ...
-Why The Sky Is Many Colored At Sunset
You can't imagine a rainbow-colored sky! Oh, yes, you can. Haven't you seen the brilliant colors of sunset? When the sun is above us, at noon, the light rays ...
-Sound Waves And The Phonograph
You remember how, in the telephone, the sound waves made by the voice are caught on an iron disc, or drumhead, and sent on to the wire. Now phone means sound ...
-How Does Soap Make Things Clean?
You can find out the answer to this by making a little soap in a greasy frying pan. Put a very little water and a big spoon full of washing (lump) soda in it, ...
-What Is The Horizon?
The horizon is the boundary of as much of the world as you can see from the place in which you happen to be standing. If you are on the ocean, or on a flat ...
-Why The Edges Of Coins Are "Milled"
Have you a silver dollar, or a gold piece? Your papa has. Perhaps you never noticed that coins are cut in regular up and down grooves around the edges. This is ...
-How Trains Run Around Curves
The first law of motion, as you learned in what keeps a bicycle upright, is that a moving thing goes forward in a straight line. If the direction of the moving ...
-Sources And Kinds Of Oil
Oil is made by animals and plants. The flesh of all animals contain fat that is easily melted into oils. Mutton fat or tallow is so waxy that it hardens and ...
-What Keeps A Bicycle Upright
Motion. A bicycle keeps upright only as long as it is moving. When standing still it has to be supported against something. It seems rather odd that the ...
-Is There A Man In The Moon?
There is no man in the moon, for the moon is an airless, waterless, dead world. There is no life on it at all. And if there were men there, the moon is so far ...
-Why Birds Moult
Birds moult, or drop their feathers and grow new ones once a year or, in some kinds twice, for the same reason that you buy new suits of clothes. Feathers wear ...
-Why People Become Seasick
As human beings are land animals their bodies are fitted to live on a stationary base. The sea is always in motion. Anything floating on a big body of water is ...
-How A Photograph Is Taken
Of all machines a camera is the Chinaman. It does everything upside down, wrong side before, and right side out. Then the eyes in our heads are Chinamen, too, ...
-Don't Put Boiling Water In A Cold Glass
If you do crack! You may break it. If the glass is thick it is almost sure to crack. The thinner the glass the smaller the risk. That's odd, isn't it? Why is ...
-Why Salt Causes Thirst
We need salt in our bodies to keep us healthy. Our blood is just about as salty as sea-water. Isn't that curious when we think that animal life began on our ...
-How Steam Makes A Locomotive Go
An engineer would tell you that a locomotive is driven by steam power. He understands what that means, but you don't. So that is no answer for you. You know ...
-What Makes An Automobile Go?
Not steam. An automobile couldn't carry a big iron boiler around. One might say that an automobile is driven by canned sunshine, or gasoline. Gasoline is a refined preparation of petroleum that ...
-Why Washington's Eyes Follow Us
There is one picture of Washington in which the eyes follow any one who looks at it. It is the portrait painted by an American artist, Gilbert Stuart. The eyes ...
-What Rings The Door Bell?
A current of electricity running around a wire, rings the door bell. Then why doesn't it ring all the time? For the same reason that an electric lamp doesn't ...
-What Makes The Music In A Pipe Organ?
The pipe organ in the church is a wind instrument. Although it has a keyboard, and is played like a piano or parlor organ by striking the keys, the music is ...
-What Makes A Mirage?
Every child who has read stories of the desert, knows that sometimes travellers over the burning sands often think they see, in the distance, one of those ...
-Day And Night
Why we have both day and night following each other regularly once every twenty-four hours, is supposed to be very hard to understand. It isn't explained to ...
-Where The Date Changes
This is a little harder to understand. Perhaps you don't know that the date does change but if it didn't, then when it is Sunday on one side of the earth it ...
-How The Spectrum Explains The Sun
Do you remember about the wise man Isaac Newton who was set to thinking out the law of falling bodies by seeing an apple fall to the ground? He was always ...
-A World Of Wonders In A Soap Bubble
A soap bubble really makes one able to believe in worlds where fairies live. Like our world of land and water it is round. It floats in space. Although it is ...
-Why Is The Water Of The Ocean Salt?
There is no salt in fresh rain-water. River water tastes fresh, sea water salty. Yet the oceans are fed by the rivers that flow into them. Then where does the ...
-What Is "Horse Power?"
When James Watt invented the stationary steam engine, one of the difficulties he had was to be certain how large an engine was needed to do a given amount of ...
-How Quickly Do Things Fall?
That depends. On the weight of it? No, indeed. You remember how Galileo, the great astronomer, dropped a one-pound and a ten pound cannon ball together from ...
-Are The Stars Inhabited?
When you look up at the stars at night don't you wonder if people like ourselves live upon any of them? Some of the stars we know are far away suns, much ...
-Why Lightning Rods Protect Houses
In the first place a lightning rod does not protect a house unless the lower end is well buried in the ground. If the lower part of the rod is rusted and ...
-Why A Dog Turns Around Before Lying Down
Dogs are wild animals that have been tamed. They have been tamed for so many hundreds of years that they are very different from any and all of their wild ...
-How Does Cloth, Paper Or A Sponge Soak Up And Hold Water?
Do you want to be told? It's more fun to find things out for yourself. Get the smallest glass tube that is sold in drug stores. Put one end of it into a glass ...
-Why Some People Are Left-Handed
Are you left-handed? If you are, very likely it worries mama and papa and all your teachers. It shouldn't worry them. And really it is a great waste of useful ...
-Why A Pop-Gun Pops
A pop-gun pops from an air explosion. The front end of the gun is made air-tight with a cork or plug. At the other end is the plunger, that fits the round bore ...
-Why Is A Cat Able To See In The Dark?
In the first place a cat cannot see in pitch dark. It can only see by less light than you can. You can see in very bright light, and also in dim light. If you ...
-Live Silver—What Is It?
When mama sends you for something in a hurry, she says: Run, quick! The real old meaning of quick is to be alive. When you run quick you have to be very much ...
-Thumb Print Autographs
Look at the ball of your right thumb very closely. It would be better to look at it through a reading glass or microscope. It is covered with very fine lines ...
-Fairy Prince Echo
Nearly all ancient peoples had pretty, poetic stories about the echo. Some, very likely, thought merry little fairies really lived in rocky caves and valleys, ...
-Why The Earth Is Round
Well, why is a raindrop round? Why is lead shot round? Maybe you think shot is moulded like bullets. It isn't. The lead is melted. Then it is showered like ...
-Thunder And Lightning
That is the order in which we speak of them. But really we should say lightning and thunder. They are both made the same instant, by two electric currents in ...









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