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Scepticism And Construction | by Charles A. Campbell



In the case of theory of knowledge, however, the prevailing anarchy makes a condensed treatment more than usually unsatisfactory, and it has only been possible to avoid giving to epistemology what I should regard as a quite undue predominance in the total argument by a largely dogmatic acquiescence in certain traditional presuppositions.« On that account no more can strictly be claimed for this phase of the argument than that, granted the general validity of the Idealist mode of approach to the problem of knowledge, a sceptical solution is logically inevitable.

TitleScepticism And Construction
AuthorCharles A. Campbell
PublisherGeorge Allen & Unwin Ltd
Year1931
Copyright1931, George Allen & Unwin Ltd
AmazonScepticism And Construction

Bradley's Sceptical Principle As The Basis Of Constructive Philosophy.

By Charles A. Campbell, lecturer in moral philosophy in the University of Glasgow, London

-Preface
As this study purposes to be constructive no less than sceptical, and as the claim to unite construction with scepticism savours somewhat of paradox, I think it will be well to offer what preliminary ...
-Preface. Continued
Turning now to more general matters, the problem of presentation has, I must confess, troubled me a good deal. As the very essence of my thesis lies in the peculiar relation of reciprocal support whic...
-Chapter I. The Epistemological Approach To The Supra-Rational Absolute. Section I. Introductory
Not very many, I suppose, of those who are entitled to pass an opinion would dissent from the judgment that the most distinguished figure in the last half-century of British philosophy was the author ...
-Section 2. Contradiction And The Non-Contradictory
Philosophy, Bradley has said, is an attempt to gain a view of the general nature of Reality which will satisfy the intellect. This definition, which looks innocent enough, nevertheless suggests strong...
-Contradiction And The Non-Contradictory. Part 2
But, it may be said, no one really supposes that thinking, in uniting differences A and B, pronounces them to be identical. This is to misread the significance of the 'is' of the copula. 'A is B' (thi...
-Contradiction And The Non-Contradictory. Part 3
The true formula of the judgment then is not 'A is A,' nor 'A is B,' nor 'A has B,' nor anything of a cognate character which treats the terms as simple entities. The formula is A(x) is B, or, perhaps...
-Section 3. The Non-Contradictory (And Therefore The Real) In Principle Unattainable By Thought
We are now in a position to say something, though of a purely formal character, about the general nature of the true and real. If the intellect rejects as self-contradictory any 'simple' union of diff...
-The Non-Contradictory (And Therefore The Real) In Principle Unattainable By Thought. Continued
We find ourselves asking next, then, 'What is the warrant for the connection of our A with our C?' Superficially, it may seem enough to reply that petrol is unable to flow through a partial solid, suc...
-Section 4. Untenability Of Doctrine Of Degrees Of Truth
Criticism of it from (a) the Pluralist, and (b) the Supra-rationalist, Standpoint. A rough statement of the doctrine of 'Degrees of Truth,' sufficient for our present purpose, may be given in compara...
-(A) Criticism From The Pluralist's Standpoint
The nerve of the Pluralist's argument against the Idealist Absolute lies in his denial of the internality of relations. That relations are 'internal,' i.e. grounded in the nature of the terms they rel...
-(A) Criticism From The Pluralist's Standpoint. Part 2
What defect then does Mr Russell find in this proposed ground? The answer is quite unambiguous. The 'law of sufficient reason' upon which the ground is itself grounded is untrue. For what is the 'reas...
-(A) Criticism From The Pluralist's Standpoint. Part 3
Is all this in fact 'quite clear' and 'quite obvious'? In truth, the one thing that is quite clear and obvious to the Idealist reader is that Mr Moore is working with presuppositions as to the nature ...
-(B) Criticism From The Supra-Rationalist Standpoint
The criticism which has to be passed upon the doctrine of 'Degrees 'from the side of Supra-rationalism is, however, so obvious in character that one's chief difficulty lies in understanding how Bradle...
-Criticism From The Supra-Rationalist Standpoint. Continued
In reply to this defence we may certainly admit at once that there are 'two points of view' from which we may regard the status of judgments. I have just been engaged in indicating what they are - tha...
-Section 5. Bearing Of The Metaphysical Problem Of Error Upon The Doctrine Of The Supra-Rational Absolute
The matter just touched upon at the conclusion of the last section - the metaphysical difficulties occasioned by the status of Error - is one the decision of which must have a good deal of weight in d...
-Bearing Of The Metaphysical Problem Of Error Upon The Doctrine Of The Supra-Rational Absolute. Continued
But if this is so, then Error proper, which we saw to have as its distinctive mark the claim to absolute finality, is a judgment of the very type of the contradictory. How then can it be supposed to c...
-Chapter II. The Supra-Rational Absolute And Its Critics. Section 1. Note On The Structure Of The Total Argument
In the preceding chapter I (The Epistemological Approach To The Supra-Rational Absolute. Section I. Introductory) endeavoured to develop the epis-temological argument for the 'Supra-rational' Reality....
-Section 2. The Absolute As 'Experience?' 'Self-Consistent', 'One', And 'All-Inclusive'
I wish first of all, then, to explain more adequately what I mean by calling Reality 'supra-rational.' I certainly do mean that it is in principle unknowable. Moreover, the whole value which the doctr...
-The Absolute As 'Experience?' 'Self-Consistent', 'One', And 'All-Inclusive'. Part 2
No perception of objects will exhaust the sense of a living emotion.'4 But immediate experience is not confined to the phenomena of the emotional life. Careful analysis discloses, Bradley goes on, tha...
-The Absolute As Experience Self-Consistent, One, And All-Inclusive. Part 3
Yet we must begin our criticism by pointing out that the 'leap of faith' earlier referred to is not to be disguised. Even if we grant Bradley's doctrine of the felt totality, it gives us no right to b...
-The Absolute As Experience Self-Consistent, One, And All-Inclusive. Part 4
First, then, as to 'self-consistency.' That Reality does not contradict itself, and therefore is self-consistent, is a presupposition of all thinking, and so far certain. But against this we have to r...
-Section 3. Criticisms Of The Supra-Rational Absolute. (A) Indirect Criticisms
I pass on now to the main task of the present chapter - the examination of some of the more formidable criticisms which have been levelled against the doctrine of the 'supra-rational' Reality. These c...
-Criticisms Of The Supra-Rational Absolute. (A) Indirect Criticisms. Part 2
The Reality which thought posits and demands, then, is not 'unknowable.' For what thought thus demands is a character which in the developing syntheses of experience thought is progressively realising...
-Criticisms Of The Supra-Rational Absolute. (A) Indirect Criticisms. Part 3
Now one might reply to this argument, in the first place, that even if it be granted that 'otherness' is a progressively less significant character in the development of selfhood, we are still not jus...
-Criticisms Of The Supra-Rational Absolute. (A) Indirect Criticisms. Part 4
It does seem to me of great importance that we should recognise clearly that the experience of unity is not only a symptom of the self's strength and value. It is also a symptom of the self's impotenc...
-Criticisms Of The Supra-Rational Absolute. (A) Indirect Criticisms. Part 5
In this last section I have been arguing, firstly, that the revision of the Kantian philosophy in the light of a truer conception of thought's ideal does not, as the Idealist contends, lead straight t...
-Section 4. Criticisms Of The Supra-Rational Absolute. (B) Direct Criticisms
We have devoted a good deal of space to that purely indirect criticism of the Supra-rational Absolute which is implied in the positive Idealist arguments for Mind as the ultimate principle of Reality....
-Criticisms Of The Supra-Rational Absolute. (B) Direct Criticisms. Part 2
I turn now to a criticism of a much more searching character, one which opens up a problem demanding careful investigation. The criticism appears in a good many forms, but their common essence may per...
-Criticisms Of The Supra-Rational Absolute. (B) Direct Criticisms. Part 3
But does the term 'non-contradictory' not have itself a certain positive significance? Only in a purely formal sense. Formally we can give positive expression to it, as the 'self-consistent,' or as 'd...
-Chapter III. Noumenal And Phenomenal Truth. Section 1. Absolute Idealism's Rejection Of Correspondence Notion Of Truth
In this chapter I (The Epistemological Approach To The Supra-Rational Absolute. Section I. Introductory) purpose to consider how the view of Reality that has been expounded reacts upon the general the...
-Section 2. Supra-Rationalist Modification Of This Rejection. Noumenal (Or Ideal) Truth And Phenomenal Truth
Nevertheless, I do not think that the Correspondence theory is to be so easily dismissed. The view of the relation of thought and reality outlined in the previous chapters is, in spite of obvious affi...
-Supra-Rationalist Modification Of This Rejection. Noumenal (Or Ideal) Truth And Phenomenal Truth. Continued
The Correspondence theory of the nature of Truth has, of course, weighty objections to encounter beyond those which arise from the metaphysic of Absolute Idealism. In adopting it (in qualified form) a...
-Section 3. The Criterion Of Phenomenal Truth (A) Correspondence
Our problem is, by what test are we to appraise the adequacy or inadequacy of our ideas to represent the reality which, at the phenomenological level, is taken as confronting us? Is it possible, for e...
-The Criterion Of Phenomenal Truth (A) Correspondence. Continued
'But,' common sense may retort, 'surely such objections are purely academic? We shall admit, if you like, that the fact of the thunderstorm is a fact for us only through judgment. But this judgment ...
-Section 4. The Criterion Of Phenomenal Truth (B) Rational Coherence
It will not repay us, I think, to dwell further upon the Correspondence theory of the criterion of Truth. I pass on to explain what has seemed to me to be, on the whole, the most satisfactory view. Th...
-The Criterion Of Phenomenal Truth (B) Rational Coherence. Continued
There can be no absolute certainty, then, in terms of the Coherence test, although an intelligible meaning can be attached to the phrase 'degrees of certainty.' No intelligible meaning can, I think, b...
-Section 5. The Criterion Of Phenomenal Truth (C) Immediate Apprehension
We must, however, go into this matter much more deeply. For, as the reader will have gathered, we have come now upon the reservations which must be made to the doctrine that, at the Phenomenological l...
-Section 6. Phenomenal Truth, As The Intellectually Incorrigible, Contrasted With Noumenal Truth, As The Intellectually Satisfactory
These reflex judgments are then, in our view, intellectually incorrigible, finally valid for human experience, and as such must be pronounced to possess unqualified 'Phenomenal' truth. But we have to ...
-Section 7. Status Of 'Geometrical Truths' In Idealism And Supra-Rationalism Respectively
It would be ridiculous in a work of this sort, which cannot claim to do more than break the ground for further research, to attempt to set forth anything like an inventory of 'final phenomenal truths'...
-Chapter IV. Moral Freedom (I). Section 1. Introductory
As has often enough been remarked, there is a curious paradox attending the problem of freedom, which lends to all argument about it a certain air of unreality. For whatever be the outcome of theory, ...
-Section 2. Criticism Of The Idealist Doctrine Of Freedom
The negative side of the Idealist doctrine need not detain us. It consists in the denial that human conduct is subject to 'natural' causation. Its classical statement in T. H. Green's Prolegomena to E...
-Criticism Of The Idealist Doctrine Of Freedom. Part 2
My argument for Libertarianism as against Determinism will not then seek to show any more, in the last resort, than that freedom is a 'necessary' illusion. Even if the conviction of freedom be proved ...
-Criticism Of The Idealist Doctrine Of Freedom. Part 3
It is, of course, easy to understand the reluctance of Idealists to admit the incompatibility of their doctrine with moral responsibility. No philosopher wishes to find himself obliged to defy the pos...
-Criticism Of The Idealist Doctrine Of Freedom. Part 4
But where it is a matter of planning for the distant future, the claims of 'theory' are not directly opposed, and consequently are not eclipsed, by the claims of the volitional consciousness, and Dete...
-Section 3. Conditions Of Problem Surveyed And Method Of Argument Determined
Even the more confident advocates of Determinism are, as a rule, prepared to admit that the immediate affirmation of consciousness at the moment of deliberate action' does constitute a real difficulty...
-Conditions Of Problem Surveyed And Method Of Argument Determined. Part 2
And this evidence can be found. It stares one in the face, if one looks for it in the place where by the nature of the case it is alone possible for it to appear. By the external observation of conduc...
-Conditions Of Problem Surveyed And Method Of Argument Determined. Part 3
Again, we distinguish quite clearly the effort of the effortful act of will from either physical effort or intellectual effort. Effort of will bears no intrinsic relation whatever to the physical or i...
-Conditions Of Problem Surveyed And Method Of Argument Determined. Part 4
In so far as the foregoing analysis is sound, we have in the effortful act of will an experience of ourselves of a unique kind which is such as by its very nature to oblige the subject of it to affirm...
-Conditions Of Problem Surveyed And Method Of Argument Determined. Part 5
Those Determinists, of course, who do not admit the existence of a 'mind' as distinct from a 'body' at all, or again, those who, while admitting the existence of mind, deny that it has any efficacy in...
-Section 4. Criticism Of Attempts To 'Explain Away' The Sense Of Effortful Activity
In pursuance of the duties thus imposed upon the Libertarian, let us now consider the validity of the attempts that have been made to discredit the experience of 'effortful' activity. The first thing...
-Criticism Of Attempts To 'Explain Away' The Sense Of Effortful Activity. Part 2
Not all the 'instinct psychologists,' however, have been oblivious of the fact that there is something in the experience described as 'acting against the line of least resistance' that, on their princ...
-Criticism Of Attempts To 'Explain Away' The Sense Of Effortful Activity. Part 3
But first let me make all proper concessions. There are cases, many cases, in which a 'higher' desire, which would not be effective per se against a 'lower' desire, passes into action as the direct re...
-Criticism Of Attempts To 'Explain Away' The Sense Of Effortful Activity. Part 4
There is, Bradley tells us,' no original experience of anything like activity.' 2 It is a 'secondary product, the origin of which is far from mysterious.'8 When we make 'a serious attempt to decompose...
-Criticism Of Attempts To 'Explain Away' The Sense Of Effortful Activity. Part 5
It is a duty, I suppose, to add something at this point about the bodily sensations which for many writers are so important a factor in our experience of activity. 'Feelings of innervation' in the old...
-Section 5. Recapitulation Of General Argument
Much yet remains to be said before it will be possible to feel any solid justification for inviting the reader's assent to my view upon this thorniest problem of philosophy. But at the stage we have r...
-Chapter V. Moral Freedom (II). Section 1. Defence Against 'Caprice' Criticism
I wish to begin this set of defences and explanations by considering what may be called the 'Caprice' criticism. This lethal weapon of assault is in such high favour among Determinists that if (as I b...
-Section 2. Defence Against Charge Of Ignoring The Observable Continuity Of Conduct And Character
These last few pages have been concerned rather to show that we can attach a meaning to an act that is self-determined but not issuing causally from the agent's character than to defend the existence ...
-Section 3. Defence Against Charge Of Miracle-Mongcring
The next variety of criticism to which I wish to allude is one upon which, at the stage now reached in our argument, there is no need to dwell at length. It is a constant reproach against the Libertar...
-Section 4. The Privacy Of Will-Power. Answers To Objections
We pass on now to consider a new set of criticisms of considerably greater interest. They necessitate, however, some few words of introduction. I have not disguised my conviction that the capacity fo...
-The Privacy Of Will-Power. Answers To Objections. Continued
The case is really precisely analogous to that of strong acquired propensities of a bad kind. Here, too, the onlooker is apt to say (as, e.g., of the confirmed drug-taker) that the agent 'has no will-...
-Section 5. Summary Of Doctrine Regarding Will-Energy, With Some Further Observations
But before passing on to new matter it will perhaps be helpful if I bring together into a sequence of propositions the main points that have emerged, either directly or by implication, with regard to ...
-Section 6. Reaction Of Present Doctrine Upon Problem Of Finite 'Individuality '
I want to conclude this chapter by indicating very shortly the general way in which the theory of freedom here maintained reacts upon the problem of the kind of individuality which belongs to finite s...
-Section 7. Note On Bradley's Criticism Of The 'Reality' Of The Finite Self
One last point. The discussion of the last two chapters has made it possible for me to set forth in a very few words my position with regard to the kind of criticism which has been levelled by Bradley...
-Chapter VI. The Reality Of Moral Obligation. Section 1. Absolute Idealism And The Status Of Morality
In the last two chapters I endeavoured to establish the validity of the belief in 'freedom,' in that common-sense interpretation of it which postulates genuinely 'open possibilities' for the human wil...
-Absolute Idealism And The Status Of Morality. Part 2
To take the earlier position first. The essential point which it is sought to bring out is that while there is a contradictory element present in all willing (since all willing, good and bad, implies ...
-Absolute Idealism And The Status Of Morality. Part 3
But whether or not this is Bosanquet's more considered position, the thing of chief importance is to see that it is the only position logically consistent with the metaphysics of Absolute Idealism. Fo...
-Section 2. The Socratic Theory Of The Will
How, in the first place, does this theory get itself suggested? It is certainly not the natural report of introspective observation. Moreover, the moral judgments in literature and practical life are,...
-The Socratic Theory Of The Will. Continued
Making allowance for the simplifications of brevity, these seem to me to be the lines along which the 'illusion' of having acted incontinently may best be explained away. And they have some plausibili...
-Section 3. Statement Of The Problem, And Of The Method To Be Adopted
We come now to the main problem of the chapter. I have tried to show, with special reference to the metaphysic of Absolute Idealism, the difficulty - nay, the impossibility - of any reconciliation of ...
-Statement Of The Problem, And Of The Method To Be Adopted. Continued
Why is there this reluctance to accord to moral experience its full metaphysical significance? There can be little doubt, I think, that the leading influence is the immense authority which belongs, fo...
-Section 4. Exposition And Defence Of The Idealist Doctrine Of Desire
It is not possible, nor perhaps desirable, to expound in full detail here the psychology of conation which underlies Green's account of the moral principle. But one prominent doctrine in that psycholo...
-Exposition And Defence Of The Idealist Doctrine Of Desire. Part 2
Almost all of these objections centre upon the supposed'egoism' of our theory. Now, as I shall show, the theory does not even raise the question of' egoism or altruism.' But before developing this poi...
-Exposition And Defence Of The Idealist Doctrine Of Desire. Part 3
Let us try to get clear upon the meaning of 'egoistic' in reference to a concrete case of behaviour. Suppose a man gives a munificent donation to a hospital. It is commonly recognised that although su...
-Exposition And Defence Of The Idealist Doctrine Of Desire. Part 4
In the same way, Dr Rashdall's failure to appreciate the all-important distinction to which I have been calling attention is the only conclusion which really follows from the 'dilemma' with which he c...
-Section 5. The Contrast Of The 'End Of The Self-As-Such' With The 'End Of Desire'
The remainder of the argument will fall into two parts. On the basis of the psychology just expounded I shall try to show, in the first stage, how there must arise and persist for every self from its ...
-The Contrast Of The 'End Of The Self-As-Such' With The 'End Of Desire'. Continued
The above illustration is typical. And indeed the presence in human experience of this contrast between 'end of self and 'end of desire' is in one sense plain matter of fact. But I think we can see no...
-Section 6. The Moral Authority Of The 'End Of The Self-As-Such'. (A) Removal Of Obstacles To Its Appreciation
Granted that the contrast of 'end of self-as-such' and 'end of desire' is thus characteristic of the conative experience of self-conscious or rational beings, our final task is to show that the former...
-Removal Of Obstacles To Its Appreciation. Part 2
But by far the most potent of the prejudices against which our doctrine has to make itself good is that which arises from the failure to understand that it is not just a more or less refined form of e...
-Removal Of Obstacles To Its Appreciation. Part 3
The 'conceived good of the self as a whole' may, then, find expression in certain circumstances in an 'egoistic' end: a fact which does not, however, disqualify it in any way as the principle of moral...
-Section 7. Digression Upon The Crucial Difficulties Of Intuitionalist Ethics
The most obvious objection to Intuitionalist ethics is as follows. It is of the essence of this type of theory to lay down a number of moral rules, each of which is supposed to be absolutely or uncond...
-Digression Upon The Crucial Difficulties Of Intuitionalist Ethics. Part 2
Mr Ross is, of course, perfectly well aware of the necessity of offering some answer on this matter. On p. 23 the difficulty is explicitly raised. It may be objected, he says, 'that our theory that th...
-Digression Upon The Crucial Difficulties Of Intuitionalist Ethics. Part 3
Mr Ross is very ready to agree that the use of this principle can never allow us to attain certainty as to what in particular is our duty. And he mentions two main causes of uncertainty. In the first ...
-Digression Upon The Crucial Difficulties Of Intuitionalist Ethics. Part 4
Thus the principle offered us for the solution of conflicts between prima facie obligations turns out, after all, to be of no avail: not, indeed, to be an intelligible 'principle' at all. And it is wo...
-Digression Upon The Crucial Difficulties Of Intuitionalist Ethics. Part 5
I think it is fairly plain that the ability or otherwise of this explanation to meet the facts turns upon the phrase 'sufficient mental maturity.' If the kind of mental maturity which may legitimately...
-Digression Upon The Crucial Difficulties Of Intuitionalist Ethics. Part 6
I think, then, that if the Intuitionalist's set of obligations really were self-evident, it is reasonable to suppose that they would manifest themselves in the lives and minds of primitive peoples in ...
-Section 8. The Moral Authority Of The 'End Of The Self-As-Such': (B) Its Intuitive Appeal
I have admitted frankly that formal demonstration of our one ultimate obligation is not possible. The final appeal is, and must be, to intuition. The main work of its recommendation consists in the re...
-Section 9. Concluding Remarks On The Implications Of The Position Reached
The thesis of the chapter must now be left to take its fortune. I shall close by reminding the reader, in a very few words, of certain further results which must be accepted if the present conclusions...
-Chapter VII. The Principle Of Moral Valuation. Section 1. Moral Valuation And 'The Moral End'
If this were a treatise on moral philosophy, there is a multitude of subsidiary matters which would now require to be dealt with, consequent upon the discussions of the last chapter.1 It would be int...
-The Principle Of Moral Valuation. Section 1. Moral Valuation And 'The Moral End'. Continued
This is better, if only because of its recognition that moral valuation implies an 'ought' which is meaningless without a 'can.' But it will not suffice. It is still impossible to hold that these sugg...
-Section 2. Approach To, And Exposition Of, The Positive Theory To Be Defended
It is desirable to glance first of all at the subject-matter of moral valuation. Here, fortunately, we discover a pretty general agreement. Moral valuation is concerned with 'conduct,' and with 'chara...
-Approach To, And Exposition Of, The Positive Theory To Be Defended. Part 2
The above classification is, I think, exhaustive of the possible principles of moral valuation, in the broad sense in which we are at present viewing them. It does not, to be sure, cover theories whic...
-Approach To, And Exposition Of, The Positive Theory To Be Defended. Part 3
I take my stand on this. If we are going to evaluate conduct morally, i.e. in terms of personal worth, we must confine ourselves to that aspect of it which is strictly the agent's own. And if we do co...
-Section 3. Discussion Of The Difficulties In Practical Application Of The Principle
We must now try to justify this doctrine by reference to some of the more important difficulties that are likely to be felt in its regard. The first difficulty is one suggested by proposition (5) abo...
-Discussion Of The Difficulties In Practical Application Of The Principle. Continued
Some of the exceptions are, I confess, disconcerting. For example, in the spate of articles and reviews that followed upon the recent publication of certain letters of Dostoieffski, and some parts of ...
-Section 4. Reply To Criticism Based Upon The Moral Consciousness's Apparent Acceptance Of The Relevance Of Content (Part I)
We pass now to a criticism which is of much more fundamental import, one which it is vital that we should dispose of satisfactorily if our theory is to gain credence. It may be put briefly in the foll...
-Reply To Criticism Based Upon The Moral Consciousness's Apparent Acceptance Of The Relevance Of Content (Part I). Continued
Most readers will be able to recall at least the general tone of public opinion during the period when Gandhi's activities first became a serious menace to the welfare of the British people. And if th...
-Section 5. Digression On The Supposed Distinction Of Merit From Goodness
We must now face an objection, the discussion of which will lead us eventually to a recognition of the second major influence which causes the moral judgments of mankind to seem often to be concerned ...
-Section 6. Reply To Criticism Based Upon The Moral Consciousnesses Apparent Acceptance Of The Relevance Of Content (Part II)
We may remind ourselves once more that every rational being has in the nature of the case a 'moral ideal,' something which he is conscious that he 'ought' to do or be. And this ideal is no mere vague ...
-Section 7. The Fiction Of 'Non-Moral' Objective Values
Now the notion of another objective value which is not moral value - to take up again the problem which we found it necessary to shelve temporarily - arises, I think, as an indirect consequence of thi...
-The Fiction Of 'Non-Moral' Objective Values. Continued
Hence the 'utterness' of the contrast, which might otherwise seem anomalous, that is felt between the end representing the good of the self as a whole, and opposing ends representing goods of only par...
-Chapter VIII. Supra-Rationalism And Religion. Section 1. Introductory
I have been arguing in these recent chapters (IV. to VII.) that the critical consideration of 'practical experience' leads to the same conclusion as our earlier investigation of 'theoretical experienc...
-Section 2. Alleged Contradictoriness Of Religious Experience. 'Finite God' Solution
There is, first, what is commonly called the 'peace of religion'; the tranquil and joyous confidence that flows (as it appears) from an assured faith that the Universe is permeated throughout by the D...
-Section 3. The 'supra-Rational God' - The Meaning Of The Conception, And Its Value As A Solution
Must we then, rejecting the Finite God, acquiesce in the view held by many thinkers, that religion is inherently self-contradictory? Religion maintains now that all things flow from the Divine Perfect...
-The 'supra-Rational God' - The Meaning Of The Conception, And Its Value As A Solution. Part 2
So much it seemed necessary to say by way of a general vindication of the collocation 'Unknowable God.' We have seen with what qualification the term 'unknowable' is here applied; a qualification, how...
-The supra-Rational God. The Meaning Of The Conception, And Its Value As A Solution. Part 3
There is then no contradiction whatever between the faith of religion in a God whose Perfection is supra-rational and the moral urge of religion to banish all imperfection. When our thinking is direct...
-Section 4. Harmony Of This Solution With General Principles Of Bradley's Philosophy. Bradley's Own Solution
This brings us to the next phase of our discussion. If the conclusion which we have reached is sound, if, that is, religious experience implies recognition of the Supra-rational character of the Absol...
-Section 5. Relation Of Faith And Moral Fervour. Justification Of This Relation On The Metaphysical Theory Of The Present Work
We may now return to consider the relation of Bradley's philosophy to that further aspect of the religious consciousness to which I referred some pages back. Hitherto we have been treating the religio...
-Relation Of Faith And Moral Fervour. Justification Of This Relation On The Metaphysical Theory Of The Present Work. Continued
And I think we may see that the Supra-rational philosophy can offer not merely a general but also a particular vindication of the assertion of affinity between God and 'good' - that is, that it not on...
-Section 6. Implications Of Above Doctrine With Respect To Theology
So much then for the central theme of the present chapter. I have tried to show that the metaphysic expounded throughout the book may rightfully claim such authority as attaches to religious experienc...
-Section 7. Defence Against The Criticism Of 'Undue Abstractness'
I pass on to the next point. The 'faith' or creed which I am advocating is certainly one which is deficient in the concreteness commonly attaching to religious creeds. I want to inquire now as to whet...
-Defence Against The Criticism Of 'Undue Abstractness'. Continued
But in actual fact we all know well enough that it is not merely with respect to the formal attitude of the will that personal mediators are, where recognised at all, accepted as external exemplars. T...









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