books



previous page: Light Science For Leisure Hours | by Richard A. Proctor
  
page up: Science Books
  
next page: Tables Of Refractive Indices. Oils, Fats And Waxes

Distillation Principles And Processes | by Sydney Young



The volume on "Fractional Distillation" was written in the hope that it would be of assistance to chemists in overcoming the difficulties so frequently met with in the laboratory, not only in the actual carrying out of the fractional distillation of a complex mixture but also in the interpretation of the results obtained.

TitleDistillation Principles And Processes
AuthorSydney Young
PublisherMacmillan And Co.
Year1922
Copyright1922, Macmillan And Co.
AmazonDistillation Principles And Processes
Distillation Principles And Processes

Distillation Principles And Processes

By Sydney Young M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. Professor Of Chemistry In Dublin University

With the collaboration of Lieut Col. E. Briggs, D.S.O., B.Sc., T. Howard Butler, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.I.C., Thos. H. Durrans, M.Sc, F.I.C., The Hon. F. R. Henley, M.A., F.I.C., Joseph Reilly, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.C.ScL, F.I.C.

With Two Hundred And Ten Illustrations

Printed In Great Britain

-Preface
The volume on Fractional Distillation was written in the hope that it would be of assistance to chemists in overcoming the difficulties so frequently met with in the laboratory, not only in the actu...
-Preface To "Fractional Distillation"
During the past eighteen years I have been engaged in investigations which necessitated the preparation of chemical materials in the purest possible state, and as the great majority of these substance...
-Chapter I. Introduction
Object Of Distillation The object of distillation is the separation of a volatile liquid from a non-volatile substance or, more frequently, the separation of two or more liquids of different volati...
-Introduction. Part 2
The Still If a glass flask is used it should be globular, because a flat-bottomed flask is liable to crack when heated with a naked flame. It should not be larger than is necessary for the amount o...
-Introduction. Part 3
Protection Of Flame From Draughts In order that satisfactory results may be obtained it is necessary that the distillation should proceed with great regularity, and the heat supply must therefore n...
-Introduction. Part 4
Table 1 Substance. Boiling point under normal pressure. Variation of temperature per 10 mm. pressure. Carbon disulphide............................
-Introduction. Part 5
Table 2 T-t. N. ...
-Introduction. Part 6
Table 3 Substance. T. dp/dt. c. Substance. T. dp/dt. c. Oxygen . ... 90.5...
-Introduction. Part 7
Relation of Constant C to Molecular Weight and Constitution 1.In any homologous series, or any series of closely related substances, except the alcohols, acids, phenols, the lower esters and perhap...
-Introduction. Part 8
Prevention Of Leakage When a liquid is distilled under reduced pressure, it is necessary that all joints in the apparatus should be air-tight. India-rubber stoppers cannot always be used for the st...
-Chapter II. The Boiling Point Of A Pure Liquid
The Statical Method There are two methods by which the boiling point of a liquid under a given pressure may be determined, the statical and the dynamical. By the first method the pressures exerte...
-The Boiling Point Of A Pure Liquid. Part 2
Effect Of Impurities On Boiling Point If there is a rapid rise at first and the temperature afterwards remains steady or nearly so, it may be assumed that there is a much more volatile liquid prese...
-The Boiling Point Of A Pure Liquid. Part 3
Spheroidal State It is well known that when a drop of water is allowed to fall on a red-hot sheet of metal, such as platinum, it does not touch the metal, nor does it boil although rapid evaporatio...
-Chapter III. Vapour Pressures Of Mixed Liquids
Influence Of Molecular Attractions On Miscibility Of Liquids And On Heat And Volume Changes During Admixture In studying the behaviour of two liquids, A and b, when mixed together, one should ...
-Vapour Pressures Of Mixed Liquids. Part 2
Speyers Speyers1 concludes that the relation between vapour pressure and molecular percentage composition is always represented by a straight line when the molecular weight of each substance is nor...
-Vapour Pressures Of Mixed Liquids. Part 3
Chlorobenzene And Bromobenzene The boiling points of three mixtures of chlorobenzene and bromobenzene were determined in this way,1 and the theoretical vapour pressures at these temperatures were t...
-Vapour Pressures Of Mixed Liquids. Part 4
Influence Of Chemical Relationship For the first three pairs of substances and the last in Table 6, the changes of volume and of temperature are exceedingly small, but the expansion and fall of ...
-Vapour Pressures Of Mixed Liquids. Part 5
General Conclusions The following conclusions may be drawn from the foregoing data: 1. When the two components are chemically very closely related, the changes of volume and of temperature on mixin...
-Vapour Pressures Of Mixed Liquids. Part 6
Miscibility The gradual change in properties of the alcohols is also well shown by the fact that the lower alcohols are miscible with water in all proportions, the intermediate ones within limits, ...
-Chapter IV. Boiling Points Of Mixed Liquids
Statical and Dynamical Methods of Determination.It has been stated that the boiling point of a pure liquid under a given pressure may be determined by either the statical or the dynamical method, the ...
-Boiling Points Of Mixed Liquids. Part 2
Practical Application Advantage is taken of the fact that the boiling point of a pair of non-miscible or slightly miscible liquids is lower than that of either pure component, to distil sub-stances...
-Boiling Points Of Mixed Liquids. Part 3
Experimental Verification The boiling points of three mixtures of chlorobenzene and bromobenzene were determined at a series of pressures between about 690 and 800 mm.1 The logarithms of the pressu...
-Boiling Points Of Mixed Liquids. Part 4
Mixtures Of Maximum Boiling Point The occurrence of mixtures of maximum boiling point (or minimum vapour pressure) is comparatively rare ; in most of the known cases one of the substances is an aci...
-List Of Known Azeotropic Mixtures
Table 12. Binary Azeotropic Mixtures - Minimum Boiling Point Substances in mixture. Boiling points. Percentage of A. by weight in mixture. ...
-List Of Known Azeotropic Mixtures. Part 2
Table 13. Binary Azeotropic Mixtures - Maximum Boiling Point Substances in mixture. Boiling points. Percentage of A. by weight in mixture. ...
-List Of Known Azeotropic Mixtures. Part 3
Table 14. Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures - Minimum Boiling Point Substances in mixture. Boiling points. Percentages by weight in z. mixture. ...
-List Of Known Azeotropic Mixtures. Part 4
Azeotropic Mixtures For many years after the discovery of the formation of mixtures of constant boiling point it was thought that these azeotropic mixtures were definite chemical compounds. Thus Bi...
-Chapter V. Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Experimental Determinations
Evaporation Into Vacuous Space When two volatile liquids miscible, partially miscible or non-miscible - are placed together in a vacuous space, such as that over the mercury in a barometer tube, ev...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Exp Det. Part 2
Lehfeldt's Apparatus Lehfeldt's apparatus1 for distillation at constant temperature is shown in Fig. 25. The still, which is in the form of a large test tube, is provided with a cork perforated wit...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Exp Det. Part 3
Table 18. Result of Distillation No. of fraction. Weight of distillate in grams. Molar per cent of Cs2. 1 16.48 59.35 ...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Exp Det. Part 4
Second Method Determinations of the relative composition of liquid and vapour by passing a known volume of air through a mixture at constant temperature have been carried out by Winkelmann,1 Lineba...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Exp Det. Part 5
Fourth Method In the course of his experiments with a still-head kept at a constant temperature in a bath of liquid (p. 149), Brown observed that the composition of the distillate was independent o...
-Chapter VI. Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Theoretical
Simplest Cases It has been seen that when two liquids are placed together in a closed vacuous space, the vapour pressure and the boiling point can only be accurately calculated from the vapour pres...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Theoretical. Part 2
Infinitely Miscible Liquids In the case of liquids which are miscible in all proportions, it is only, as has already been pointed out, when no appreciable change of volume or temperature occurs on ...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Theoretical. Part 3
Table 24 A = Ethylene dichloride ; B = Benzene ; c = 1.134 ; Temperature =49.99 ; PA/PB at 50 = 1135 Molecular . percentage of A in liquid. Vapour pressure...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Theoretical. Part 4
Lehfeldt's Results The experiments of Lehfeldt2 show that the vapour pressures of mixtures of toluene and carbon tetrachloride are slightly lower than those calculated from the formula while those ...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Theoretical. Part 5
Modification Of Brown's Formula Brown's formula is not applicable to this pair of liquids, but by taking c =const. (c0)+aM instead of c = const., a good agreement between the observed and calculate...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Theoretical. Part 6
Cases To Which Brown's Modified Formula Is Inapplicable When, for a given pair of substances, the deviations of the vapour pressures from those calculated from the formula are great, the values of ...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Theoretical. Part 7
Formula Of Duhem And Margules The formula arrived at by Duhem, and, later, by Margules, may be written: where p1 and p2 are the partial pressures of the vapours of the two liquids A and B, and m an...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Theoretical. Part 8
Oxygen And Nitrogen Baly1 found that, for mixtures of liquid oxygen and nitrogen, Lehfeldt's formula gave very good results, but Brown's did not. Associating Substances As regards mixture...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Theoretical. Part 9
Associated Substances Zawidski included in his investigation some pairs of substances, of which the molecules of one component are associated in the liquid state (water), or in both the liquid and ...
-Composition Of Liquid And Vapour Phases. Theoretical. Part 10
General Conclusions The conclusions arrived at may be stated shortly as follows: 1. The composition of the vapour from a pair of non-miscible liquids at a given temperature may be accurately calcul...
-Chapter VII. Directions For Carrying Out A Fractional Distillation
Mixtures separable into Two Components It has been stated (p. 62) that when a mixture of two substances is heated, the vapour is richer than the liquid 1 in the more volatile of the two components ...
-Carrying Out A Fractional Distillation. Part 2
Rate Of Distillation The mixture must now be slowly distilled : for laboratory purposes the drops of distillate should fall at the rate of about 1 per second, but on the large scale a much greater ...
-Carrying Out A Fractional Distillation. Part 3
Third Fractionation The third fractionation was carried out in the same manner as the second, the first portion of the first distillate, and also the first portion of the distillate which came over...
-Carrying Out A Fractional Distillation. Part 4
Separation Of Pure Benzene When the liquid collected below 80.45 in the seventh fractionation was distilled at the beginning of the eighth, the temperature remained at the boiling point of ben...
-Carrying Out A Fractional Distillation. Part 5
Table 40 I. II. III. IV. V. ...
-Carrying Out A Fractional Distillation. Part 6
Separation Of Propyl Acetate The third fractionation, III, was carried out in a similar manner, a new fraction, No. 3, being collected at the beginning. As the temperature rose to 101.55, the ...
-Carrying Out A Fractional Distillation. Part 7
Table 42 Weights. Specific gravity at 0 4.* Taken. Recovered. Percentage recovered. Before mixing. ...
-Carrying Out A Fractional Distillation. Part 8
Hexamethylene In Galician Petroleum Later on, a large quantity of Galician petroleum was fractionated by Miss E. C. Fortey,1 who obtained a considerable amount of liquid boiling quite constantly at...
-Chapter VIII. Theoretical Relations Between The Weight And Composition Of Distillate
Application of Brown's Formula.1 - It has been pointed out in previous chapters1. That the vapour pressures of mixtures of two closely related compounds - and rarely of others - are represented with s...
-Chapter IX. Relation Between The Boiling Points Of Residue And Distillate
Data Required If, for mixtures of any two substances, the curve representing the relations between boiling point and molecular composition has been constructed, and if the relation between the comp...
-Chapter X. Modifications Of The Still-Head
Object Of Modifications It is evident from what has been stated in Chapter VII (Directions For Carrying Out A Fractional Distillation). that the process of fractional distillation with an ordinary ...
-Modifications Of The Still-Head. Part 2
Characteristics Of A Good Still-Head In choosing or constructing a still-head, the first point to be considered is its efficiency in separating the components of a mixture. It frequently happens, h...
-Modifications Of The Still-Head. Part 3
Table 49. Plain Vertical Still-heads Vertical height in cm. 12 62 120 From 62 to 70 cm. Internal diameter in mm. ...
-Modifications Of The Still-Head. Part 4
Modifications Of The Still-Head It has been pointed out that the inefficiency of the plain vertical still-head is due to the want of thorough contact between the vapour and the condensed liquid, ow...
-Modifications Of The Still-Head. Part 5
Bulb Still-Heads A vertical tube with a series of bulbs blown on it was recommended by Wurtz.1 For a given diameter of tube and bulbs, the greater the number of bulbs the higher is the efficiency, ...
-Modifications Of The Still-Head. Part 6
Table 52 Nature of still-head. Evaporaton still-heads Original. Modified. Number of sections. ...
-Chapter XI Modifications Of The Still-Head (continued)
Bubbling Still-heads In many of the still-heads employed on the large scale, for example the Coffey still (Fig. 68, p. 167) the condensed liquid is made, by means of suitable obstructions, to colle...
-Modifications Of The Still-Head (continued). Part 2
Table 53 Nature of still-head. Glinsky Le Bel-Henninger Young and Thomas Glinsky Le Bel-Henninger Young and Thomas ...
-Modifications Of The Still-Head (continued). Part 3
General Remarks On The Construction Of Bubbling Still-Heads The results of the experiments which have been made serve to indicate the requirements which should be fulfilled in order that a still-he...
-Chapter XII. Modifications Of The Still-Head (continued)
Regulated or Constant Temperature Still-heads By surrounding the still-head with water or any other liquid, the temperature of which is kept as little above the boiling point of the more vol...
-Modifications Of The Still-Head (continued). Continued
Table 54. Eleventh Fractionation Fraction. D. B. T. D-T. 1 28.42...
-Chapter XIII. Continuous Distillation
Continuous distillation of wort has long been carried out on the large scale by means of the Coffey still (p. 167) and others of the same type, but it is only comparatively recently that any attempt h...
-Chapter XIV. Fractional Distillation With An Improved Still-Head
Benzene And Toluene That much time is saved by the use of an improved still-head is seen by comparing the results of a fractional distillation of 200 grams of a mixture of equal weights of benzene ...
-Fractional Distillation With An Improved Still-Head. Part 2
Comparative Results With Plain And Improved Still-Heads The great improvement effected by employing an efficient apparatus is clearly shown in Table 56. Table 56 Evapo...
-Fractional Distillation With An Improved Still-Head. Part 3
Comparative Results With Plain And Improved Still-Head The great superiority of the evaporator still-head is clearly shown by the results given in Table 58. Table 58 ...
-Chapter XV. Distillation On The Manufacturing Scale
Plant Required The plant required for the distillation of alcohol, acetone, coal-tar and its products, petroleum and its products, glycerine and essential oils on the large scale is fully described...
-Distillation On The Manufacturing Scale. Continued
Other Still-Heads Various forms of still-head have been devised in which good contact between vapour and liquid is brought about without the actual passage of the vapour through the liquid in the f...
-Chapter XVI. Determination of Composition of Mixture
The composition of a mixture of liquids which are not difficult to separate may, as a rule, be ascertained with a fair degree of accuracy from the results of a single distillation with an efficient st...
-Determination of Composition of Mixture. Part 2
Table 61. Isoamyl Alcohol and Benzene Boiling points - Benzene, 80.2 ; isoamyl alcohol, 132.05 ; middle point, 106.1 Percentage composition of mixture. ...
-Determination of Composition of Mixture. Part 3
Advantages Of Efficient Still-Head With an evaporator still-head of eight sections the following results were obtained (p. 159). Weight of methyl acetate taken . . . . 100...
-Determination of Composition of Mixture. Part 4
Table 65 Tertiary Butyl Alcohol and Water Boiling points : Binary mixture, 79.9 ; water, 100.0 ; middle point, 89.95. Mixture taken. Weight below middle ...
-Determination of Composition of Mixture. Part 5
Ternary Mixtures When a mixture of three liquids gives rise, on distillation, to the formation of a ternary mixture of minimum boiling point, the separation may, theoretically, take place in twelve...
-Determination of Composition of Mixture. Part 6
Method Of Calculation In calculating the composition of the ternary mixture it is assumed, as before, that the corrected weights of the two distillates are equal to those of the ternary and binary ...
-Chapter XVII. Methods By Which The Composition Of Mixtures Of Constant Boiling Point May Be Determined
1. Distillation Method. - In the last chapter it has been shown how the composition of an azeotropic mixture may be ascertained from the weight of distillate that comes over below the middle point, wh...
-Methods By Which The Composition Of Mixtures Of Constant Boiling Point May Be Determined. Continued
Results Obtained For benzene and ethyl alcohol the results given in Table 73 have been obtained. Table 73 Method. Observers. Percentage of benzene by wei...
-Chapter XVIII. Indirect Method of Separating The Components Of A Mixture Of Constant Boiling Point
Distillation After The Addition Of A Third Substance It has been pointed out that there are many cases in which the two components of a mixture cannot be separated by fractional distillation, owing...
-Separating The Components Of A Mixture Of Constant Boiling Point. Part 2
Results Of Distillation In an actual experiment, 117.5 grams of the alcohol-water mixture (containing 103.7 grams of tertiary butyl alcohol and 13.8 grams of water) with 145 grams of benzene were d...
-Method of Separating The Components Of A Mixture Of Constant Boiling Point. Part 3
Methyl Alcohol Methyl alcohol and water may be separated from each other without difficulty by distillation with an efficient still-head, because their properties are so similar, and their boiling ...
-Chapter XIX. General Remarks
Purposes for which Fractional Distillation is required. Interpretation of Experimental Results. Choice of Still-head, Number of Fractions, etc. Purposes for which Fractional Distillation is require...
-General Remarks. Part 2
Second Case Figure 76 represents the separation of a liquid of constant boiling point from a mixture which contains only much more volatile impurities. The separation is an easier one than the last...
-General Remarks. Part 3
Closely Related Substances By far the simplest cases are those in which the substances present are chemically closely related to each other, for the form of the boiling-point molecular composition ...
-General Remarks. Part 4
Boiling Points Of Components For mixtures of closely related sub-stances, or others which behave normally on distillation, the greater the difference between the boiling points the more readily can...
-General Remarks. Part 5
Causes Of Confusion But confusion is apt to arise when,. (a) there are two substances present with boiling points very near together. (b) one of the components is present in relatively very s...
-General Remarks. Part 6
Material Employed The American petroleum at first came over for the most part between 28 and 95, and was richest in hexanes ; the weight of distillate between 56 and 74 was abou...
-General Remarks. Part 7
Interpretation Of Results These facts may be explained by assuming the presence of at least four substances in both American and Galician petroleum boiling at temperatures between, say, 59 and...
-General Remarks. Part 8
Methyl Pentamethylene Further light has been thrown on the problem by the researches of Markownikoff,1 of Zelinsky,2 and of 1 Markownikoff, On Methyl Cyclo-Pentane from different Sources and s...
-General Remarks. Part 9
Pentamethylene In Petroleum In a similar manner, it was found that there is a small quantity of pentamethylene (and also trimethyl-ethyl-methane) in American petroleum. The first fractionation o...
-General Remarks. Part 10
Chloroform An interesting case is that of chloroform. It had been found that chloroform prepared from acetone was distinctly inferior as an anaesthetic to that made from alcohol, and the most proba...
-General Remarks. Part 11
Ethyl Alcohol - Benzene - Water The behaviour of mixtures of ethyl alcohol, benzene, and water has already been referred to (p. 179); but it may be pointed out that, when a mixture of equal weights...
-General Remarks. Part 12
Table 82 Reichert-Meissl values. Polenske values. Pressure in mm. Observed. Calculated. Observed. Calcu...
-General Remarks. Part 13
Alcohols And Water All the alcohols - with the exception of methyl - form mixtures of minimum boiling point with water, but as the boiling points of the binary mixtures, up to amyl alcohol at any r...
-Chapter XX. Sublimation
Sublimation And Distillation The processes of sublimation and distillation are very closely allied; in practice, indeed, no hard and fast line is drawn between them. There are three ways in whic...
-Sublimation. Continued
Volatilising Point The curve ba represents not only the volatilising points of a solid under different pressures but also the vapour pressures of the solid at different temperatures,1 just as the c...
-Appendix #1
Correction Of Height Of Barometer For Temperature The atmospheric pressure is usually expressed in millimetres of mercury read at, or corrected to, 0. In practice the height, H, of the baromet...
-Chapter XXI. Acetone
Acetone is produced on the manufacturing scale by several completely different processes. The chief of these are: (1) Fermentation processes. (2) The decomposition of acetate of lime, derived from ...
-Acetone. Continued
Table 90 Acetone and Water Rectifying Column Acetone content, weight per cent of liquid and vapour on each plate of a column to produce 10 kilo. acetone 99.75 per cent by weight. The amount o...
-Chapter XXII. Production Of Acetone And n-Butyl Alcohol By The Fermentation Process
The production of n-butyl alcohol and other alcohols from carbohydrate material, directly by fermentation, has been known for a long time. The presence of iodoform-producing substances among the produ...
-Production Of Acetone And n-Butyl Alcohol. Part 2
Composition Of Gas Estimations have been made of the composition of the gas evolved during fermentation. Table 92 shows the results of one of these experiments. The fermenting vessel was about t...
-Production Of Acetone And n-Butyl Alcohol. Part 3
Removal Of N-Butyl Alcohol From The Rectifying Column The n-butyl alcohol (azeotropic) mixture with water is run off from the rectifying column by one of the tapped pipes p. The n-butyl alcohol and...
-Production Of Acetone And n-Butyl Alcohol. Part 4
Table 94. Fermented Wash Fraction (2) is not further treated, but appears to consist largely of ethyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol and water. A sample of this fractionated in the laboratory gave ...
-Chapter XXIII. Production Of Acetone By Means Other Than Fermentation
Manufacture of Acetone from Acetate of Lime, etc. - Acetone is produced commercially by the dry distillation of various acetates, calcium acetate (commercial grey acetate of lime) or barium acetate be...
-Chapter XXIV. Acetone Recovery
In processes in which acetone is used as a solvent it is often possible to recover the greater portion of the acetone from the air of the drying stoves. For its recovery from cordite drying stoves and...
-Chapter XXV. The Testing Of Acetone And n-Butyl Alcohol
Acetone Properties Acetone is one of the most important organic solvents employed in the chemical industry. It is a solvent (alone or in mixtures) for various explosives (e.g. nitrocellulose...
-The Testing Of Acetone And n-Butyl Alcohol. Part 2
Table 97 Percentage of solvent in limit mixture and direction of propagation. Material and diameter of tube. Upwards. Horizontal. ...
-The Testing Of Acetone And n-Butyl Alcohol. Part 3
Mixture Of Acetone And N-Butyl Alcohol The amount of water in acetone or in n-butyl alcohol may be obtained from density curves when no other substance is present. These curves (see Figs. 99 and 10...
-The Testing Of Acetone And n-Butyl Alcohol. Part 4
Table 100 Mixtures of n- Butyl Alcohol, Acetone, and Water. n-Butyl Alcohol. Density 20o 4o Acetone. Water. ...
-The Testing Of Acetone And n-Butyl Alcohol. Part 5
Table 101. Saturated Solutions of Acetone, n-Butyl Alcohol, and Water at 20 n-Butyl alcohol. Acetone. Water. 20 7.90 ...
-Distillation Of Alcohol On The Manufacturing Scale
The Hon. F. R. Henley, M.A., F.I.C. And Oseph Reilly, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.C.Sc.L, F.I.C. Chemist-In-Charge At The Royal Naval Cordite Factory, Holton Heath, Dorset Chapter XXVI. Distillation Of ...
-Distillation Of Alcohol On The Manufacturing Scale. Part 2
Table 104 Boiling point. C. Weight of residue. Alcohol content. Weight per cent. Boiling point. C. Weight of residue. ...
-Distillation Of Alcohol On The Manufacturing Scale. Part 3
Composition And Amount Of The Condensate Returned To The Still If a very large proportion of the vapour evolved in the still be condensed, the composition of the condensate will approximate to that...
-Distillation Of Alcohol On The Manufacturing Scale. Part 4
Discontinuous Stills The minimum possible volume of condensate and amount of heat required during the progress of distillation. - Table 105 shows that to produce 1 kilo of alcohol containing 94.61 ...
-Distillation Of Alcohol On The Manufacturing Scale. Part 5
Table 106 Alcohol content (weight per cent) of liquid and vapour on each plate of a rectifying column, when heat removed in the condenser is equivalent to 5000, 6000, 8000, 15,000 great calories pe...
-Distillation Of Alcohol On The Manufacturing Scale. Part 6
Table 108. Wash Column Theoretical minimum amount of heat (in great calories) to be supplied to wash column to produce 100 kilos of outflow water free from alcohol, from wash the alcoholic content ...
-Distillation Of Alcohol On The Manufacturing Scale. Part 7
Example From 112.8 kilos of wash containing 10 per cent alcohol (by weight), temperature 20 C, to produce spirit containing 85.76 per cent of alcohol by weight, the wash being preheated to 70&...
-Chapter XXVII. Distillation Of Mixtures Of Water And Ethyl Alcohol, With The Other Volatile Products Of Fermentation
The problem of how to separate the ethyl alcohol from the water has already been dealt with. The rectification or removal of the volatile by-products remains to be considered. The majority of these su...
-Distillation Of Mixtures Of Water And Ethyl Alcohol, With The Other Volatile Products Of Fermentation. Part 2
Table 111 Methyl Alcohol 200 c.c. of the solution contained 9.0 grams methyl alcohol. Weight of distillate. Percentage o...
-Distillation Of Mixtures Of Ethyl Alcohol an Water, With The Other Volatile Products Of Fermentation. Part 3
Continuous Rectification The raw spirit to be rectified is supplied to the still with alcoholic content of 334 per cent to 38 per cent by weight. In this case it is not found necessary to neutralis...
-Chapter XXVIII. Stills And Distillation In Practice
Discontinuous Distillation The Pot Still (Fig. 103). - In the earliest types of plant the two processes of distillation and rectification were carried out in the same vessel, the latter process bei...
-Stills And Distillation In Practice. Part 2
Table 112 Alcoholic content of liquid on plates of a rectifying column at the middle of the distillation. Number of plate from bottom. Alcohol. Volume, per cent. ...
-Stills And Distillation In Practice. Part 3
Plates With Bells In another form of boiling column the liquid flows from plate to plate by means of reflux tubes similar to those in Coffey's still. A slightly greater depth of liquid is maintaine...
-Stills And Distillation In Practice. Part 4
Rectifying Columns The various methods adopted, though they differ greatly in details, all make use of one or more fractionating columns, from which the fractions to be collected are drawn off simu...
-Stills And Distillation In Practice. Part 5
Control Of Continuous Stills To obtain final products of constant composition from continuous stills it is most important to keep a very steady flow of steam and wash to the still and of finished p...
-Stills And Distillation In Practice. Part 6
Plates The plates in both analyser and rectifier are perforated as already described. The arrangement of the wash pipes over the plates in the rectifier is shown in Fig. 123. Fig. 123.-The...
-Stills And Distillation In Practice. Part 7
Table 113. Fractionation of Fusel Oil Distillate with Lessing Contact Ring Still-head Fraction No. Temperature. C. corr. Percentage by vol. Total. ...
-Fractional Distillation As Applied In The Petroleum Industry
James Kewley, M.A. F.I.C. Memrer Of Council Of The Institution Of Petroleum Technologists. Chapter XXIX. Introduction From time immemorial petroleum products, in the first instances crude o...
-Chapter XXX. Periodic Distillation
Periodic distillation methods are still largely applied to :-the distillation of crude oil, the redistillation of benzine (spirit, petrol, gasoline, naphtha, etc.) and kerosene fractions, the manufact...
-Periodic Distillation. Part 2
Periodic Redistillation Certain of the products obtained from the crude oil distillation require redistillation, e.g. a portion of the distillate which requires sharply separating into benzine and ...
-Periodic Distillation. Part 3
Table 115. Engler Distillation Samples from cloumn. Initial boiling point,0 C. Boiling to 105o C. o 105-110. o 110-115. o ...
-Chapter XXXI. Continuous Distillation Under Atmospheric Pressure
Continuous distillation was first introduced on a working scale in Persia as far back as 1883. It is now very extensively applied in all modern refineries for the treating, not only of crude oils, but...
-Continuous Distillation Under Atmospheric Pressure. Part 2
Table 116 Still No. Temp, of oil in still. Sp. gr. at 15 C. of distillate. Composition of distillate. Boiling up to F...
-Continuous Distillation Under Atmospheric Pressure. Part 3
Table 117 Engler distillation test of distillates showing percentages boiling up to C. Sp. gr. of distillate at 15 C. St...
-Chapter XXXII. Continuous Distillation Under Atmospheric Pressure (continued)
Of recent years the usual type of continuous distilling bench has been largely replaced by tubular stills or retorts. Such plants were origin-ally designed, and still find their chief application, for...
-Chapter XXXIII. Distillation Under Reduced Pressure
Vacuum distillation in the petroleum industry has not up to the present received the attention it deserves. Plants for the distillation of lubricating oils are often operated under vacuum, but this is...
-Chapter XXXIV. Various Distillation Methods
In addition to the fundamental methods of distillation described in the preceding chapters, attention must be drawn to various methods not at present in general use, some of which possess features ren...
-Fractional Distillation In The Coal Tar Industry
T. Howard Butler, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.I.C. Managing Director Of William Butler & CO. (Bristol), Ltd., Tar, Rosin, And Petroleum Distillers. Chapter XXXV. Introduction Early History Few indus...
-Fractional Distillation In The Coal Tar Industry. Continued
Naphthas The most important of these are benzene, toluene, and the three isomers of xylene. Amount 1-5 per cent. Light Oils Containing aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol, cresol and other homo...
-Chapter XXXVI. Distillation Of Tar
Dehydration Of Tar One of the greatest difficulties a tar distiller is faced with is the elimination of water, which, as already stated, is present in varying proportions. The tar is generally allo...
-Distillation Of Tar. Part 2
Still With Convex Bottom A still which has been tried, and is in use in a large works to-day, is similar in all respects to the one just described except that it has a convex instead of a concave b...
-Distillation Of Tar. Part 3
Mason's Still Mason's still (Ger. Pat. 66097) consists of a raw-tar tank from which the tar is fed into the still, which consists of a series of horizontal and vertical pipes. Each horizontal pipe ...
-Distillation Of Tar. Part 4
Corrosion Of Tar Stills This is a trouble which has a very-great bearing on the whole industry of tar distilling, for the wear and tear on stills, and particularly those of the pot still type, by c...
-Chapter XXXVII. Further Distillation And Rectification Of Primary Fractions Of Tar
Methods Of Separation The usual methods of separation of substances from the complex mixtures contained in the fractions are employed. The solids such as naphthalene and anthracene are crystallised...
-Further Distillation And Rectification Of Primary Fractions Of Tar. Part 2
Cresols These are recovered from the liquor from the fractional crystallisation of phenol, and also in the crude form when washed out of the tar oil with caustic soda. In the second case they are m...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Fractional Separation Of The Naphthas And Light Oils
Naphthas And Light Oils As has been explained previously, the first distillates from the crude tar are the naphthas and light oils which come over from 80 C. to 200 C. They consist chiefl...
-Fractional Separation Of The Naphthas And Light Oils. Part 2
Continuous Washing Several attempts have been made to make the washing of naphtha or crude benzole a continuous one, and the arrangement of Blyth and Miles (Eng. Pat. 123839, 1918), as manufactured...
-Fractional Separation Of The Naphthas And Light Oils. Part 3
Sources Of Benzene And Its Homologues The chief source of benzene, toluene, and solvent naphtha is not coal tar but coke oven gas and coal gas, from which these substances are extracted by washing ...
-Fractional Separation Of The Naphthas And Light Oils. Part 4
(A) Packed Columns The earliest types of columns consisted of a cylinder of wrought or cast iron in which are promiscuously thrown bricks, stones, or any material that will break up the vapours and...
-Fractional Separation Of The Naphthas And Light Oils. Part 5
(C) Cup And Seal Column The difficulties experienced in practice in the use of the perforated plate column induced makers to devise a different form, and Heckmann (Ger. Pat. 39557) may be said to b...
-Fractional Separation Of The Naphthas And Light Oils. Part 6
Combined Column And Dephlegmator Many attempts have been made to combine the action of a column and dephlegmator in one. Miller (Eng. Pat. 25469, 1901) interposes dephlegmators between each section...
-Fractional Separation Of The Naphthas And Light Oils. Part 7
The Dempster Plant R. & J. Dempster carry out the refining in two stages, the first to split up the crude benzole into primary fractions, the second to convert the primary fractions into pure produ...
-Fractional Separation Of The Naphthas And Light Oils. Part 8
The Adam Still The Adam Patent Continuous Benzole Still is worthy of note and is shown in Fig. 174, which portrays a plant capable of distilling 10,000 gallons of crude benzole in 24 hours. It is e...
-Fractional Separation Of The Naphthas And Light Oils. Part 9
General Practice The practice followed in distilling for pure benzene and toluene will necessarily vary with different distillers and with different types of plants. Generally speaking, however, th...
-Fractional Separation Of The Naphthas And Light Oils. Part 10
Products Generally Required It should be noted that only the usual finished products have been described and that these are not the only ones that can be obtained from the crude naphtha. For instan...
-The Distillation Of Glycerine
Lieut Col. E. Briggs, D.S.O., B.Sc. Technical Director, Broad Plain Soap Works, Bristol Chapter XXXIX. The Distillation Of Glycerine The chemical substance glycerol, Ch2oh, Choh, Ch2o...
-The Distillation Of Glycerine. Part 2
Table 118 Weight of crude glycerine charged to still, 149.26 cwt. at 82.8 per cent glycerol = 123.5 cwt. glycerol. Yield. Cwt. Glycerine content. ...
-The Distillation Of Glycerine. Part 3
Table 119 100 tons of crude glycerine at 80 per cent glycerol = 80 tons glycerol yield on one distillation. Tons. Glycerine content. Yield. ...
-The Distillation Of Essential Oils
By Thos. H. Durrans, M.Sc. (Lond.), F.I.C. Of Messrs. A. Boake Roberts & CO., Ltd., London Chapter XL. Theoretical, Steam Distillation The practice of steam distillation for the isolation...
-The Distillation Of Essential Oils. Part 2
Influence Of Pressure On Composition Of Distillate In a technical steam distillation it is generally desired that the amount of the sub-stance of higher boiling point than water should be a ...
-The Distillation Of Essential Oils. Part 3
Amount Of Heat Required In order to calculate the amount of heat required to steam-distil a given quantity of an essential oil it is necessary to consider each component separately. If we have to d...
-Chapter XLI. Technical, Preparation Of Raw Material
In this chapter the endeavour has been made to describe the general methods and apparatus employed in winning essential oils from their raw materials. The description of botanical and chemical char...
-Technical, Preparation Of Raw Material. Continued
Table 123 Fresh. Dried. 1. 2. 1. 2. Time of drying in hours .................. . . ....
-Chapter XLII. Distillation
The raw material having been reduced to the requisite state, it may be distilled by one of two methods or a combination of them, viz (1) Distillation by boiling with water. (2) Distillation by mean...
-Distillation. Part 2
Stills In Tunis And Ceylon The small size of these stills is in great contrast to those used in other parts of the world. In Southern Tunis stills ranging up to 150 gallons capacity are employed. T...
-Distillation. Part 3
Shape Of Still The shape of the vats is usually cylindrical or nearly so, of slightly less diameter at the top than at the bottom; they are built up of staves held in place by bands of iron after t...
-Distillation. Part 4
Orris Root In the case of orris powder, stills similar to those used for herbs generally, as shown on p. 463, are employed. The distillate is a paste known as concrete orris, and consists largely o...
-Distillation. Part 5
Support Of Raw Material In Still A point to be considered in the design of a still is the manner in which the raw material is to be supported in the still. In the cases of orris and almonds, mentio...
-Chapter XLIII. Purification Of Essential Oils
An essential oil, having been won from the plant, is frequently in need of purification. Oils which have been produced by itinerant or native distillers can generally be vastly improved by redistil...
-Purification Of Essential Oils. Continued
Florentine Flask The usual Florentine flask is too well known Fig. 210a. to need description, it can be seen in operation in the illustrations on pages 468,469, and 473. Improved designs are sho...
-Appendix
Table 125. Yields of Essential Oils Yield per cent (approximate). Yield per cent (approximate). Material. Material. ...
-Appendix. Continued
Table 126. Amount of Substance in a Steam Distillate Substance. Per cent by weight of substance. 76 mm. 760 mm. 3040 mm. ...









TOP
previous page: Light Science For Leisure Hours | by Richard A. Proctor
  
page up: Science Books
  
next page: Tables Of Refractive Indices. Oils, Fats And Waxes