books



previous page: The Chemistry Of Paints And Painting | by Arthur H. Church
  
page up: Science Books
  
next page: The Pyrotechnist's Treasury: Complete Art Of Making Fireworks | by Thomas Kentish

Military Pyrotechnics | by Henry B. Faber



The history and development of military pyrotechnics. The manufacture of military pyrotechnics. An exposition of the present methods of manufacture, the materials and machinery used

TitleMilitary Pyrotechnics
AuthorHenry B. Faber
PublisherWashington, Goverment Printing Office
Year1919
Copyright1919, Washington, Goverment Printing Office
AmazonMilitary Pyrotechnics

By Henry B. Faber, Dean Of The Pyrotechnic Schools Ordnance Department U. S. A.

Illustrated With An Historical Introduction By Marvin Dana

In Three Volumes

Volumes 1+2

Military Pyrotechnics 1001
-Introduction
This publication has been prepared under the direction of the Ordnance Department to be used as a basis for the instruction of officers and civilians in the art of manufacturing military pyrotechnics....
-Preface
No adequate history of pyrotechny has been written. Such a volume would indeed require the work of a lifetime on the part of its author; not for the actual writing, but for the gathering of materials....
-Part I. General Survey. Chapter I. Introductory
Pyrotechny is the art of fire. This is the literal meaning; a definition so broad that it relates the art to almost every variety of human activity. It might even be applied justly to describe the op...
-Chapter II. Fire In Religion And Myths
The most desultory inspection of primitive religions shows that worship of the sun and of fire was universal. The truth is curiously illustrated by the fact that even our word Devil literally means ...
-Table Des Essais
Qui out indique la meilleure proportion pour compofer la Poudre. Table of powder tests. There was only a single method of destroying the Basilisk. This was by means of a mirror. While scrupulously...
-Chapter III. Priestcraft And Pyrotechny
From earliest times, the ministrations of the priesthood have been concerned, to either a greater or less extent, with fire. Throughout the ritual of all churches from ancient ages to modern, the flam...
-Chapter IV. Arts Of Magic And Alchemy
We have already defined pyrotechny as the art of fire. But, while this is the literal meaning of the word, its application is too broad to satisfy our further needs in a consideration of the subject. ...
-Arts Of Magic And Alchemy. Continued
It would be folly to suppose that the early magicians were merely fools or charletans. As a matter of fact, they were of many sorts. Some deluded themselves; some deluded others: but many were actuall...
-Chapter V. Outlines Of History
As has been said, the secret learning of the Egyptians in earliest times was distributed among the wise men of the world. That this learning was notable concerning the movements of heavenly bodies is ...
-Outlines Of History. Part 2
The figures employed in portraying these legends were usually of heroic size, sometimes gigantic. They were fashioned of plaster, covering a wooden frame which was afterward removed. There was provide...
-Outlines Of History. Part 3
For the sake of completeness in this historical sketch, a brief reference must be made to some phases in the art of aerial fire that have no concern with purposes of spectacular entertainment. The ro...
-Chapter VI. Greek Fire
Back in those very ancient days when Amen Ra, the sun-god, was worshiped in Egypt, when the great African empire contained all of the world's learning, and, under a benevolent autocracy, gave to its p...
-Chapter VII. Fire Mirrors
Every small boy knows that by focusing the sun's rays through a lens he is able to kindle a fire. The action is caused by concentration of the rays, due to refraction. But a similar concentration, eve...
-Chapter VIII. Rockets
We meet even to-day occasional survivals of rites from the ancient sun worship that are consciously practiced. Such is the sun dance of the Arapahoe Indians, with its mystic wheel - that aged symbol c...
-Rockets. Part 2
When rockets are designed for signal purposes, they are usually furnished with a load to be set off as the flight comes to an end. The garniture may be of serpents, stars, or petards, The serpents are...
-Rockets. Part 3
From a French source has come down to us an interesting account concerning a Congreve war rocket, which was found on the coast by Gen. de Grave, who transmitted it to the Society of Encouragement, at ...
-Chapter IX. Curious War Devices
Most of the inventions in pyrotechny, at this period, were of a futile sort, more especially by reason of the fact, to which attention has already been called, that subsequent improvements in ordnance...
-Chapter X. Naval Devices
The experiments with rockets early extended adaptations of them for use at sea. Their value was, of course, speedily recognized for signal purposes in naval warfare, and also especially for indicating...
-Chapter XI. Various Details
Apart from the activity of inventors in connection with military devices during this period, there was little progress in pyrotechny. Some improvements, however, were made in the compositions used for...
-Part II. Details Of Manufacture By The Early Artificers In Pyrotechny. Chapter I. Introductory
It would transcend the limits of our space to give in chronological sequence a complete description of the successive steps by which pyrotechny has attained its modern development. It will answer our ...
-Chapter II. Materials
Both the accurate information of the pyrotechnist, and the handicap under which he worked, due to ignorance of certain chemical facts, are well illustrated in the summing up of one writer concerning c...
-Saltpeter
Saltpeter is a salt from which may be drawn by analysis a fixed alkali similar to the salt itself, and also a volatile acid, which forms the principal constituent. From this acid are derived those pro...
-Sulphur
The ordinary sulphur of commerce will serve, and the yellower it is the better. If impurities are contained in it, it should be melted and strained through a cloth. It must not be applied until after ...
-Charcoal
Almost any kind of wood charcoal may be used in pyro-techny, and there is ordinarily little difference in the effects produced by the different sorts. There is, however, some variation in color which ...
-Powder
Powder employed for fireworks may be in grain, which is designed to explode the case containing it with a report; or it may be pulverized, in which form it burns while contained within the case. A pas...
-Iron
Iron filings, or, still better, those of steel since they contain more sulphur, give a fire that is very brilliant for the purposes of pyrotechny. As a rule, these are used as required for all varieti...
-Pasteboard
The pasteboard used for fireworks is made up from several sheets of good grade paper for the inner portion, and white for the outer, fastened together with flour paste. It should be sufficiently thin ...
-The Fuse
The fuse is used for setting off rockets and other varieties of fireworks, and also to communicate fire from one piece to another. The material of the fuse is cotton thread. The size may be increased...
-The Essential Tools
The tools necessary are the following: A table of hard-wood, and a mallet, also of hard-wood, for pounding. But a wooden hammer, such as is used in charging rockets, may be employed in default of a ma...
-Chapter III. The Making Of Rockets
The French official experiments in the manufacture of rockets were carried on with great care, and the results of the work have been preserved in records of the ordnance department, from which the fol...
-Cases
Cases are made by rolling pasteboard over a round piece of wood (baguette), which is called the rolling stick. This should be very smooth and without handles. Its diameter should be two-thirds that of...
-Choking
The choking should be done before the case becomes entirely dry. As a preliminary to the process, a cord of size proportioned to that of the firework is attached by one end to a staple driven into a p...
-Composition For Rockets
Rockets of 10 or 11 lines are loaded with a composition containing 4 ounces of charcoal to a pound of powder. Rockets of from 7 to 9 lines are loaded with a composition having only 3 ounces of charcoa...
-Loading Rockets
The first requirement is a loading spoon, to which the artificer gives the name corne. The diameter of this is equal to the interior diameter of the case. It should contain so much of the composition ...
-Pots, Caps, And Garnitures
The pot should be made of the same pasteboard as is the rocket. This is shaped on a wooden cylinder, used as a mold. The pot has a thickness of two or three turns of pasteboard according to the size o...
-Sticks
The stick attached to a rocket serves to maintain it upright during flight. It acts as a counterbalance against the weight of the rocket. Thus, the action of the gases, from combustion within the air ...
-Chapter IV. Serpents And Other Garnitures
Serpents for garnishing rockets and firepots have cases made from playing cards. Those formed from one card have 3 lines of interior diameter; from two cards, 3 1/2 lines; from three cards, 4 lines. T...
-Fire Pots
The case forming the fire pot is closed at the bottom by a wooden disk fastened with glue. This disk ends in a screw. Its diameter is that of the pot into which it enters, and its thickness is at lea...
-Plying Saucissons
The flying saucissons have commonly 7 lines of interior diameter and 5 inches of height. A long match is fastened within the case, and extends out through the choke. That part of the case beyond the c...
-Chapter V. Pots A Aigrettes
Pots a aigrettes do not differ from fire pots, except that they are made larger and that they have a jet in the center, which at the finish gives its fire to the garniture. The case has commonly 6 inc...
-Trompes
The name trompe is given to an assemblage of several fire pots placed one above another, which are discharged successively in such a manner that the first in throwing out its garniture kindles the slo...
-Balloons And Grenades
The balloon is an imitation of a bomb, and it is thrown in the same fashion from a mortar, either of metal or wood or pasteboard, but commonly pasteboard. (PL V, figs. 2, 3, and 4.) Plate V. The b...
-Barrils
Barrils, or small barrels, designed to hold grenades, are made of pine wood. The usual dimensions are 21 inches of height, 12 inches of interior diameter at the base, and 12 1/2 of interior diameter a...
-Table Rockets
Table rockets are so-called because for firing them a table, or some other plane surface, is used. (PL VI., fig. 8.) A case of 15 lines is commonly employed. This is placed upon a base without a spin...
-Chapter VI. Fixed Fires. Fire Lances
Fire lances have for a long period been commonly used as torches for purposes of general illumination during a display of fireworks at night in the open air. But, though they produce a handsome effect...
-Rockets Running On A Cord
The rocket running on a cord is loaded over a base having a spindle. The composition used is somewhat milder than that ordinarily employed for rockets. This sort of rocket carries no garniture. An em...
-Fire Jets
The name fire jets is given to all rockets loaded solidly, so that there is no air chamber, which operate without leaving the place where they are fastened. Of this sort are the fixed suns, turning su...
-Fixed Suns
A fixed sun is an assembly of jets, charged with sparkling fire, or with Chinese fire, which are arranged about the support so as to form rays, and equipped with a fuse communicating from one to anoth...
-Turning Suns And Girandoles
The sole difference between a turning sun and a girandole is in the position at the time of discharge. The sun is placed vertically, while the girandole has its plane parallel to the horizon. A turnin...
-Communicating Fire
The secret of the communication of fire between different pieces was brought from Bologna into France in the year 1743 by the Sieurs Ruggiere, official artificers for the Italian crown. The pyrotechni...
-Machine Pyrique
A form of firework device is called the pyrotechnic machine (machine pyrique). This ends ordinarily with a star. It is formed from six bars having a length of from three to four feet. These are screwe...
-Animal Forms
We again owe to Father d' Incarville the method of forming animal figures. This depends on a paste made of sulphur, reduced to powder, and wheat paste mixed together, with which are covered frames of ...
-Chapter VII. Fires For Water Display
There is no particular composition for this variety of firework. The pieces are made of the same materials as those discharged on the ground or aloft. They burn equally well on the water as in the air...
-Genouilleres
The genouilleres are for display on water - the equivalents of serpents for display in the air. They are used to garnish fire pots, water balloons, and barrils de trompes. They are also called dolphin...
-Divers
The effect of the diver is to give forth a light extremely brilliant and very white, and to plunge from time to time into the water, only to reappear with the same splendor. It is charged also with fi...
-Running Fusees
These are fusees, or jets, which have an upright position on the water. They are charged and garnished like the genouilleres, except that no powder is placed in them, and that the sheath is attached t...
-Turning Suns On Water
A turning sun for use on water is formed from two jets joined together by their ligatures. The pair is fastened on a pine board, cut round, of a diameter equal to the length of a jet, and sufficiently...
-Barrils De Trompes
A barril of this sort is an assembly of seven trompes, in which each sheath is mounted on a disk with a screw, as has been described for the fire pots, by which it is attached to a base of wood having...
-Aquatic Fire Pots And Balloons
These fire pots have the same form, and are made in the same manner, as the pots a aigrettes; with this difference, that a counterbalance is attached underneath as for the barrils de trompes, and that...
-Jattes
Jattes are a sort of fire pot, formed from a bowl of wood, around which are fastened five jets, arranged for discharging in alternate sections after the manner of turning suns. The effect of the jets ...
-Spiral Machines
A similar arrangement is employed also to carry on water a kind of firework called the spiral machine. This is a cone formed by six light strips of pine, 5 feet long, nailed at one end on a wooden dis...
-Part III. Modern Methods. Chapter I. Materials
The foregoing account concerning the art of pyrotechny, as it flourished in France during the eighteenth century, is of particular interest in connection with a study of present-day conditions by reas...
-Chapter II. Color Formulas
At the present time, there are numerous advantages enjoyed by the maker of fireworks, which were wholly unknown to his predecessors. Thus, for example, the paper used for the making of cases is prepar...
-Chapter III. Garnitures
The serpents are fashioned after the manner already fully described. Three most familiar forms of these small jets are distinguished one from another chiefly by the arrangement of the fuses, by which ...
-Chapter IV. Fixed Fires. Jets
Fixed fires are those retained in their original position on the ground during the period of their discharge, but within the limits of their own place they may be given a considerable variety of movem...
-Fixed Fires. Jets. Part 2
Chinese Fire 1st. 2d. 3d. Powder...................... 16 16 16 Cast iron....................... 3 3 2 Niter.................
-Fixed Fires. Jets. Part 3
Caisses Or Marrons The variety of fireworks originally named marrons by the French is still popular, and is frequently shown under different names. The term caisse is employed to describe a similar p...
-Fire Lances And Bengal Lights
The lances have a long cylindrical case, loaded individually with a number of charges, which produce fires of various colors. Such pieces are adapted for purposes of illumination in the representation...
-Fire Lances And Bengal Lights. Continued
It is necessary that care be taken to regulate the charge with utmost nicety, in order to give the requisite degree of energy. Too much violence in the expulsion will cause the star to be extinguished...
-Chapter V. Aerial Fireworks. Rockets
In all the great diversity of fireworks that has been developed, the rocket still maintains its supremacy. It is today manufactured in various forms and equipped with distinctive garnitures adapted in...
-Bombs And Grenades
Bombs or grenades share with rockets the popular favor as spectacles. They are now manufactured in an almost endless variety, but in their essentials they are unchanged. They are so constructed as to ...
-Chapter VI. Spectacular Effects
In the present development of pyrotechny there is almost no limit to be placed on the ornate forms of spectacular entertainment. The principles that have already been described are capable of infinite...
-Chapter VII. Pyrotechny In The World War
If any person be inclined to doubt the practical importance of pyrotechny in military operations, let such a skeptic consider the fact that, in the World War, the British troops used position lights a...
-Pyrotechny In The World War. Part 2
The star shells have been constantly used during the war, and their efficacy has been enormous. But there have been endless other means of illumination, with equally endless variations in the styles o...
-Pyrotechny In The World War. Part 3
Some realization of the development in pyrotechnic construction due to the war may be had by considering the latest French products for the 35-millimeter signal cartridge, which are enumerated in the ...
-Pyrotechny In The World War. Part 4
In general, the German signal cartridges included four distinct types. The first of these had a non-removable charge, giving a white light; the second, a removable charge, burning with a yellow light;...
-Pyrotechny In The World War. Part 5
The British have developed also a 3-inch paper mortar for projecting signal bombs. Bombs of this variety when aloft release three colored stars that remain suspended in the air by means of a parachute...
-Pyrotechny In The World War. Part 6
The use of smoke-producing devices has been highly developed during the war, with an increasing realization as to the importance of the results thus secured for a large variety of military operations....
-Appendix A. Ordnance Manual Of 1849
In 1849 there was published by the Ordnance Board of the United States Army an Ordnance Manual, by A, Mor-decai, brevet major, United States Army. The book deals with all branches of ordnance used in ...
-War Rockets
For war rockets, the cases were made of sheet iron, lined with paper or wood veneer. The head was cast iron, either a solid shot or a shell with a fuse communicating with the rocket composition. The c...
-Appendix B. Ordnance Manual Of 1861
In 1861 an Ordnance Manual was published by T.T. S. Laidley, brevet major, Ordnance, United States Army. Under the heading of Incendiary Compositions, Lights, and Signals, in the manual, are descri...
-Appendix C. Italian Types
The operation of Italian pyrotechnics was demonstrated before the Second Corps Gas School of the American Expeditionary Forces on February 28, 1919. The conspicuous features exhibited were the followi...
-Italian Types. Continued
4. Signal Bombs For Aeroplanes (Model Poma) (A) Red Cloud Description and method of employment. - These flares are dropped from aeroplanes and serve to indicate the enemy target for the artillery. T...
-Appendix D. Additional Formulas
American Aeroplane Smoke-Signal Grenades Red Potassium chlorate..................... 20 Lactose........................... 20 Paranitraniline red .....................
-Additional Formulas. Continued
Capt. Wiley's Formulas For Position Lights, Mark I White Parts. Barium nitrate........................... 7 Sulphur............................ 1 3/4 2...
-Appendix E. Miscellany
French Percussion Flare Used only in small quantities, fired from one-and-one-half Very pistol. Ignited upon coming in contact with earth. Burned for a period of from 30 to 40 seconds. P. Bomb Cont...
-Preface Vol2
The following volume deals with the manufacture of military pyrotechnics, the materials and machinery used, and the latest approved methods of assembly. During the progress of the World War, the cont...
-Chapter I. Military Signal Rocket
The signal rocket is by far the best-known article of military pyrotechnics. Its importance is due to the fact that it is complete in itself, and may be carried with ease as the firework in its entire...
-Military Signal Rocket. Part 2
Driving Case Or Rocket Body Case This case is made of material which will give strength as well as lightness to the body. As the case has to hold gases exerting a reasonably high pressure and as the...
-Military Signal Rocket. Part 3
The lever is thrown to its extreme outward position. The pin of the shaft is now out of engagement with the driving pulley and the shaft is brought back so that its forward end is within the collar of...
-Military Signal Rocket. Part 4
Figure 14 shows a case with its clay heading after it has been pressed into position, a pressure of 2 tons on the rammer having been applied. The function of this bottom clay heading is to hold back t...
-Military Signal Rocket. Part 5
The hydraulic press is controlled by hand valves. The pressure is usually obtained from an individual power-operated pump. A pressure gauge is installed on the line in sight of the operator of the pre...
-Military Signal Rocket. Part 6
Stick Socket The socket is a hand-rolled carton made from Bogus paper 0.017 inch in thickness. A strip 5 inches wide and 12 inches long has applied to its surface a coat of paste, the paste being sim...
-Yellow Smoke-Producing Mixture Or Composition
The usual formula for this smoke-tracer composition consists of - Percent. Saltpeter.......................... 37.2 Sulphur (flour)............................... ...
-White Light
There appear to be two different methods of manufacturing the various signals, with the exception of the smoke signal. In the first instance the use of a briquetting machine compresses the illuminatin...
-Assembly Of The Signal Light (White) By The Old Method
The signal light consists of the following: 1. Case. 2. Bottom disk. 3. Muslin disk. 4. Match. 5. First fire. 6. Composition. 7. Top disk. 8. Muslin wrapper. 9. Wet prime. 10. Ignition match...
-Green Signal Light
Manufacturers do not adhere closely to any one definite composition, although there is a marked similarity in all the compositions used. The two representative compositions are given as follows - ...
-Red Signal Light
There is a variety of formulas used in the preparation of the red signal composition, the basis of these being the use of from 7 1/2 to 11 3/10 per cent. of powdered orange shellac, which requires a c...
-Caterpillar Signals
(12 Lights.) The caterpillar signal may have two or more lights, the 12-light signal being the one usually manufactured for military purposes. It consists of a carton approximately 3 1/3 inches long...
-Loading Parachute And Signals Into Rocket Head
The carton of the rocket head may be attached to the rocket body before introducing the parachute and light signals or the parachute and signals may be assembled and the rocket head then attached to t...
-Loading Parachute And Signals Into Rocket Head. Part 2
Identification Plugs Each type of rocket is supplied with a distinctive top or wooden cap. The reason that a special shape is given to the identification plug rather than a mark is to enable the ope...
-Loading Parachute And Signals Into Rocket Head. Part 3
Labels Labels giving directions for the firing of the rockets are shown below: Signal Rocket Mask I. White Parachute Directions for firing. Tear off wrapper by means of protruding string with tag...
-Loading Parachute And Signals Into Rocket Head. Part 4
Drumheads The drumheads are pieces of 30-pound Kraft paper cut 7 1/2 by 7 1/2 inches, with the corners clipped off, making an octagon. A coat of paste is applied to both sides of these drumheads befo...
-Loading Parachute And Signals Into Rocket Head. Part 5
Functioning Of Rocket The following figures show the rocket functioning: Figure 78 shows the manner in which the rocket is supported when the match is lighted. Figure 79 shows the rocket being prop...
-Chapter II. Aeroplane Flare
The aeroplane flare is a pyrotechnic illuminating device of French origin, having a high candle power. It is released from an aeroplane, its function being the illumination of large areas. It consists...
-Aeroplane Flare. Part 2
Aeroplane-Flare Shell Cylinder Figure 85 shows a longitudinal cross-sectional view of the cylinder which is the container for the light case and parachute. The main body and fins are of tinned steel...
-Aeroplane Flare. Part 3
The mandrel by suitable mechanism is always stopped in a position permitting the sheet to be easily fed into the slot. This slot is cut parallel to the long axis of the mandrel, and has a slightly spi...
-Aeroplane Flare. Part 4
It is necessary after sifting the material that an accurate weighing should be made. Each can of the mixed barium nitrate and oil should contain 78 pounds in order that the final composition shall run...
-Aeroplane Flare. Part 5
Preparation Of The Loaded Case To Receive The First-Fire Composition After the loaded case is taken from the press it is removed to another building, where the case is laid upon a table and an operat...
-Aeroplane Flare. Part 6
This is a simple rack made with suitable grooves at both ends so that the match when fed upon the frame will fall in the several grooves and prevent the contact of one strand with another. The passage...
-Aeroplane Flare. Part 7
Firing Mechanism The firing mechanism is essentially a firing pin and detonating cap. The parts in detail are described as follows: Propeller And Shaft The accompanying figure 116 shows a firing me...
-Chapter III. Parachute Rifle Light
The rifle light is a pyrotechnic device developed during the World War. The rifle light performs a dual function. It is used for lighting purposes, when the illuminating device is swung from a small p...
-Parachute Rifle Light. Part 2
Rifle Light With Parachute Figure 133 shows an exposed longitudinal section of the rifle light with parachute. Fig. 133. - Sectional view of parachute rifle light. Parachute Rifle Light 1. Shell...
-Parachute Rifle Light. Part 3
Light Composition There may be either a white, green, or red light composition loaded into the case, depending upon the particular color desired. These compositions will be taken up separately and di...
-Parachute Rifle Light. Part 4
Parachute The parachute is made of light, tough Japanese paper. The thickness of the paper is not unlike that of the rice paper used for cigarettes. The parachute is composed of seven sectors, the le...
-Chapter IV. Star Rifle Light Without Parachute
This is a pyrotechnic article very similar to the rifle light with parachute. It has attained much popularity by reason of the fact that its efficiency in functioning is very high. Also, its ease of t...
-Star Rifle Light Without Parachute. Part 2
One-Red-Star Rifle Light Case The case is usually made of a very cheap cardboard, such as Bogus 0.013. The inside diameter of the case is 1 1/2 inches and the height 1 1/2 inches. This case is simil...
-Star Rifle Light Without Parachute. Part 3
Three-Red-Star Rifle Light Case This case is made of black hardware or Kraft paper 11/16-inch inside diameter and 1 5/8 inches high. Composition And Loading The composition of the three-red-star r...
-Star Rifle Light Without Parachute. Part 4
One-Green-Star Light The only difference between the one-red-star light and the one-green-star light is in the composition and in the form of the tin identification cap. The composition for the one-g...
-Chapter V. Very Signal (25 Millimeter)
The Very signal is a pyrotechnic device which is fired from a specially designed pistol. A cartridge similar to a shotgun cartridge holds the signal star which is propelled about 300 feet, burning for...
-Chapter VI. Position Light
There are various types of position lights, often called Bengal lights. The position light is commonly used to indicate the location of trenches to aerial observers. But it is available also for othe...
-Position Light. Part 2
First-Fire Composition For The White Light There are two different compositions used. One of them consists of - Per cent. Saltpete..................... 57.2 Sulphur ...
-Position Light. Part 3
Binding Band This binding band is used to hold together and firmly attach to the case the several disks previously described. The band is a strip of rope manila, 20-pound stock, cut in strips 6 inche...
-Chapter VII. Wing-Tip Flare
The wing-tip flare is a pyrotechnic device used for illuminating and signaling purposes. These flares are manufactured in both white and colored lights. The flare by means of suitable rigging is attac...
-Wing-Tip Flare. Continued
The end of the plug which is inserted into the case is slightly beveled to facilitate easy assembly. This plug is forced into and glued to that end of the case having the smaller outside diameter and ...
-Chapter VIII. Smoke Torch
The smoke torch is a pyrotechnic device which produces a dense cloud, used primarily to form a smoke screen for the purpose of concealment. Fig. 199. - Sectional drawing of smoke torch. Fig. 198...
-Smoke Torch. Part 2
Mixing The Composition Three hundred and ninety-five pounds of saltpeter are ground in a Coggswell mill. Where a number of different lots of saltpeter are to be used, it is desirable to sample and ma...
-Smoke Torch. Part 3
Prime The cover of the container is slipped on and forced firmly into place, being locked by the seam previously mentioned. Through the 1-inch hole in the cover is poured a special prime mixture, whi...
-Chapter IX. Photometry
The measuring of the intensity of light given off by the burning of pyrotechinic pieces designed for signaling and illumination is an important factor and deserves careful consideration. Consequently ...
-Photometry. Continued. Lamps
Many different types of burners have been designed and built in the attempt to obtain a flame of known value and capable of reproduction without variation. The lamp which has up to the present time me...
-Chapter X. Storage Of Military Pyrotechnics
The large production of military pyrotechnics required correspondingly large storage facilities, which prompted the Ordnance Department to request a report. In December, 1918, the following report wa...
-Discussion Of The Possible Chemical Reactions In The Representative Formulas On Prolonged Storage
No. 1. - In this formula, saltpeter, sulphur, and charcoal are the constituents. The general consensus of opinion of the manufacturers is to the effect that this formula, which is the driving charge o...
-Discussion of Classification And Formulas
Concerning the foregoing formulas, it should be noted that all discussion of the proportions of the different ingredients has been purposely avoided, for the reason that the practice of the manufactur...
-General Discussion On The Experience Of Manufacturers Who Have Stored Pyrotechnics
A number of pyrotechnic manufacturers have expressed their opinions, based on their experience over a number of years, as follows: As regards the length of time pyrotechnic pieces may be safely store...
-General Discussion On The Regulations In Reference To Storage Of Pyrotechnics, Including Recommendations
In regard to regulations concerning the storage of pyrotechnics, the following boards and bureaus have been referred to: New York Board of Fire Underwriters. Underwriters' Laboratories. National Bo...
-Discussion On The Regulations In Reference To Storage Of Pyrotechnics. Part 2
Construction Of Arsenals The consensus of opinion seems to point to the use of separate one-story units of not more than 10,000-square-feet floor space, with ceiling not less than 10 feet high. These...
-Discussion On The Regulations In Reference To Storage Of Pyrotechnics. Part 3
Lightning Protection Du Pont de Nemours Powder Co., of Wilmington, Del., have gone into this subject more deeply than any of the above-mentioned bureaus, and have a treatise on the subject, based on ...









TOP
previous page: The Chemistry Of Paints And Painting | by Arthur H. Church
  
page up: Science Books
  
next page: The Pyrotechnist's Treasury: Complete Art Of Making Fireworks | by Thomas Kentish