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Football For Player And Spectator | by Fielding H. Yost



Between the covers of "Football for Player and Spectator" the author has endeavored to gather from his experience as a player and a coach the advice which is best suited to the needs of the young men in high schools, preparatory schools and colleges who desire to participate in the greatest of all the competitive athletic sports.

TitleFootball For Player And Spectator
AuthorFielding H. Yost
PublisherUniversity Publishing Company, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Year1905
Copyright1905, Fielding H. Yost
AmazonFootball for Player and Spectator

Illustrated

-Preface
Between the covers of Football for Player and Spectator the author has endeavored to gather from his experience as a player and a coach the advice which is best suited to the needs of the young men ...
-Football. Its Origin And Development
Football, although indefinitely known as a sport to Greek and Roman antiquity, did not come into existence as a school or college game until the eighteenth century. During the three or four centuries ...
-Football: Its Prestige And Popularity In American Colleges And High School Life
The necessity which impelled the English schoolboy at Rugby a century ago to inaugurate some healthful, clean and interesting outdoor sport and the felicitous choice of this form of recreation are the...
-Football's Prestige And Popularity In American Colleges And High School Life. Continued
. The same vital points, continually drummed into a player in his training, are sure to influence the spectators who daily gather on the field to witness the practice. These attributes, personified...
-Football: What It Does For The Player Physically, Mentally And Morally
No American game has won so much praise and, at the same time, so much censure, as has football. The game has been lauded for the scientific play it develops and for the training of mind and body it a...
-Football: From The Spectator's Point Of View
Football the spectacle - where in athletic competitions, ancient, mediaeval or modern do you find its equal? The ease with which the general principle of the game is comprehended by the spectator, the...
-Football: From The Spectator's Point Of View. Part 2
But the game must soon be started. The signal practice changes a bit and each side passes the ball to its chosen kicker, to allow him a final test of his ability. The captains toss the coin for the ch...
-Football: From The Spectator's Point Of View. Part 3
But watch! The enemy's quarter has called his signal, the ball is snapped back by the center and the left half back, who takes the ball from the quarter, surrounded by the other backs there to protect...
-Football: From The Spectator's Point Of View. Part 4
But the referee pulls off the men, and our captain, with a chosen player, accurate in kicking ability, walks out in direct line with where the ball was carried across the goal line. The touchdown has ...
-Football: From The Spectator's Point Of View. Part 5
But the recruit is the possessor of a zeal that is dangerous. Before our center snaps the ball the new tackle charges and meets the ball behind our line. He tackles the runner and throws him for a los...
-Football: Its Varied Characteristics As Played In The Different Parts Of The United States Princeton
Princeton is one of the schools in which football found its origin in the United States, and the game has been played there on a systematic basis ever since 1876, when relations were established with ...
-Michigan
The University of Michigan is one of the oldest western schools in point of football experience. Her most universal rival has been Chicago, although relations have long been maintained with Wisconsin ...
-Harvard
Football has been played at Harvard University since the earliest days of the game in the United States. Mutual relations with Yale were established in 1876 and have been. maintained up to the present...
-Minnesota
The football team of the University of Minnesota has long held a high position among the other western teams, athletic relations of an intermittent character having been maintained with Illinois, Nort...
-Yale
Football has been played at Yale since 1876, when mutual relations were established with Harvard and Princeton which have continued practically without interruption ever since. Yale also played a game...
-Wisconsin
One of the first of the great western universities to successfully develop football was the University of Wisconsin. Games have been played with all the leading west-ern teams during the history of fo...
-Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania has long been one of the foremost schools of the football world and, in the early days of the game, has, with Harvard, Yale and Princeton, been one of the Big Four ins...
-Chicago
The elevens from the University of Chicago have always been prominent contenders for honors on the western gridirons. While Chicago's universal rival has always been Michigan, and these schools have m...
-The Army And Navy
For many years the annual games between the elevens representing the United States government's military and. naval schools have created great interest in football circles Both at West Point and Annap...
-Stanford And California
What Yale and Princeton are to the Atlantic states, Stanford and California are to the Pacific slope. The sectional isolation of these two large universities has bound them close together in athletic ...
-Passing, Starting, Catching, Kicking, Etc
It is useless to attempt the construction of a successful football machine until the raw material in the form of the individual players has been thoroughly developed in the fundamentals of the game. T...
-Passing
Passing the ball properly from one player to another is very essential for a successful offense. The ball cannot be handled by the receiver of the pass unless it comes to him at the right time and in ...
-Under-Hand Pass
For the under-hand pass, place the ball in the hand as above, fingers well over the end; swing the arm forward and, as the ball leaves the hand, cause it to turn end over end rapidly, as it can be con...
-Round-Arm Throw
In parsing the ball by a round-arm throw, take the end of the ball in the palm of the hand, ball extended up and down the arm as shown in the illustration; bring the arm around horizontally and, at th...
-Spiral Pass
For the spiral pass, take the ball in the hand as shown above and swing the arm forward as the pendulum of a clock. As the swing is about finished, pull the hand around and over the ball, causing it t...
-Spiral Throw
In executing the spiral throw, place the ball on the hand as in the illustration. The ball should lie diagonally across the palm from the base of the thumb to the end of the little finger. The arm sho...
-Passing To Player For Line Plunge
The quarter back in passing to the full back for a line plunge through the center should, if the full back is going through on the right side, bring his right foot back almost behind his left. This wi...
-Pass To Back For Straight Buck
The quarter back in making the pass to the half back for a straight plunge into the line, on his left side, should turn around and take a full step to the left, at the same time making the pass to the...
-Pass To Half Back For Around The End
On the work of a quarter back in his passing to the other players for a run outside of tackle or around the end depends largely the success of the play. No player can get away rapidly when the passing...
-Catching
Good catchers are scarce in the game of football. This is because they do not devote the time and attention neces-sary to become proficient. The oblong shape of the ball and the fact that it is inflat...
-Form For Making The Catch
Position I. Position I shows the proper form of the hands and arms as they are first extended to receive the ball on a punt or pass. The lower or right hand is to form the bottom of the pocket into wh...
-Position In Starting
The two illustrations which accompany this chapter show better than any detailed description the position to be assumed for starting by the regular backfield men or the members of the line who may be ...
-Kicking
Kicking is one of the most interesting features of football. To attain success in this department of the game requires considerable skill. One cannot become proficient as a kicker without constant and...
-Punt
A punt is made by letting the ball drop from the hands and kicking it just before it touches the ground. There are two kinds of punts now in use, - one, the spiral, which all try to acquire, and the o...
-Spiral
The following is the form for a spiral: Standing in the position illustrated in Figure 1 on punting, step forward and to the right with the right foot for about two feet and follow this with the left ...
-Place Kick
The place kick is made by placing the ball in position on the ground and kicking it from this location. The value of a good place kicker to the team cannot be estimated for, by his work, the game may ...
-Drop Kick
A drop kick is made by letting the ball fall from the hands and kicking it the instant it strikes the ground. Although this kick is not in very common use, a team may possess someone who can become ve...
-Tackling
Proper form in tackling is a necessity to the football player. The player on the opposing eleven who is carrying the ball must be firmly grasped and thrown to the ground or he will keep up his progres...
-Carrying The Ball
The art of taking a secure hold of the ball when called upon for a gain and retaining its possession from the time it is received from the center or quarter back till the play is ended is an important...
-Blocking And Making Holes
The first duty of the forwards of a football eleven is to learn thoroughly and be able to put into practice sure methods of blocking their opponents, in order that the latter may not be able to break ...
-Making Holes
Closely allied to, and in fact almost identical with blocking, is the making of holes in the line, through which to allow the backs to travel toward the opponents' goal. In this, as in blocking, the m...
-Breaking Through
The most effective method of breaking up the play of an opposing team is illustrated when a team possesses forwards who are able to penetrate the opposing line, starting the moment the ball is snapped...
-Use Of Stiff Arm And How To Avoid It
The proper use of the stiff arm by a runner in the open field is an acquisition which will be found well nigh invaluable to a back who is carrying the ball in a dash down the field. As the runner sees...
-Warding Or Interfering
Effective interference, or the warding off of tacklers from the runner with the ball by the members of his team, is one of the absolute necessities to success in any offensive plays not directed as pl...
-Falling On The Ball
A football player is often called upon to fall on the ball as it lies on the ground or rolls along over the field. If the ball is in motion it may be coming toward the player, going away from him or t...
-Individual Positions: The End
The position of end calls for notable physical and men-tal qualities on the part of the player and for a knowledge of the fine points of the game that can result only from long experience. Of all the ...
-The Tackle
The position of tackle is the most important one on the rush line. The tackle is the work horse of the eleven. He is called upon to stop most of the plays of the opponents, since nine-tenths of thei...
-The Guard
Strength, weight and aggressiveness are as essential to a good guard as speed is to an end. A slow, lumbering guard is of no use; in fact, a slow man has no place in the game. Upon the center and the ...
-The Center
The center, like all the other members of a football team, should be active and fast on his feet and should above all things be strong and steady. No one but a man who is absolutely cool in all his wo...
-The Half Backs
The position of half back is one that is hard to fill. The half backs, together with the full back, are expected to be the standard ground gainers of the eleven. The half back is called upon to make f...
-The Quarter Back
What the general is to the army, the quarter back is to the football team. He directs the battle and success, in a large measure, depends on his plan of campaign. He must be a man of the highest menta...
-The Full Back
The duties of the full back on the offensive are largely the same as those of the half back. The full back, however, on account of his position midway between the half backs and directly tack of the c...
-The Tackling Dummy
A reference to the accompanying diagram will give a good general idea of the essentials in the construction of a serviceable tackling dummy. Three solid posts 15 feet in length, the cross piece mortis...
-The Charging Machine
A practical charging machine is a very important addition to the training camp of any football team, and the expense connected with its construction is by no means great. The accompanying photograph s...
-Training
The training and conditioning of the contestants for the football team are matters of primary importance to the success of the team in its games. The men owe it to themselves to get into good conditio...
-Early Season's Work
To begin with, the coach, trainer and captain will face a mass of material of different physical characteristics. The varying ages of the men must be taken into consideration in the kind and amount of...
-Later Work
As the season progresses the amount of work to be given must be adapted to the different requirements of the players with increasing care. No two men can be worked successfully on the same plan. It is...
-Regularity
The hour of starting practice should be the same all through the season. Do not have practice too soon after the meal time. Work must be exacted in all kinds of weather, as the day of the game may be ...
-Cleanliness
Cleanliness is important to the health of anyone. The conditions in which football is played demand that every man take a bath after every practice is over. A good shower bath is the best and can be e...
-Injuries
Serious injuries should be attended to by a surgeon at once. A football player is as susceptible to injury as is any other well conditioned athlete, and his period of convalescence will be just as lon...
-Clothing And Protection
The players should be provided with proper clothing for the game. Special padding is often necessary for some men. This is especially true when there is a liability to injury in a weak knee or a weak ...
-Training Table
A training table should be provided for all the regulars and substitutes. The men are brought together through its influence and there are regular meal hours for all. The food of the men should be loo...
-The Mental Training
The mental training of the candidates for the football team is as important as the cultivation of the physical side of the men. This must not be neglected, although it is often completely lost sight o...
-Development Of The Team
The first requisite to the development of a football team is a study of the entire season's campaign. The successful working plan of former elevens is not a safe rule in the preparation of a new team....
-The First Week To Ten Days
The time for the preparation of the individual parts of the team is the first week or ten days of training. Persistence and patience ought to show the general abilities of the men in this period and e...
-Practice In Kicking
The first two weeks of the season, before the stress of the real work begins, give a golden opportunity to discover invaluable punters, place kickers and goal kickers. The test way is to use, for a fe...
-Individual Drills
To fill in every spare nook and cranny of the time between the different periods of team instruction with drills which perefect the individual is not only a time-saving policy, but may often result in...
-Formations Of Fours
In the early season, before such a thing as a team exists, its place can be, to a great extent, filled by a division of all the material into squads of four. These are little, rudimentary teams consis...
-Signal Work
The drill which makes an effective unit out of an eleven; which enables it to strike fast and hard, time after time, as one man; in short, the making of the football machine, is signal practice. To st...
-Individual Positions
The work of each man in playing his position is shown in the chapters on Offense and Defense. As the season progresses, each individual should be studied, not only to discover his capabilities in his ...
-Offense
An offense can be finished only by scrimmage work. As early as the men are able to stand it, about one-quarter of each day's work ought to be devoted to scrimmage practice. The first two weeks of form...
-Assistants
Too many cocks spoil the troth in football as in any other realm of endeavor, and the problem of assistant coaches is a very serious matter. Assistants are invaluable if rightly used, but if they ar...
-The Evening's Work
How often do we see a team continually making the same mistakes in game after game! Mistakes in generalship, mistakes in the work of the individuals show themselves with a frequency that is almost ine...
-Monday
On Monday evening the coach should require each of the men at the training quarters to present two written criticisms of the game played the Saturday before, the statements to bring out the mistakes t...
-Tuesday
Every training quarters should be equipped with a blackboard. It is easy to have regular gridiron lines painted on the board, which can be used to advantage to illustrate plays and to discuss the prob...
-Wednesday
The average football player is lacking in accurate knowledge of the football rules. It is very important that every man should know the rules and know them instantly. The opportunity to take advantage...
-Thursday
On Thursday evening especial attention can be given to the work of the captain and quarter back of the team. This should consist of talks and questions on plays and generalship. Above all others, thes...
-Friday
It is well to spend Friday evening in singing and amusements and thus keep up the spirits of the men by varying the monotony of the regular weekly routine. The coach should aim to make the evening as ...
-Saturday
It is well on the evening after the game that the men be given absolute freedom from any thought of the contest just ended. They have probably earned a rest and should be permitted to depart or remain...
-Requirements Of The Individual
The attainment of individual perfection is as impossible in football as in anything else, for absolute faultlessness does not exist in the human being. Nevertheless, a young fellow who is ambitious in...
-Strength And Bravery
A small man may be just as valuable a member of the team as the largest one on the eleven. Size is a good asset if the liabilities of other requirements do not offset it and leave a balance on the wro...
-Speed
Next to strength and bravery, the essential requirement is speed. A slow man has no place in the game. Quickness may be acquired just as strength may be developed. It is the jump on the other fellow t...
-Endurance
A football player must be a man not easily exhausted or injured. A game is not a severe strain on a man who is physically fit, because proper training has put him into such condition that he can speed...
-Sand
This term, originally slang, but which has now become a word of general adoption, includes courage, grit and determination. These elements are absolutely essential to the successful player. Bravery, d...
-Judgment And Versatility
If you are ambitious to succeed in football do not be a machine player, but sum up every new situation and adapt yourself to it. Do not play your individual position the same way all the time. Vary yo...
-Discipline
After all, a football team is but a small army and the discipline must be just as rigid as if something even more important than the mere winning or losing of a game were at stake. Orders must be obey...
-Sacrifice
In a certain sense a player must lose his individuality and make himself a component member of his team. With the proper spirit of sacrifice in all its members, the team becomes harmonious. No man sin...
-Control Of Temper
This would seem an almost unnecessary sub-head under this general chapter. It cannot but be admitted that the man who loses his head in a game is the man who will probably lose the game at a critical ...
-Spirit
No man ever made a success of anything unless his heart was in it. The wall street magnate loves his game on the stock exchange. The merchant king is inspired with a devotion to business. The great po...
-Signals
Signals in football enable a field captain to transmit his orders to his team in terms unintelligible to the opponents. The signalled commands are given in three ways: By signs, letters and numbers. A...
-Team Play
The evolution of football from the crude form in which the game began to the present stage of perfection it has attained rests almost entirely on the development of team play. Where originally one man...
-Photographs Of Formations And Diagrams Of Plays
The following pictures and diagrams are used to illustrate just how to execute the various plays given. The pictures show the formations and the exact positions each individual should assume. By consu...
-Photographs Of Formations And Diagrams Of Plays. Part 2
Center blocks opponent to left. Left Guard goes through immediately and blocks any of the opposing backs possible. Right Guard blocks opponent to left. Left Tackle goes through and cuts off reinforcem...
-Photographs Of Formations And Diagrams Of Plays. Part 3
This play is effective especially when opponents are shifting to meet this formation. Center blocks opponent to the right. Left Guard blocks opponent to the right. Right Guard blocks opponent to the r...
-Photographs Of Formations And Diagrams Of Plays. Part 4
This play should be executed quickly when started. Center blocks to right. Left Guard blocks to right. Right Guard blocks to right. Left Tackle goes through. Right Tackle goes through and assis...
-Photographs Of Formations And Diagrams Of Plays. Part 5
This play to be successful must be executed rapidly. All the interference must hurry up. Center blocks to left. Left Guard breaks through, joins runner. Right Guard blocks to left. Left Tackle block...
-Photographs Of Formations And Diagrams Of Plays. Part 6
This play must get away rapidly and keep going. It should not be attempted on a wet field. Center blocks to left. Left Guard goes through. Right Guard blocks to left. Left Tackle leads the interferenc...
-Photographs Of Formations And Diagrams Of Plays. Part 7
In this play the half back takes the ball on a direct pass from center. To make it effective all the interference must get away quickly and move rapidly. This should be a much stronger play than the d...
-Photographs Of Formations And Diagrams Of Plays. Part 8
The success of this play will depend largely in deceiving opponents into believing it is a real kick. All the men in the interference must do their duty. Center in making the pass should make it so th...
-The Captain
Second only to the judicious selection and thorough training of a football team is the acquisition of a capable captain, for no matter how well the eleven may be qualified for its work, individually a...
-Looking Forward, Or Things That Should Be Known Before The Game
The condition of the field is an important factor in every football contest. Knowledge of the gridiron's individual peculiarities is just as essential to the football captain as is thorough familiarit...
-The Offense
It would be simply foolish even to attempt to lay out a general plan by which a football game should be played. One universal feature of the game is the fact that it cannot he worked out very well bef...
-Offense In Different Sections Of The Field
Section I. When the opponents are inside your awn 35-yard line, there is always much danger of their scoring either by a touchdown or a goal from the field. Strive to prevent in every way possible the...
-Defense
The style of defense used depends largely on the style of attack of the opponents. The position on the field of play will govern largely the disposition of men and their duties on the defense. The con...
-A Few "Hurry Ups"
Hurry up. Hurry up and be the first man to line up. -Hurry all the time; football is not a slow or lazy man's game. Hurry up; football is a game of hurry, hurry, hurry. Hurry up if you are be...
-Football Rules. Re-Arranged With Suggestions
The rules following have been re-arranged so that the player can easily see who has charge of each section and what the penalty is for violating the same. A few suggestions are also added to call atte...
-The Officials Duties Of Referee
In making his decisions the Referee must recognize and allow precedence to any penalty inflicted by the umpire for a foul. The Referee's decisions are final upon all points not specified under the ...
-Duties Of Umpire
The Umpire is judge of the conduct of the players, and his decision is final regarding such fouls as are not specifically placed within the jurisdiction of the Referee. The Umpire is judge of charg...
-Duties Of Linesman
The Linesman shall, under the supervision of the Referee, mark the distances gained or lost in the progress of the play. He shall remain on the side-lines and be provided with two assistants, who s...
-Equipment, Officials, Etc. Rule 1
Referee Has Jurisdiction of Each Section. Field (a) The game shall be played upon a rectangular field, 330 feet in length and 160 feet in width, enclosed by heavy white lines marked in lime upon...
-Definition Of Terms. Rule 2
Referee Has Jurisdiction of Each Section. methods of kicking the ball. Drop-kick. (a) A Drop-kick is made by letting the ball drop from the hands and kicking it the instant it rises from the gro...
-Rule 3
Referee Has Jurisdiction of Each Section. Out of Bounds. (a) The ball is Out of Bounds when it touches the ground on or outside the side line or side line extended, or when any part of the playe...
-Rule 4
Referee Has Jurisdiction of Each Section. Touchdown (a) A Touchdown is made when the ball in possession of a player is declared dead by the referee, any part of it being on, over or behind the o...
-Rule 5
Referee Has Jurisdiction. Punt-Out A Punt-out is a punt made by a player of the side which has made a touchdown to another of his own side for a fair catch. (Rule 7.) Suggestion. - See Rule 2...
-Rule 6
Referee Has Jurisdiction. Scrimmage (a) A Scrimmage takes place when the holder of the ball places it upon the ground and puts it in play by kicking it forward or snapping it back. The scrimmage...
-Rule 7
Referee Has Jurisdiction (except as relates to interference, throwing catcher, and position of players, of which umpire has jurisdiction). Penalty. - If a player who has an opportunity of making a ...
-Rule 8
Referee Has Jurisdiction. Goal. A Goal is made by kicking the ball in any way, except by a punt, from the field of play over the cross-bar of the opponents' goal, or as provided in rules for conver...
-Rule 9
Umpire Has Jurisdiction. Charging. Charging is rushing forward to seize or block the ball or to tackle a player. ...
-Rule 10
Umpire Has Jurisdiction of Each Section. Off-side. Penalty, 5 yards. (a) In a scrimmage no part of any player shall be ahead of the ball when it is put in play. [Exception under Rule 6 (c).] ...
-Rule 11
Referee Has Jurisdiction of Each Section. Ball Is Dead The ball is Dead: (a) Whenever the referee blows his whistle or declares a down. (b) Whenever the referee has declared that a down, t...
-Rule 12
Refekee Has Jurisdiction of Each Section. Length Of Game (a) The length of the game shall be 70 minutes, divided into two halves of 35 minutes each, exclusive of time taken out. There shall be t...
-Rule 13
Referee Has Jurisdiction. Beginning Of Game And Of Second Half (a) The captains of the opposing teams shall toss up a coin before the beginning of a game, and the winner of the toss shall have h...
-Rule 14
Umpire Has Jurisdiction. Position On Free-Kick (a) The side which has a free-kick must be behind the ball when it is kicked. NOTE - Otherwise the kick must be made again under conditions laid...
-Rule 15
Umpire Has Jurisdiction of Each Section. Lawful Charging (a) Charging is lawful, in case of a punt-out or kick-off, as soon as the ball is kicked; and the opppnents must not. charge until the ba...
-Rule 16
Referee Has Jurisdiction. No Interference With Snapper-Back Penalty, 5 yards. (a) The snapper-back is entitled to full and undisturbed possession of the ball. The opponents must neither inter...
-Rule 17
Umpire Has Jurisdiction of Each Section. No Interference with Opponents Before Ball Is in Play. Penalty, 5 yards. (a) Before the ball is put in play no player shall lay his hands upon, or by the...
-Rule 18
Umpire Has Jurisdiction. Movement Allowed Before Ball Is Put in Play. Penalty, 5 yards, (a) Before the ball is put in play in a scrimmage, if any player of the side which has the ball takes more th...
-Rule 19
Referee Has Jurisdiction. Throwing, Passing or Batting the Ball. Penalty, 5 yards. A player may throw, pass or bat the ball in any direction except toward his opponents' goal. ...
-Rule 20
Referee: Has Jurisdiction. A Down. (a) If a player having the ball is tackled, and the movement of the ball stopped, or if the player cries down, the referee shall blow his whistle, and the side ...
-Rule 21
Referee Has Jurisdiction of Each Section. Necessary Gain in Three Downs. (a) If, in three consecutive downs (unless the ball crosses the goal line), a team has not advanced the ball 5 yards, it sha...
-Rule 22
Referee Has Jurisdiction. Putting Ball In Play From Out Of Bounds If the ball goes out of bounds, whether it bounds back or not, a player of the side which secures it must bring it to the spot w...
-Rule 23
Referee Has Jurisdiction (except as relates to position of players, of which umpire has charge). Kick-Out After Safety Or Touchback A side which has made a touchback or a safety must kick out, f...
-Rule 24
Referee Has Jurisdiction oe Each Section. Try-at-goal After Touchdown. (a) A side which has made a touchdown must try at goal by a place-kick direct, or by a place-kick preceded by a punt-out if th...
-Rule 25
Referee Has Jurisdiction of Each Section (except as relates to positions of players and interference). Try-At-Goal By Place-Kick (a) If the try be a place-kick, a player on the side which has ma...
-Rule 26
Referee Has Jurisdiction. Scoring The following shall be the values of plays in scoring: Goal obtained by touchdown, 6 points; goal from field-kick, either a drop-kick or place-kick, 4 points; t...
-Rule 27
Umpire; Has Jurisdiction. No Metallic Substances May Be Worn Penalty, disqualification, unless fault corrected within two minutes. (a) No one having projecting nails or iron plates on his sho...
-Rule 28. Penalties
A Foul is any violation of a rule. The penalties for fouls shall be as follows: A. Loss of 5 Yards. 1. Coaching or infringement of any part of Rule 27, f. 2. Delay of game (Rule 12, e; Rule 1...
-Rulings In Connection With Penalties
E. When a foul has been committed and a signal to that effect has been given by the umpire or linesman, each acting within the limit of his authority as given under Duties of Officials, the referee sh...









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