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Athletics And Football | by Montague Shearman



There is no modern encyclopaedia to which the inexperienced man, who seeks guidance in the practice of the various British Sports and Pastimes, can turn for information. Some books there are on Hunting, some on Racing, some on Lawn Tennis, some on Fishing, and so on; but one Library, or succession of volumes, which treats of the Sports and Pastimes indulged in by Englishmen - and women - is wanting. The Badminton Library is offered to supply the want. Of the imperfections which must be found in the execution of such a design we are conscious...

TitleAthletics And Football
AuthorMontague Shearman
PublisherLongmans, Green, And Co.
Year1894
Copyright1894, Longmans, Green, And Co.
AmazonAthletics and Football

With A Contribution On Paper-Chasing By W. Rye And An Introduction By Sir Richard Webster, Q.C., M.P.

Athletics And Football 2

With Numerous Engravings After Stanley Berkeley And Instantaneous Photographs By G. Mitchell

Fourth Edition

With The Addition Of Chapters On Football In The United States By Walter Camp, New Haven, Conn". And Australian Football By A. Sutherland, Dromana, Victoria

-Dedication
To H.R.H. The Prince Of Wales. Badminton: March, 1887. Having received permission to dedicate these volumes, the Badminton Library of Sports and Pastimes, to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, ...
-Preface
A FEW LINES only are necessary to explain the object with which these volumes are put forth. There is no modern encyclopaedia to which the inexperienced man, who seeks guidance in the practice of the ...
-Introduction
IT may seem strange that I should be asked to turn aside from the studies and occupations which have so closely engaged my time during the last twenty years, to write a few lines upon a subject in whi...
-Introduction. Continued
It is unnecessary here for me to enlarge upon the immense advantage to be gained from the simultaneous development of physical and mental power; that subject has been so fully treated, and the benefic...
-Chapter I. The History Of Athletic Sports In England
Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini, sic fortis Etruria crevit Scilicet et rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma. Running and jumping are so natural and so easy to the young, that in one sense it may b...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 2
In the succeeding age, however, we begin to find foot exercises less thought of by the upper classes. Richard Pace, the secretary to King Henry VIII., could advise noblemen's sons to pursue their spor...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 3
Any they dare challenge for to throw the sledge, To jump or leape over a ditch or hedge, To wrastle, play at stoole-ball or to runne, To pitche the barre or to shoote of a gunne, 5 To play at loggets,...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 4
About the same time Thomas Cartwright, in his admonition to Parliament, asserts that the parson is as bad as his flock. 'He pusheth it over (the service) as fast as he can galloppe: for either he hath...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 5
Before we deal with the sporting period of the Restoration, however, we must not omit to mention the account given of the common sports of the earlier part of the sixteenth century by Burton, the auth...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 6
No doubt it was about this time that the growth of a regular professional class of pedestrians was encouraged by the general custom of the fashionable gentlemen of the period who kept 'footmen' or 'ru...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 7
He says that a country fellow who wins a competition is usually likely to win a mistress at the same time, and 'nothing is more usual than for a nimble-footed wench to get a husband at the same time s...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 8
These wakes were not confined to England alone. Hone tells us also of an Easter gathering at Belfast (which is to the present time the scene of an excellent athletic meeting), where running and jumpin...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 9
A few examples may also be given of the many genuinely interesting matches which were brought off. As regards the alleged times, however, many of them are as obviously absurd as that supposed to have ...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 10
Probably the performances of Foster Powell did much to spread the popularity of pedestrianism as a sport, for we invariably find that one great performer brings a host of inferior imitators. In Powell...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 11
In 1808, however, Skewball, the famous Lancashire shepherd, ran 140 yards in 12 seconds at Hackney! This is perhaps the best specimen of the incapacity of the writers of that day to distinguish betwee...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 12
Captain Hargraves and Mr. Fenton attracted a large crowd to a mile match which they ran in 1843. It was not long after this that we find professional pedestrianism in what were almost its palmiest day...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 13
'As about half of the 24 starters left the post as if they were only going to run a few hundred yards, they were necessarily soon done with. Aitken, gradually coming through all these, had the best of...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 14
Kensington Grammar School began their regular sports in 1852, and we believe there are several other private schools round London which have had annual foot races and jumping matches since about the s...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 15
While, however, the schools were beginning to take up athletic sports in a tentative way soon after 1850, it is not until more than ten years afterwards that we begin to hear of a class of amateur ath...
-The History Of Athletic Sports In England. Part 16
The same year, 1864, saw the Civil Servants hold their first meeting - a meeting which still is an annual and important event; but it wanted yet a year or two before amateur athletics became general t...
-Chapter II. A Modern Championship Meeting
In the foregoing chapter we have shown how the pastimes of running, leaping, and hurling of weights, which have always been followed by Englishmen as a means of amusement and for the display of rivalr...
-A Modern Championship Meeting. Part 2
The remaining officials are the timekeepers - three in number - for in these days of 'record-breaking' there must be no doubt about times. After each race the three are to compare their watches and th...
-A Modern Championship Meeting. Part 3
There is a hush in the crowd, while the three timekeepers put their heads together; for it is seen that the winner has done a fine performance. All three watches agree in marking 10 sec. or 'level-tim...
-A Modern Championship Meeting. Part 4
The quarter being over, the mile, which is usually considered the race of the day, succeeded. For this there are eight entries, of whom seven are going to the post, and certainly they are a good repre...
-A Modern Championship Meeting. Part 5
These last three events have been going on in the centre of the ground, while the long walking race is being held on the track. Next comes the Steeplechase, an event which did not appear in the champi...
-Chapter III. Running And Runners
All must agree that running, walking, and leaping are the most simple and genuine of all competitions. When a Derby is won it is always a point for argument whether the greater credit is due to the ho...
-Running And Runners. Part 2
It is common for a runner to manage two distances well; he may be able, like F. T. Elborough or Colbeck, to run any distance between 100 yards and half-a-mile, but the man who can beat his compeers at...
-Running And Runners. Part 3
The body should be balanced on the toes with the weight pressing slightly upon the right or rear foot, so that a good kick may be obtained from it with the slightest possible delay when the pistol-sho...
-Running And Runners. Part 4
This, we think, the pedestrian trainers must well know, as nearly all, and even the mediocre, pedestrians 'run low' when sprinting. The trainers also, we think, believe in the efficacy of their craft ...
-Running And Runners. Part 5
Lockton was, we think, the most beautifully-proportioned runner we ever saw on the path, and would probably have been first class at any distance he chose to take up. Unfortunately he left behind him,...
-Running And Runners. Part 6
The first class of quarter-miler can rarely (if ever) attempt any distances over the quarter, even the 600 yards race being beyond his powers. On the other hand, the second class is often seen at the ...
-Running And Runners. Part 7
In considering the performances of celebrated sprinters we have seen that it is hard to say whether those of the present or the past day are better, but in coming to the quarter-mile and longer distan...
-Running And Runners. Part 8
He was of medium height and weight, but ran with his body low, and with the smallest possible appearance of effort, although his stride was very long for his height, indeed the length of stride seemed...
-Running And Runners. Part 9
Certain it is that Myers' extraordinary times over a quarter and a half mile arise from the fact that, as he begins to tire and labour in his running, his stride appears to lengthen instead of shorten...
-Running And Runners. Part 10
A word might here be interposed as to the tactics of a race. In medium or long races an immense deal in the way of success depends upon the judgment with which a race is run. If you decide to pass an ...
-Running And Runners. Part 11
Pelham, bounding away in front with his gigantic strides, led by several yards until the first quarter had been completed, when the others began to draw upon him, Slade being in front of Hill and Elbo...
-Running And Runners. Part 12
One runner may of course be at his best at one mile, another at four, and another at ten miles, but all the three are runners of the same class, bring into exercise the same muscles, and require in va...
-Running And Runners. Part 13
Another sterling good man, who was a contemporary of Chinnery's, was Sydenham Dixon, of the Civil Service. Dixon, although a lighter weight, had, we think, greater pace than Chinnery, but the latter c...
-Running And Runners. Part 14
He afterwards turned professional runner, an example which has been followed by several of his more famous successors. Another fine performer, who had a very long career on the path, was C. H. Mason,...
-Running And Runners. Part 15
Amongst other milers may be mentioned J. Kibblewhite, of Swindon, who was good at any distance from one to ten miles. He was very strong, got very fit, and was very plucky, and by these aids won six c...
-Running And Runners. Part 16
A steeplechase of two miles was one of the events in the first Inter-'Varsity gathering on the Christ Church cricket-ground at Oxford in 1864, when R. C. Garnett, of Cambridge, proved himself too good...
-Running And Runners. Part 17
The hurdle-racer must, as we have seen, have a light foot, and so he is rarely a heavy man, but he must also have a strong back and thighs, so as to take his spring and his fresh start without any pau...
-Running And Runners. Part 18
The best University hurdler of 1871 and 1872 was E. S. Gamier, who ran with great dash, but was a trifle too heavy to fly over the sticks. Gamier, who was a thick-set man, also represented his Univers...
-Chapter IV. Walking And Walkers
Athletic sports, practised as they are now, are often attacked on the utilitarian ground that the skill acquired in sprinting, or hurdling, or running many miles on a cinder path in spiked shoes, is s...
-Walking And Walkers. Part 2
At the present day it will want a very Daniel to inaugurate a new system of judging in walking races. The results of the loose practice of allowing 'shifty' walkers to remain on the path are serious....
-Walking And Walkers. Part 3
At present the one satisfactory thing about the championship walking event is that some of the shifty goers find it impossible to conceal the true secret of their mode of progression after the first f...
-Walking And Walkers. Part 4
His first appearance was at the spring sports on the Richmond cricket ground in 1872, when he was immediately spotted by the connoisseurs as the coming man. He walked perfectly erect and with a fair h...
-Walking And Walkers. Part 5
To this day controversy rages about the fairness of Webster's walking, some averring that he never walked a yard in his life, and others that he never should have been disqualified. Our own opinion is...
-Chapter V. Jumping, Weight-Putting, Etc
In no branch of athletics have practice and cultivation led to such an extraordinary improvement as in high and broad jumping. At the first Oxford and Cambridge meeting in 1864, the High Jump was won ...
-Jumping, Weight-Putting, Etc. Part 2
In these later days the competition is so keen that would-be champions have to become specialists, and we thus hear less than we used to of 'all round champions.' Mitchell's performance was never ecl...
-Jumping, Weight-Putting, Etc. Part 3
The Scotchman J. W. Parsons, who was English champion in 1880 and 1883, deserves a word of notice. Compared with Brooks and Davin, he may be ranked as a small man, and, if our recollection serves us a...
-Jumping, Weight-Putting, Etc. Part 4
It is still somewhat a moot point whether Lane's jump ought to be received as a genuine performance, as it has been averred with vehemence, and denied with equal vehemence, that there was a fall in th...
-Weight Putting
At first sight it would seem that jumping and heavy-weight throwing were the very opposite poles of athletic sport, but experience shows this to be very far from the truth, and in many cases the champ...
-Hammer-Throwing
Hammer-throwing is a sport which in its present form has come to us from over the Border, although the 'hurling of the bar or sledge' was, as we have already seen, one of the sports of merry England. ...
-Hammer-Throwing. Continued
Under the rule of the A. A.A. the thrower has only room for a couple of turns in his circle of 9 feet, and is bound to keep himself and his weapon under proper control, as if he 'follow' his hammer ou...
-Chapter VI. Training
When the great athletic movement first became popular in England there was much strenuous opposition to it, not only from timid parents but also from the medical profession. Upon whatever ground this ...
-Training. Part 2
Eggs, when not hard-boiled, are both light and wholesome, but to take them upon the top of a heavy meal of other things is usually a mistake, and leads to the usual result of over-feeding - biliousnes...
-Training. Part 3
Doubtless it is quite true that a couple of good-sized cups of tea at breakfast, half a pint of liquid for lunch, and a pint at dinner is enough for most men in training; but to hold that a man who fi...
-Training. Part 4
In fact, to take a broad view of the uses of tobacco-smoking, it appears obvious that the men of the present day are almost universally adopting it, not because they are a degenerate and dissolute lot...
-Training. Part 5
This precaution should certainly never be neglected at any time when the weather is at all chilly, and in the winter especially it is foolhardy to dispense with it. Slight strains of muscles are best ...
-Chapter VII. Athletic Meetings
If there be little to say of the individual athlete's requisites,, there is much that is interesting to note in the requisites for the meeting at which the athlete figures. The days are now gone when ...
-Athletic Meetings. Part 2
The 250 yards and 220 yards races were run off on this long straight, and the first 250 yards of the quarter-mile races were also contested over this ground, which accounts, in a great measure, for th...
-Athletic Meetings. Part 3
When the ground is secured, the next thing for the secretary (to whom, as a rule, all preliminary arrangements are entrusted) is to get the entries. This for club meetings is often not so easy as it w...
-Athletic Meeting Laws
These Laws must be observed at every Athletic Meeting held under the sanction of the A. A. A. Qualification of Competitors 1. All competitions must be limited to amateurs. This Law does not interfer...
-Athletic Meeting Laws. Part 2
Stations 16. In handicaps, stations shall be awarded according to the number on the programme. Attendants 17. No attendant shall accompany any competitor on the scratch (except in cycle races), nor...
-Athletic Meeting Laws. Part 3
Throwing the Hammer and Putting the Weight 31. The hammer shall be thrown from within a circle of 9 ft. in diameter. The head of the hammer shall be of iron and spherical, and the handle shall be of ...
-Athletic Meeting Laws. Part 4
The judges, too, have to be no less competent than the starter, for many sprint races are won by a few inches. The judge of sprinting contests should stand some yards away from the winning post, and d...
-Athletic Meeting Laws. Part 5
One of the officials, upon whom in a great measure success depends, although he is often not present at the meeting itself, is the handicapper. At most gatherings nowadays, there are more handicaps th...
-Athletic Meeting Laws. Part 6
At every meeting, however, there must be a certain number of handicaps, and for this it is indispensable that the handicappers chosen should be men up to their work. For the 'short limit' handicaps (w...
-Athletic Meeting Laws. Part 7
In either case when the sound of the pistol is heard or the first motion noticed, the timekeeper has to arrive at a determination to start the watch from the sensations of his eye or ear; he has then ...
-Athletic Meeting Laws. Part 8
There need be no difficulty in the size of a dial in a fixed apparatus, and the consideration of expense hardly ought to arise when it is considered that sixty, eighty, or a hundred guineas are often ...
-Athletic Meeting Laws. Part 9
Had this view prevailed in the Middle Ages the champion knight would not have been he who kept the ring against all comers, but he who knocked down with his lance twenty 'dummies' in the quickest time...
-Chapter VIII. Athletic Government
One of the most remarkable features about modern English athletic life is the capacity of the athlete for self-government. As soon as any game or sport becomes popular in any district, or throughout t...
-Athletic Government. Part 2
A notice was accordingly issued in March by the presidents of the two University Clubs, inviting secretaries of all recognised athletic clubs to meet at Oxford on April 24. As soon as the notice was c...
-Athletic Government. Part 3
The only compulsory laws of the A.A.A. which must be observed at every meeting are the following, and it will be admitted that they are not such as to interfere unduly with the freedom of any club whi...
-Athletic Government. Part 4
Men who have belonged to clubs and have run under their club-names refuse to pay subscriptions; they enter for races, and when unsuccessful decline to pay their entrance fees; they attempt by every co...
-Athletic Government. Part 5
The Cambridge athletes formed themselves into a club in. 1863, and their home has always been the cricket-ground at Fenner's, which they share in common with the University Cricket Club, the latter us...
-Athletic Government. Part 6
This hierarchy of coat-wearers doubtless causes wonderment to the astonished stranger, but those who, from experience in other parts of the kingdom, know how soon a genuine sport can be corrupted by g...
-Athletic Government. Part 7
Besides the L.A.C. there are many paper-chasing clubs around London which cultivate flat-racing in addition, and may be considered as athletic clubs quite apart from their functions as promoters of cr...
-Athletic Government. Part 8
In the country especially, where the sports were promoted by the help of subscriptions from the neighbourhood, people naturally declined to see the money they subscribed devoted to prizes to be compet...
-Athletic Government. Part 9
Were there no field upon which their strength and spirits could be curbed and disciplined, it may safely be said that they would have been worse. No; the athletic movement has benefited the people at ...
-Paper-Chasing And Cross-Country Running
At the end of 1867 a few member; (of whom the writer was one) of the Thames Rowing Club at Putney conceived the idea of holding some cross-country steeplechases during the winter season, with the idea...
-Paper-Chasing And Cross-Country Running. Part 2
There had been matches between teams of various clubs before 1876 (the T. H. and H. had two matches with the Gentlemen of Hampstead in November 1870), but it was not till this year that the first real...
-Paper-Chasing And Cross-Country Running. Part 3
Hares are very seldom caught by the hounds, and never if they know the rudiments of 'false' laying, for a hound must be lucky indeed if he has not to go a mile or so more than the hares in a moderatel...
-Chapter I. Football. History
The game of football is undoubtedly the oldest of all the English national sports. For at least six centuries the people have loved the rush and struggle of the rude and manly game, and kings with the...
-Football. History. Part 2
There can be no doubt that from the earliest days football was an obstreperous and disreputable member of the family of British Sports, and indeed almost an 'habitual criminal' in its character, a fac...
-Football. History. Part 3
That Elizabethan football was dangerous to life, limb, and property, is made plain by many records. The Middlesex County Records contain several entries which are of interest to the historian of footb...
-Football. History. Part 4
Thus we see that football was played not only in streets and roads, but across country, and that 'tackling' was not only allowable, but that it was an essential feature of the game. In fact from Stubb...
-Football. History. Part 5
I would now (says the writer) make a safe retreat, but that methinks I am stopped by one of your heroic games called football; which I conceive (under your favour) not very conveniently civil in the s...
-Football. History. Part 6
When the game is decided by snotches seven or nine are the game, and these if the parties be well matched take two or three hours to win. Sometimes a large football was used; the game was then called ...
-Football. History. Part 7
In London, however, in the reign of Charles II., football still appears to have gone on merrily, and this was only to be expected, for Charles was, as we have seen, a great patron of athletic sport; i...
-Football. History. Part 8
The football was thrown down in the churchyard and the point then contended was, which party should carry it to the house of his respective captain, to Dundraw perhaps or West Newton, a distance of tw...
-Football. History. Part 9
The contest lies between the parishes of St. Peter's and All Saints, and the goals to which the ball is taken are 'Nun's Mill' for the latter and the Gallows balk on the Normanton Road for the former....
-Football. History. Part 10
In any case too the collaring game must have been highly destructive to clothing of every description; and it is therefore small wonder that at the majority of schools the running, collaring and hacki...
-Football. History. Part 11
The match also, it may be noticed, lasts for two hours or thereabouts on the first day, and is continued on subsequent occasions. Somewhere about the year 1835, therefore, the original game of footbal...
-Football. History. Part 12
For the next ten years the Sheffielders played a different game from the Londoners, until they at length succumbed to the increasing power of the Association, and adopted the prevalent rule. In the me...
-Chapter II. The School Games
We have already explained in the preceding chapter how in each public school a game of football was developed which suited the capacities of the school playground; a few only of these widely varying s...
-The School Games. Part 2
If the 'walls' cannot force their way through their opponents, the ball finds its way out to the 'seconds,' who in their turn try and gain ground, generally by kneeling on the ball, and with hands on ...
-The School Games. Part 3
The ball is a small one of the same size as that used in the wall game, and little more than half the size of the Association ball Taking a side of only eleven players, they arrange themselves as foll...
-The School Games. Part 4
If the attacking side is stronger, and the 'sides' do their work properly, the bully of the defenders is sometimes pushed bodily through goals; if, however, the two bullies are equal in weight or stre...
-The School Games. Part 5
In 'sixes,' or six-a-side matches, there are two backs or 'behinds,' on each side, and four forwards or 'ups.' Of the 'ups' one is 'over the ball,' and takes the centre place, and two back him up with...
-Chapter III. The Rugby Union Game
Although the forms of the dribbling game were many and various, as we have seen, the running and tackling game has always been played, since it first became an organised sport, substantially in one wa...
-The Rugby Union Game. Part 2
To return, however, to the Rugby Union game during its first or ' shoving' age. The Union code very properly abolished hacking, tripping, and scragging, the last named of which practices consisted in ...
-The Rugby Union Game. Part 3
Many were the casuistical distinctions drawn as to this piece of etiquette by those who were divided in their desire to do the correct thing and to score a try when the scrummage was near the adversar...
-The Rugby Union Game. Part 4
One change which was made in the rules of the game and helped to alter its character ought first to be mentioned. Before 1875 a match could only be won by a majority of goals, this having been the ori...
-The Rugby Union Game. Part 5
Thus the three-quarters found most of the brilliant attack fall to their share, and as they formed also the main defence of the field, the 'full-backs' had little to do. First one and then another clu...
-The Rugby Union Game. Part 6
The main essential rule of the game, which determines its character, is that no one must kick or throw the ball forward to one of his own side, or the latter is guilty of 'off-side play.' When we add ...
-The Rugby Union Game. Part 7
For play in the open two kinds of skill are required, skill with the feet and with the hands. At present it is the novelty of scientific hand-play which excites the most applause, but with forwards it...
-The Rugby Union Game. Part 8
This, however, we believe to be an undoubted libel on that plucky little Cambridge half-back, who was not nearly so small as he appeared to be in the football field, through ' running low.' To return,...
-The Rugby Union Game. Part 9
One point, however, must not be omitted with reference to the 'passing' game, that it is always liable to break down upon a wet day, when the ground is so slushy that it is hard for players, and espec...
-The Rugby Union Game. Part 10
The steadiest defensive player who is a good drop-kick and safe in stopping forward rushes should be in the centre, and he must be always on the look-out for passing to whichever of the two outside th...
-The Rugby Union Game. Part 11
If punting were studied as much as drop-kicking, and made an art of, we are not certain that it would not always be safer for a back to kick this way rather than drop; but as it is the back so often h...
-The Rugby Union Game. Part 12
South matches has been won by the South. The Southern system of selectional matches is not many years old, and the working out of the idea has owed much to Mr. G. Rowland Hill, the hon. sec. of the En...
-Chapter IV. The Association Game
The Association game, though it may bear less resemblance than the Rugby Union game to the original sport, certainly finds a more appropriate name in Football, as it is with the foot alone that the ba...
-The Association Game. Part 2
In the very early stages of the game, it was scientific in the sense that each player exhibited skill rather than brute force, but of scientific arrangement of elevens there was very little. Often the...
-The Association Game. Part 3
So arranged the two elevens face each other on a field which is, or should be, 120 yards long by 80 yards wide, and is bounded by goal-lines and touch-lines in the same way as in the Rugby Union game....
-The Association Game. Part 4
To sum up, then, the centre player should play to the wings except when near goal, and then he should play at the goal; the wings should play together closely, and always middle to the centre when nea...
-The Association Game. Part 5
How much coolness and safety are preferable in the long run to brilliancy is well known to the authorities of the Football Association, and for ten years in succession the Old Westminster and Clapham ...
-The Association Game. Part 6
The back who wishes to return the ball before it reaches the ground has usually time to face in the direction he wishes to kick, and he then receives the ball fair on the instep with the leg well rais...
-The Association Game. Part 7
It is sometimes little short of marvellous to see goal-keepers like Arthur, of the Blackburn Rovers, or Macaulay, the Scottish International, stop shot after shot in rapid succession, turning from sid...
-The Association Game. Part 8
Now, your footballers go into training for their matches, wear shin-guards to save their legs, and with all their skill have taken all the rough and tumble fun out of the game.' With these sentiments ...
-The Association Game. Part 9
As the Association game is in full swing in each of the four countries of the United Kingdom, and as each country has its own governing association, the dribblers, like the Rugby Unionists, have found...
-Chapter V. Football As A Sport
The account which we have given of the revival and progress of the game in modern times will perhaps be deemed sufficient to show that football can legitimately claim the position of a national Britis...
-Football As A Sport. Continued
To take a very close analogy, mark the progress of events in the sister game. The Associationists sanctioned professionalism because they had no alternative. When they took the problem in hand, profes...
-Chapter VI. Football In The United States
Twenty years ago the sport of football in the United States, though it was known, could hardly be dignified by the name of a game in the ordinary acceptation of the word. In the olden times here and t...
-Football In The United States. Part 2
Whether the Harvard advocates were more expert in their diplomacy than the Yale delegates, or the inherent merit of the Rugby code made itself felt, the compromise rules were certainly nearer the Rugb...
-Football In The United States. Part 3
As soon as the ball is fairly held - that is, both player and ball brought to a standstill - the runner must cry 'down,' and someone upon his side, usually the man called the snap back or centre rushe...
-Football In The United States. Part 4
Then, at a signal from the kicker that it is right, it is placed upon the ground, still steadied by the hand or finger of the placer, and instantly kicked by the place-kicker. The reason for this keep...
-Football In The United States. Part 5
Now, as one writer has truly said, the American scrimmage far more nearly fulfils the requirements of such a case than the English scrummage, for two reasons. It preserves the original rights of the s...
-Chapter VII. Australian Football
A generous partisanship in sports is on the whole a healthful thing. It is at least natural; for he who has at his heart a throng of happy reminiscences of his own club, his own game, his own peculiar...
-Australian Football. Part 2
In the Australian game there is no 'kick-off.' It is considered that this must give, at the decision of a mere toss-up, a solid initial advantage to one side. At the minute appointed for the play to b...
-Australian Football. Part 3
Once the flag is raised, however, the goal is settled and cannot be annulled. In place of the Association 'tries' the Australian game has what it calls 'behinds.' On each side of the goal, and seven y...
-Australian Football. Part 4
The centre man is generally the most powerful in the team; his position does not call for special smartness, but he ought to be capable of strong efforts to prevent the ball from being carried behind ...
-Australian Football. Part 5
But alas for human regulations! There are so many ways in which remuneration can be given that the most elaborately drafted rules may not catch the infringer. It is so easy for a club to induce a good...
-Australian Football. Part 6
It would be impossible for the 'followers' to keep up the pace of the game for the whole hundred minutes during which it lasts. It is usual, therefore, to give them places for two alternate quarters, ...
-Laws Of The Australian Game Of Football
1. The distance between the goals shall not be more than 200 yards nor less than 150 yards, and the width of the playing space not more than 150 yards nor less than 100 yards, to be measured equally t...
-The Laws Of The Game. The Football Association
1. The limits of the ground shall be: - maximum length, 200 yards; minimum length, 100 yards; maximum breadth, 100 yards; minimum breadth, 50 yards. The length and breadth shall be marked off with fla...
-Definition Of Terms
A Place-kick is a kick at the ball while it is on the ground, in any position in which the kicker may choose to place it. A Free Kick is a kick at the ball in any direction the player pleases, when i...
-The Rugby Union
The following are the Laws of the game of Football, as played by the Rugby Football Union: - I. Introduction 1. The Rugby game of football should be played by 15 players on each side. (Anyone coming...
-The Rugby Union. Continued
4. The captains of the respective sides shall toss for the choice of in-goals or the kick-off. Each side shall play an equal tmefrom each in-goal, and a match shall be won by a majority of points; if ...









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