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Principles Of Sociology With Educational Applications | by Frederick R. Clow



The efforts of theological seminaries, schools of philanthropy, schools of business, and schools of education to employ sociological theory as an instrument for the analysis of any kind of social situation, or as a master-key to all of their treasure houses, are destined, I still believe, to result in success. Such success awaits standardization, and that - again expressing merely my own opinion - the university professors will yet give us; they - some of them - will come to the aid of the schools that educate social workers and will trim down the far-ramifying sociological theory to the shape of a tool which these workers can be easily trained to use...

TitlePrinciples Of Sociology With Educational Applications
AuthorFrederick R. Clow
PublisherThe Macmillan Company
Year1920
Copyright1920, The Macmillan Company
AmazonPrinciples of sociology with educational applications

By Frederick R. Clow, Ph.D.

Teacher In The State Normal School At Oshkosh, Wisconsin

-Brief Course Series in Education
Edited By Paul Monroe, Ph.D., Ll.D. Brief Course In The History Of Education Paul Monroe, Director of School of Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. Brief Course In The Teaching Proce...
-Preface
...The efforts of theological seminaries, schools of philanthropy, schools of business, and schools of education to employ sociological theory as an instrument for the analysis of any kind of social s...
-Part I. The Factors Of Society. Chapters I-IV
Expatiate free o'er all this scene of man; A mighty maze! but not without a plan; A wild, where weeds and flowers promiscuous shoot, Or garden, tempting with forbidden fruit. Together let us beat ...
-Chapter I. Population
All the elements of society are conserved in its physical basis, the social population. With a study of population . . . the descriptive analysis of society must begin. In the study of population on ...
-The Two Kinds Of Aggregation
An aggregation of people in one locality may originate in either one of two ways: by birth or by assembling. The individuals may have been born into the group from a common stock, or they may have com...
-Immigration
Foreign immigration is of course a large factor in making the population demotic. Throughout the Northern section of the United States the foreign element - including in this term the foreign born and...
-Varying Composition Of The Population Application To Education
This varying composition of the population has important results in the social life of a community. The fuller discussion of these will come in Chapters VI and VII. One result for education will be no...
-Density of Population
The social organization of any people varies radically according to the density of the population. Human beings, like any other form of life, tend to multiply up to the limit of the food supply and th...
-Application To Education
Density of population affects education by its bearing on the degree to which schools can be specialized. If the pupils in one school are few, there can be little variety in the teaching and the equip...
-Differences Of Age And Sex
Besides the differences in nationality or place of birth, it is useful in statistics of population to classify according to sex and age; the teacher often finds it convenient to classify the pupils in...
-The Teaching Population
The census of 1900 reported the teaching population of the United States as 438,361. This was .0058 of the total population, or a trifle over one half of one per cent. Teachers were first enumerated s...
-Population Summary
Topics 1. What is the density of population in this state? What state has the greatest density? The least? Census; Statistical Abstract. 2. Put on the blackboard the names of states, with their resp...
-Chapter II. Geographical Location
No matter what modifications further study may necessitate it would seem that at last we are reaching the point where definite measurements may be made of man's reactions to the physical world, and we...
-Writers
The earliest writers to analyze at all fully the influence of physical environment on human society were Montesquieu (1689-1755) and Buckle (1821-1862). Buckle, in his incomplete History of Civilizati...
-1. Influence Of Climate
There is the direct influence of geographic conditions on man's constitution, causing what the biologists call modifications. Examples of these are the sluggishness induced by living in the tropics, t...
-2. Natural Resources
The natural world exercises its greatest influence in varying human society through the materials which it provides for man to appropriate or work upon. Where there are no available materials, as in t...
-3. Physical Features
While differences in production determine the directions of trade, it is physical features chiefly that determine the precise routes to be taken; they also determine the lines along which population m...
-Educational Applications
The direct effects of climate on mankind appear in the school calendar. The long vacation is a concession to the enervating influence of heat, to the greater attractiveness of outdoor life in the summ...
-Human Factors In The Locality; School Buildings
This chapter so far has discussed location as nature makes it. Location as man makes it is a social product and not a primary factor. But the newcomer in a community finds himself in an environment of...
-The Physical Bases Of Society
This is a convenient term to designate the ground which has been covered by these two chapters. The historian begins his story of a given country with a description of the land and the people Natu...
-Geographical Location Summary
Topics 1. The influence of residence in the tropics on persons from the temperate zones. Interview persons who have been there. 2. The desirability of life for a teacher in the Philippines, Porto Ri...
-Chapter III. Human Nature
There is no way of coming at a true theory of society, but by inquiring into the nature of its component individuals. To understand humanity in its combinations, it is necessary to analyse that humani...
-General View
The subjects of the two preceding chapters are fairly simple, at least the phases of them selected for presentation here. The geographers and economists have done the pioneer work; the sociologists ca...
-Limits
First it will be well to set limits to our undertaking, and the important thing in doing this is to cut off all metaphysical questions. We shall not learn, or even inquire, about the ultimate nature o...
-Life Is Action
As far as our sciences have been able to interpret, human experience and the phenomena of society, like the subhuman phenomena of nature, are transformations of physical energy. Life, whether in man, ...
-Inborn Tendencies
As the selections above from Parmelee and Small suggest, life is not merely action in general. All living matter is predisposed to specific kinds of activity. There is first and always as a background...
-1. Material Wants
For the preservation of the individual the great needs are for food and shelter from the elements; shelter means clothing as well as a habitation. Man's want for these things impels him to get a livi...
-2. The Family Instincts
For the preservation of the species there must be reproduction. With mammals, and also with many lower forms of life, this is provided for by the sex instinct. This instinct, when supplemented by pare...
-3. Gregariousness
This is the tendency of animals of a given species to keep together, as in herds of cattle, flocks of birds, schools of fishes, swarms of insects. These, however, are only the extreme forms of it; it ...
-4. Kindness
The adjective kind is derived from the nouns kind and kin, probably meaning originally the behavior proper toward one's relatives. Kindness to one's fellows is a necessary factor in gregariousness. It...
-5. Capacity For Intelligence
So far in this chapter attention has been confined to the qualities which man possesses in common with beings of lower orders than himself, and which they often possess in equal degree with himself. T...
-Maturing
Some of the instincts and inborn capacities are not ready to function at birth: they have to grow with the growth of the body. The clearest example of this kind is the sex instinct. In normal children...
-Variations In Human Nature
Though all human beings are constituted on the same general plan, every instinct mentioned in the foregoing pages being present in every normal person, nevertheless persons differ. For example, that m...
-Variations In Human Nature. Continued
Up to the end of the nineteenth century, the only well-known classification was that of the four temperaments made by the ancient Greeks: sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric, and melancholic, and some writ...
-Human Nature Summary
It appears, therefore, that this subject of human nature, though boundless and inscrutable in some respects, may nevertheless be approached by scientific methods. A human being is a bundle of tendenci...
-Chapter IV. Communication
The only mind that one can know at first hand is his own. Each mind is in a sense a prisoner within the body, and allowed to speak to others only through the messengers of the body - the lips, the fac...
-Communication And Individual Development
In the preceding chapter we have seen how person differs from person, more in mental constitution and content than in physical makeup. Therefore, when one mind touches another there is a change in bot...
-Communication And Individual Development. Continued
In regard to communication with an imaginary person, I know of a case that is quite unusual. The imaginary had the common name of Mary Jones. Mary's mother was a widow and did sewing for a living; con...
-The Mechanism Of Communication
Professor Cooley, in his chapters on communication,1 speaks of it as a mechanism. A process must have some kind of medium in which to go on, and the medium through which mind stimulates mind is the sy...
-Verbal Communication
Of the various forms of communication the spoken word is the one which surpasses all the others in importance. With the conceptual thinking which it presupposes it most distinctly separates man from t...
-Non-Verbal Communication
The foregoing selection also illustrates a very important form of non-verbal communication, namely, the demonstration, together with its usual accompaniment, participation. Demonstration and participa...
-Personality
In spite of all the arts, our understanding of persons who are distant from us in space or time depends upon our understanding of the persons whom we have met. Personality radiates through bearing, ge...
-Drama
Out of the influence of personality on mental development comes the importance of drama. Drama is so close an approximation to real life as to have some of its educative power. Children long for exper...
-Selection Of The Medium
These various forms of communication are so many media through which mind touches mind. Like the media which transmit physical energy they are not perfect conductors; they transmit with resistance, so...
-The Reaction To Communication
The reactions which follow communication have been analyzed most fully by the psychologist, Tarde, and the sociologist, Giddings; to these two the writer is most indebted for the ideas contained in th...
-Communication Summary
Problems 1. Does attendance at a large school increase or diminish the individuality of the student who comes from a small town? Cooley, Social Organization, pp. 91-97. 2. Should children be allow...
-Part II. Social Organization. Chapters V-X
After studying each of the factors of society as far as possible apart from the others, it is next in order to study them as they work together to make a self-sustaining whole: how population becomes ...
-Chapter V. Primary Groups And Congenial Groups
. . . Since differences of tastes, manners, creeds, languages, and innumerable other variations prevent everybody from liking everybody else, pleasurable fellowship can only take place on the basis of...
-The Size Of A Primary Group
It will be conceded at the first glance, without hesitation, that the sociological structure of a group is essentially modified by the number of the individuals that are united in it. It is an everyda...
-Congenial Groups
One kind of primary group will now be selected for fuller analysis and illustration. Though it is most often given as typical of all, it may be conveniently called the congenial group to distinguish i...
-Girls' Groups
Girls are less obtrusive than boys, less noisy, so that their congenial organization has been less noticed by adults. But their groups exist just as universally as do those of boys, and they are just ...
-Congenial Groups In School
The following account, written by a teacher, gives a careful analysis of the grouping of the children in a rural school: In this school there were fourteen families represented, and at school the chi...
-At Boarding Schools
Then there is the girl who goes away from home to school for the first time and has a week of homesickness. Does not the theory of congenial groups offer the best explanation and the proper remedy? S...
-Discipline
It often happens that hard cases of discipline have their roots in the deliberately chosen policy of congenial groups - gangs as they are then called. It is the group that must be dealt with, though...
-Can Congenial Groups Be Constructed?
Since congenial groups are so potent to either hinder or advance the interests of a school, the question arises how far a teacher may work in such a group among his pupils and so help to determine its...
-Congenial Association Apart From Groups
The congenial groups described in the foregoing extracts have been groups of children or young people, for, as has already been noted, the grouping of mature persons is obscured by their pursuit of re...
-Educational Application
In education, as well as in business and politics, congenial association must ever hold a large place. If the merchant will buy of a traveling salesman what he would never order by mail from a catalog...
-Primary Groups And Congenial Groups Summary
Topics 1. What differences have you noticed between boys and girls as to the kind of primary groups they form? 2. Describe cases you have known where boys and girls were in the same congenial grou...
-Chapter VI. The Social Mind
. . . The social mind is the phenomenon of many individual minds in interaction, so playing upon one another that they simultaneously feel the same sensation or emotion, arrive at one judgment and per...
-Intricate Development
The development of the social mind of a particular society up to a particular point is an intricate process. Like the underground course of the water which appears above ground as a spring, or the rel...
-Duration
The quality with respect to which it is easiest to have a scale of marking is duration: some states of mind may be classed as temporary and others as permanent, with every grade of variation from the ...
-Depends On Personnel
More enduring phases of the social mind in a school continue until the personnel changes. A term in school sees as much change as a year in business or politics, and a year in school is sometimes equa...
-Superficial Or Fundamental
Related to this quality of duration, but still distinguishable from it, is the depth of the causes from which the social mind emanates. The cause, at least the immediate one, may be very superficial, ...
-Popular Impression
Popular impression is the form the social mind takes with reference to matters of small importance, or to those of slight and passing interest. The average person receives communications every day on ...
-Public Opinion
When the subject matter is sufficiently weighty and permanent, then popular impression merges into public opinion. Discussion is the process by which this takes place. Popular impression is never unan...
-Popular Sentiment
The state of the social mind with reference to a question which was settled long ago is more fundamental than what is ordinarily known as public opinion. It is rather a latent prepossession, or a po...
-Moral Sentiments
The most fundamental and enduring forms of the social mind are the moral sentiments. In principle they start in the primary group, are much the same in one country as another, and persist through all ...
-Intensity: The Mob
The social mind presents various degrees of intensity. Most attention has been given to the brief but extreme exhibits in the form of mobs, which usually are the result of an encounter between a homog...
-Moderated Forms
As the mob spirit is brought more under control - civilized, suppose we might say - milder forms of the social mind become more important. Professor Ross has given us the best analysis of these, with ...
-Social Mind Based On Feeling
Now that the foregoing discussion is completed there is a large qualification which must be made to it. The qualification applies with special point to what was said about public opinion and popular s...
-Rational Like-Mindedness Vs. Formal
Giddings makes a useful distinction between rational like-rnindedness and formal mte-mindedness. The like-mindedness of a group is formal when it comes down out of the past and is accepted by the ...
-Average Opinion Vs. That Of The Most Competent
How do the various members of a group contribute to the formation of its social mind? The belief is widely held, supported by some eminent writers, that the social mind is a sort of average of the ind...
-The Social Mind Summary
Topics 1. Describe some case in which the tone of a school was changed by a single event. 2. Describe some case in which the attitude of a class seemed to be determined by a single member. 3. Descr...
-Chapter VII. Social Classes
A class is really definable only upon the basis of its mores; the code is the class. Terms like bourgeoisie denote a standard of behavior, a set of ideals, in short a standard of living, which is in t...
-Open Classes Vs. Castes
The two examples just given also illustrate the two kinds of social classes, namely, castes, in which membership is determined by heredity, and open classes in which membership depends on competition....
-Heredity And Occupation
Social heredity also extends to occupations. The relative pull of the father's trade on his children in comparison with the pull of any other trade is found to be as three to one. . . . Based on 2415...
-Classes Based On Wealth
Where caste is not established the most self-conscious classes are the rich and the poor. This has been especially true since the industrial revolution has widened the distance between the extremes of...
-Classes And Education
Of course this shift of all special organization from the hereditary to the competitive basis makes education more complicated. Formerly each caste had an educational system all its own. Any teacher k...
-Teachers As A Class
The social standing of the teacher in the community is a subject of some importance, especially for the woman teacher. Do the leaders in the community regard the teacher as their social equal, or as a...
-The "Intellectuals" Or "Highbrows"
One of the curious instances of the materialized thought of the present time is the increasing reference on the part of the highly educated to the rich as the privileged class. This point of view c...
-Backward Communities
The earliest training of a child comes from his home and neighborhood, with the school supplementing these agencies a little later. The experience that will reveal his talents to himself may come in c...
-The Genuine "Low" Class
Nevertheless, hereditary capacity and incapacity really exist and lie at the basis of the well-to-do classes on the one hand and the poverty-stricken classes on the other. This has been pointedly illu...
-Educational Bearing
How teachers need some knowledge of feeble-mindedness is well brought out in the first chapter of Dr. Goddard's book, which tells The Story of Deborah. One bright October day, fourteen years ago, t...
-The Criminal Class
The teacher needs to know something about this subject also, because the young person whom the schools fail to educate properly has his chance of becoming a criminal increased many fold. The schools a...
-Social Classes Summary
The topics treated in this chapter may seem disconnected. If so, it is because this thing which we call society is essentially heterogeneous. The population of the United States is split up into strat...
-Social Classes Summary. Continued
Small, General Sociology, pp. 274-279. Sumner, Folkways, pp. 30-52. Treitschke, Politics, Vol. I, pp. 303-327. Weyl, The New Democracy, pp. 235-254. Negroes as a Caste American Journal of Sociolo...
-Chapter VIII. Organizations And Institutions
When the main building of the normal school was burned the resident member of the board of regents was in another part of the state. An acquaintance who had read about the fire in a newspaper accosted...
-Exist In The Social Mind
What is an institution? The average person, if answering off-hand, will either name one or more examples, or else define it as a spot of ground with buildings on it. But a little thought shows that th...
-Needs And Wants: Cooperation And Specialization
Institutions satisfy wants. A want is a need which is felt, and some needs can be met only by cooperative effort. Institutions, therefore, satisfy felt needs which require cooperation. The army, for e...
-Institutions And The Instinct To Achieve
Human needs and the wants which arise from them tell only one side of the story of the origin of institutions; there is another side as well. These two sides are the same two phases of social organiza...
-The "Belonging" Instinct In Children
This is at the maximum from twelve to fifteen years of age. Boys especially will submit to more discipline from the fellow-members of the organization to which they belong than at any other time of li...
-Institutions And Standards
It is through institutions that conduct is standardized. First come the qualifications for membership. Every institution or organization, from the government of the nation down to the grammar-room bas...
-School Standards
A large school divides its members into many different grades or classes, and has a standard of attainment for entering each, or for leaving to enter a higher one. Written examinations are the tests m...
-Justice And The Rules Of The Game
Loyal cooperation can go on within any group only on condition that the apportionment of benefits and burdens among the members is just. There must be standing rules for all alike, then no one can com...
-Must Have Time To Grow
All that was said in Chapter V (Primary Groups And Congenial Groups) about the assimilating and unifying agencies that work in any group applies with multiplied force to an institution. This is becaus...
-Human Nature And Large-Scale Organization
During most of its existence mankind has been accustomed to little organization beyond primary groups, with direct communication as the bond of union between them. But now that mechanical means of com...
-Formalism
So far in this chapter the institution has been represented as the great constructive, conserving aspect of society. But it also presents another and very different aspect. Every good characteristic s...
-Individual And Society
One of the old ways of stating the relation between the individual and society was in the form of an antithesis: the individual versus society. Herbert Spencer entitled one of his books Man versus th...
-Organizations And Institutions Summary
Topics 1. Does the enlightenment of the individual make him more mindful of the general welfare? Ross, Social Control, pp. 291-303. 2. The relation between freedom and order. Cooley, Human Nature an...
-Chapter IX. Government
Unfortunately the word government is so exclusively a political term, it is hardly broad enough for out purpose, though usage compels us to adopt it. It has the usual inaccuracy of the figure synecdoc...
-The Frame Of Government
... In exercising authority over children the teacher uses and combines the three primary functions of government. He is, in his one person, the lawmaker, the judge, and the executive officer. This is...
-The Executive
In small organizations with voluntary membership the executive is usually all that there is to government. Here is a piece of work to be done, too large for one person. To get it done efficiently the ...
-The Governing Class
Government is an affair of classes. There is a governing class and a governed class. Sometimes there is a sharp differentiation between them, as between employers and employees, or between teachers an...
-Leaders
. . . The seat of honor may be placed here or placed there; but where McGregor is, there is the head of the table. I was once asked which is the best and most desirable chair in a theological institut...
-Class Selfishness
But the rulers may forget their function and convert a power intrusted to them to selfish ends. Since the individual is not wholly institutionized, but remains, as he should, a human being, the ordina...
-Supervision And Inspection
Any work in which two or more persons cooperate involves supervision. One must go ahead or think ahead, and indicate, though perhaps only silently by his own actions, what the others are to do. When t...
-The School Survey
This large-scale form of inspection has been applied during the last half-dozen years to the school systems of several states and cities. It consists in setting a corps of inspectors to examine the sy...
-Improved Methods Of Surveying
In later surveys effort has been made to avoid arousing the antagonisms which attended these two, especially by stating criticism of the work of teachers only in general terms so that the faults of no...
-The Theory Of Punishment
When the government, through its inspectors, surveyors, or other officials, discovers wrongdoing, it must apply a corrective. The old idea regarded any violation of the regulations as an affront to th...
-Government Summary
Topics 1. Conditions requiring more or less of government. Ross, Social Control, pp. 41-48; Giddings, Descriptive and Historical Sociology, pp. 519-521. 2. The conditions on which the efficiency of ...
-Chapter X. Democracy
The general or public phase of larger consciousness is what we call Democracy. I mean by this primarily the organized sway of public opinion. It works out also in a tendency to humanize the collective...
-Responsible Government
The great problem in government is how to enlist the expert skill of a few in the interest of all; how to guard against the selfishness of the ruling classes; how to direct the directors. In general, ...
-Pure Democracy
This means the government of a primary group. The officers are elected by a general assembly of the members and are answerable to it through the reports which they have to make of the progress of thei...
-Representative Government
Modern communication makes it possible for a scattered membership of any size to exercise governmental functions in much the same way as an assembly. Questions can be submitted to all of the members s...
-Equality
Though the term democracy means government by the people, we no longer hold the fatuous notion that all men are equally fitted to administer those institutions which a people establishes for the nec...
-Freedom
. . . Freedom is the more or less limited capacity of the highest organisms to inhibit instinctive and non-rational acts by intellectual and rational stimuli and to regulate behavior in the light of p...
-Freedom In The School
Nowhere has this change been greater or more productive of results than in the school. The pupil's interest has replaced a great part of the old discipline. Instead of the rod we now have the gymnas...
-Anarchists Vs. Socialists
The people who live under coercion, being in constant antagonism to their government, naturally get into the habit of thinking that government of any kind is an evil and so there is a school of social...
-Democratic Government In Schools
It is evident that the world is to make a trial of democracy. Whatever one may think about it, the sensible course must be to work with it sympathetically in order that we may learn as much as possibl...
-Democracy Conclusion
Democracy is a new thing in the world; well-developed forms of it have been in practice less than a century. We are still learning what it is and how to operate it. New features are continually being ...
-Democracy Summary
Topics 1. Can popular government rise higher than the intelligence of the average voter? Illustrate by some action of a literary society or other organization of which you have been a member. 2. Des...
-Part III. Social Progress. Chapters XI-XV
The method of the foregoing chapters has been analytical: the aim has been to pick society to pieces and see of what elements it is composed. In Part I we analyzed the factors which go to make up soci...
-Chapter XI. The Human Episode: Man's Career On The Earth
. . . The sense of time must come to include a long past and a limitless future, and the sense of terrestrial space to extend beyond the confines of community or nation. Nor are these to be conceived ...
-The Backward Look Historical Time
Persons whose recollection goes back only to the Spanish-American War have some of this realization from their own experience. In that short space of time the factor of communication has become differ...
-Archaeological Time
. . . The sudden appearance in Europe at least 25,000 years ago of a human race with a high order of brain power and ability was not a leap forward but the effect of a long process of evolution elsewh...
-Archaeology And Geology
Just as archaeological time overlaps earlier historical time, but precedes it for the most part, so also geological time overlaps and precedes archaeological. The human remains so far found prove man'...
-Stages Of Culture
The first chapter of Ancient Society, by Lewis H. Morgan, makes an arrangement of the successive periods of human development from the beginning up to the dawn of history. This arrangement has found s...
-Why Look Backward?
What is the value of this backward look? First of all, in the minds of some, is the respect it engenders for the culture we have. Our institutions, the content of the social mind of to-day, and human ...
-The Forward Look
So much for the backward look. Let us next turn our gaze forward. Will the earth again become unsuitable for human habitation? Must man's occupation of it have an end as well as a beginning? The astro...
-Impending Changes
Civilization is replacing barbarism. The peoples that are devoted to the arts of peace are now stronger in war than the peoples that cultivate only the arts of war. The uncivilized are yielding their ...
-The Human Episode: Man's Career On The Earth Conclusion
When we put together man's possible future and his probable past, so as to form the program of his entire career on the earth, - to get the human episode as a whole before us, - our present falls well...
-The Human Episode: Man's Career On The Earth Summary
Topics 1. Explore the past and the future of your special group, somewhat as the past and the future of mankind have been explored in this chapter. Do not, however, go beyond its existence as a group...
-Chapter XII. Heredity And Variation
. . . Civilized human societies must be ... in a continuous process of readjustment. Progress is the very law of their being: and if the ruling classes in any society attempt to enforce a policy of st...
-Heredity
The factor in societal evolution corresponding to heredity in organic evolution is tradition. . . . Heredity in nature causes the offspring to resemble or repeat the present type; tradition in societa...
-Variation
The biologists recognize two ways in which variation comes about. Let us start with the commonplace observation that individuals differ; there are no two alike, even children of the same parents, pupp...
-Formal Application
The remaining portion of this chapter will be devoted to the illustration of the terms which have now been given, with somewhat fuller statement in some cases of the principles which lie behind them. ...
-1. Population
The quality which makes society change is that it is composed, not of inert objects which can be put away in a museum and kept forever, but of living individuals who spend their years and then pass aw...
-2. Location
As Location determines to a great extent the kind of society which may exist upon it, so also when location changes, society must make new adaptations. The change in the location may be the indirect r...
-3. Human Nature
Man is an animal and is subject to variation just the same as any other species of animal. An example of this is the enlargement of the fore-brain, with the corresponding mental capacity, from the Pit...
-4. Communication
This, as was shown in Chapter IV (Communication), is the connecting medium of society, and any change in the mechanism by which it is carried on involves a change in society itself. When written recor...
-5. Primary Groups
These are the nursery of whatever innovating tendencies there may be latent in the population. They are the one perfectly spontaneous form of social organization. In them differentiation is bred. They...
-6. Social Mind
. . . The great personalities of history stamp upon their social period their creative faith. Whole eras rightly bear the name of some great genius who thus focuses and in a measure directs the stream...
-7. Social Classes
One of the continuous variations which the inspection of statistics of population reveals is the shifting of the balance between the social classes. A change in the proportionate numbers of two classe...
-8. Institutions
This is the form of organization which is designed to endure. There have been institutions which professed not to change. If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues th...
-9. Government
Here we reach the limit of conservatism. The persons who for a considerable period of time have composed the government of an institution resist change because their own interests are bound up with th...
-10. Democracy
Democracy is a device for drawing out any originality that may be latent in the population; also to remove rulers who stand in the way of progress. In many of our large municipalities . . . patrols a...
-Heredity And Variation Summary
Topics 1. Look up definitions of tradition in dictionaries and sociologies. 2. Put on the blackboard an outline of Ross's discussion of contact and cross-fertilizationof cultures; of the interaction...
-Chapter XIII. Natural Selection
... I have come to believe that any fruitful study of the science of society must rest upon a clear understanding, even though it be but a layman's, of the Darwinian theory. - Keller, Societal Evoluti...
-The Principle
Natural selection is a biological term, the application of which has extended to all branches of knowledge. It is essentially very simple. It means merely that nature herself does the selecting. The c...
-Application To The Factors Of Society Population
In sociology we see this principle most clearly applied to population. Man is an animal, and must have space and light and food, and the wherewithal to support and rear his young, like any beast of th...
-Human Nature
But population is never a homogeneous mass of people. The different race elements or family stocks reproduce in different proportions. Those that increase more rapidly will in time displace those that...
-Location
A piece of land has its use determined for it by natural selection. It is put to the purposes which the people occupying it for the time being have found by experience to be most advantageous. Take an...
-Communication
Between various forms of communication the struggle for existence is as acute as it ever is between the wild animals and trees in the wilderness. When a message has once been delivered there is rarely...
-Application To Social Organization
Here we need to keep in mind two ways in which natural selection works. When a certain form of organization exists in a given group, the group may abandon it and adopt another in its place, or the gro...
-Congenial Groups Definition
These are natural growths. If the first interview between two persons is agreeable, they both look for an opportunity to repeat it; if it is disagreeable, they avoid repeating it, provided there are o...
-Social Mind
In the social mind impression crowds upon impression so rapidly that only an occasional one holds popular attention for any length of time, and still fewer leave permanent results that can be identifi...
-Social Classes
Classes grow inevitably out of conditions, often undesired by statesmen, usually unperceived by them at the beginning. Each individual, in following his own inclinations or trying to make the most of ...
-What are Institutions
It is with institutions, the firmest part of the social organization, that natural selection does its great work; the members of the ruling class are mostly blind to their own faults, and only failure...
-What is Government
But strife always involves waste. Looking at a football game, one thinks how much constructive work might be accomplished with the energy there expended. Read a few pages of the Congressional Record a...
-Natural Selection Summary
Topics 1. The principle of natural selection as stated by its discoverer. Darwin, Origin of Species, Chapters III and IV. 2. Darwin's life and influence. Poulton, Darwin and His Theory, pp. 42-167; ...
-Chapter XIV. Telic Selection
Telic progress, as the name implies, depends altogether upon that faculty of the mind which enables man to pursue ends which it foresees and judges to be advantageous. . . . On any social organism ...
-Population And Vital Conservation
The population of a locality is brought together almost entirely by natural selection. It is by individual telesis rather than social telesis. A small institution, such as an industrial establishment ...
-Location And Communication
... We get the idea that man does not adapt to environment, but adapts the environment to himself and his needs. But we attain no power over nature till we learn natural laws, to conform and adapt our...
-Social Mind And Education
... In general, where the exact or scientific method can be applied, rational selection between the mores is possible. But this is chiefly, if not entirely, as things now are, in that part of societal...
-General Public Will And Social Classes
With respect to social classes we have first of all the aims of each class for its own advancement; intelligent foresight on the part of the members can do much to promote wholesome living among thems...
-Institutions
How far are institutions matters of real choice, and not merely products of evolution? There are critical times when a single decision, or the policy of a single leader or administrator, or the vote a...
-Government
Social telesis comes only when social organization reaches a high degree of development in the government of an institution. Natural selection has no goal - at least none which the naturalist recogniz...
-The Goal
The word telic comes from the Greek, telos, meaning end, or goal. Each institution needs to have a clear conception of its goal, the purpose for which it exists, its function in the world, just as eac...
-Telic Selection Summary
Topics 1. Compare Ward's view of what constitutes social telesis with Cooley's view of public will. Which do you prefer? Ward, Pure Sociology, pp. 544-549; Applied Sociology, pp. 2-13, 287-292,317,31...
-Chapter XV. Cycles Of Change
. . . History always turns in the same circle - Le Bon, The Psychology of Peoples, p. 229. Social activities are periodic. Harvests and food-supplies are alternately abundant and meagre. Exchanges, i...
-Rhythm In Nature
The natural world in which we live, and of which we humans constitute a part, works on the basis of cycle. It is a commonplace of physics that every process tends to run down and stop because the ener...
-Rhythm Of Groups Based On Nature
This metabolic rhythm impresses itself on all group activity, and no one can be a successful social engineer who does not take account of it. The public speaker allows times in his address when his ...
-The Cycle Of A Generation
In still another way man's physical organism gives rise to a cycle in society, namely, through the length of time required for an individual to come to maturity and then to live out his term of life. ...
-Cycle In Communication And Social Mind
Communication passes through a cycle in the form or manner of it. A great battle was fought yesterday; it was reported in a characteristic way in the papers last evening, then in a different way in th...
-In A Social Class; Immigrants
A social class represents some balance of forces in the population. It is therefore almost certain to become either more numerous or less numerous, either to increase or to decrease in influence, to c...
-Cycle In An Institution
The cycle through which an institution goes starts with a human need and develops an organization to meet that need. It grows in extent up to the limits of the population which it serves or the limits...
-Cycle In Civilization
Does civilization itself have a cycle? In so far as the dominant peoples in the world organize their states in the same way, use the same mechanical devices, share in the same commercial system, have ...
-Civilization And Secular Cycles In Nature
It was observed a few pages back that the tendency of social life to fall into rhythms or cycles becomes synchronized with rhythms in the natural world such as those which give us the day, the year, a...
-Practical Application
Sufficient evidence has doubtless been adduced to show that social changes do run in cycles more or less, although there is lacking the precision of astronomical cycles. The subject is one to which th...
-Cycles And Progress
According to Heraclitus of old, the world moves by opposites; the law of contradiction is a law of the universe. And many writers of history assert that human progress does not proceed in the path of ...
-Cycles Of Change Summary
Topics 1. Find other examples of cycles in nature besides those mentioned in the text. 2. Consult the latest authorities about the cycle of sun-spots; of rainfall. 3. An important problem from many...
-Sociology Books
These are the most useful books for supplementary reading with this volume as a manual. However, not all of the books marked with an asterisk (*) in the chapter reference lists are included here; to i...









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