books



previous page: Football For Public And Player | by Herbert Reed
  
page up: Sport Books
  
next page: Kitecraft And Kite Tournaments | by Charles M. Miller

A Scientific And Practical Treatise On American Footbal For Schools And Colleges | by A. Alonzo Stagg, Henry L. Williams



The game of football is fast becoming the national fall sport of the American youth. Among the larger eastern colleges, where it has been fostered and developed, football has now been raised to a definite science, but in the west the game is, as yet, comparatively in its infancy...

TitleA Scientific And Practical Treatise On American Football For Schools And Colleges
AuthorA. Alonzo Stagg, Henry L. Williams
PublisherLockwood & Brainard Company
Year1893
Copyright1893, A. A. Stagg and H. L. Williams
AmazonThe Blind Side: Evolution of a Game
A Scientific And Practical Treatise On American Footbal For Schools And Colleges
-Preface
The game of football is fast becoming the national fall sport of the American youth. Among the larger eastern colleges, where it has been fostered and developed, football has now been raised to a defi...
-For Beginners And Spectators
American football is played on a rectangular field, three hundred and thirty feet long and one hundred and sixty feet wide, enclosed by heavy white lines marked in lime upon the ground. For the conven...
-Training
In the early days of college athletics and amateur sports the popular belief was universally accepted that a most rigorous diet must be entered upon if the young aspirant for college honors would fit ...
-The Center-Rusher
The prevailing idea in time past has been that the largest and heaviest man who could be procured should be used for the center-rusher, or snapback of the eleven. So universal has this idea become tha...
-The Center-Rusher. Continued
There are two methods followed in snapping the ball: one, in which the ball is held on the small end and sent back swiftly, with little effort, in such a way that the quarter-back catches it in the ai...
-The Guard
The main work of the guards may be summed up as blocking, that is, guarding; making openings for the passage of the runner whenever certain signals are given; running behind the line to interfere for ...
-The Guard. Continued
When a wedge is formed in the line on a scrimmage the guards and center must be sure to get low, or they will be carried along before it. The point of the wedge must be held in check. In resisting the...
-The Tackle
The tackle occupies the most important position on the rush line. It is possible to get along with a lumbering center and slow guards if they are able to block well and make good openings, but it is n...
-The Tackle. Continued
The tackle should usually play right up to the line, on the defense. Sometimes with a very quick opponent, it may be better to play a little back from the line. He should be restless, and on the alert...
-The End-Rusher
The end-rushers fill two of the most important positions on the eleven. In defense, their especial duty is to prevent the long runs of the game. It is an unusual thing for a long run to be made throug...
-The Quarter-Back
As popular opinion has always assigned the snap-back's position to the largest man on the eleven, so likewise has it given the quarter-back's position to the smallest man. There is less reason in havi...
-The Quarter-Back. Continued
There are three styles of passing a ball used by quarterbacks. Two of these make use of only one arm in forwarding the ball - one by an overhand and straight-arm movement especially valuable for passi...
-The Half-Backs And Full-Back
The half-backs and the full-back, who is practically a third half-back, stand usually from two to four yards behind the center of the line. They group themselves at short distances from one another an...
-The Half-Backs And Full-Back. Part 2
Dodging in running can be cultivated through the study and practice of its points of deception. The underlying principle is the quick movement of the body, or portion of the body, from a point where i...
-The Half-Backs And Full-Back. Part 3
In carrying the ball under the arm it should be held well forward, because it can be held more tightly in this position. The reason why the ball is often pulled out from under the arm is that it is he...
-The Half-Backs And Full-Back. Part 4
In practicing, do not keep the leg rigid through all the swing. The muscles must be sufficiently lax to make the swing easy, the rigid contraction coming just before the foot reaches the ball. The an...
-Explanation Of The Diagrams
Before passing on to consider the following plays, a few words of explanation will be necessary. The side of attack in every instance, when in their regular positions, will be represented by the soli...
-1. Half-back between guard and center on his own side.
To send LH between lg and c, the half-backs stand about three* yards behind the rush line, directly in the rear of the opening between guard and tackle, Fb stands directly behind center, about four ya...
-2. Half-back between guard and tackle on his own side.
To send lh between lg and lt, the backs and ends occupy exactly the same position as in play No. 1. Diag 2 The instant the ball is put in play, LH, FB, and rh dash forward as before; LH receives t...
-3. Half-back between tackle and end on his own side.
To send lh between lt and LE, the backs and ends occupy the same position as in the preceding plays. Diag 3 LH, fb, and rh start forward the instant the ball is* snapped, as before, and lh receivi...
-4. Half-back around his own end.
To send lh around le all the men occupy the same position as in the preceding plays of the series,* with the exception of lh, who shifts his position several yards to the left without attracting atten...
-5. Half-back between guard and center on the opposite side.
To send lh between rg and c, the ends stand about one yard back from the line and a yard and a half outside of the tackles, the half-backs stand between two and three yards directly behind the guards,...
-6. Half-back between the guard and tackle on the opposite side.
To send lh between rg and rt the men occupy the same position as in the preceding diagram.* Diag 6 The instant the ball is snapped rh, fb, lh, and i.e start forward at utmost speed in direction of...
-7. Half-back between tackle and end on the opposite side.
To send Lh between rt and re, the men take the same position as in the preceding play.* Diag 7 As before, LH, fb, rh, and le start in the direction indicated at utmost speed the instant the ball i...
-8. Half-back around the opposite end.
To send lh around re there is no change in the position of the men behind the line.* As before, rh, fb, lh, Lg, and lk start forward for the right end the instant the ball is snapped, at utmost speed....
-9. Full-back through the line between center and guard.
To send FB through the line, between lg and c, the men are placed as in the second series.* Diag 9 The instant the ball is snapped, lh, fb, rh, le, and re dash forward for the opening between lg a...
-10. Full-back between the guard and tackle.
To send the full-back between lg and lt, the men stand as before.* All three backs and re dash for the point between lg and lt, the instant the ball is put in play. Lt lifts his man back and to the le...
-11. Full-back between the tackle and end.
To send the full-back between lt and le, there is no change in the position taken by the men.* Diag 11 The three backs and the ends dash forward in the lines indicated the instant the ball is snap...
-12. Full-back around the end.
To send the full-back around the end there is no change in the position of the men. Diag 12 The play is made in almost identically the same way as shown in the preceding diagram, except that in th...
-13. End between the center and opposite guard.
To send the le between rg and c, the positions are the same as in the preceding series.* Diag l3 The instant the ball is snapped the three backs and the ends dash forward for the point between rg ...
-14. End between the opposite guard and tackle.
To send le between rg and rt, there is no change in the position of the men. Diag 14 The instant the ball is snapped rh, fb, lh, and le dash forward for the point between rg and rt. Rg lifts his m...
-15. End between the opposite end and tackle.
To send the le between re and rt, preserve the same positions as in diagram fourteen. Diag 15 Re plays as shown in diagram eight. Rh plays as lh in diagram eleven. Fb plays as shown in diagram s...
-16. End around the opposite end.
To send the le around the re the play is made in identically the same manner as shown in diagram fifteen,* except that rh forces the opposing end-rusher inside instead of out, while FB and le, after s...
-17. Tackle between the center and opposite guard.
To send the lt between c and rg, preserve the same position. Diag 17 C and RG, play as shown in diagram five. Rh and fb dash into the opening ahead of LT and take the first men they meet behind t...
-18. Tackle between the opposite guard and tackle.
To send lt between rg and rt, there is no change in position. Diag 18 Re, rh, and fb plays as shown in diagram fourteen. Rh is nearer the opening and should pass through first. Fb will cut in dir...
-19. Tackle between the opposite tackle and end.
To send the Lt around the rt, the rh and fb all play as shown in diagram fifteen. Diag 19 Re jumps directly into the line and either helps Rt block his man, or takes the first extra man in the lin...
-20. Tackle around the opposite end.
To send lt around the right end, there is no change in the positions taken. Diag 20 Re jumps into the line and helps rt block his man. Rh starts the moment the ball is snapped and runs directly f...
-21. Guard between opposite guard and center.
To send the lg between rg and c, the instant the ball is snapped Lg jumps straight back from the line, breaking away from the opposing guard. He whirls directly around qb as a pivot and, receiving the...
-22. Guard between the opposite guard and tackle.
To send the lg around between rg and rt, lg breaks away from his opponent the instant the ball is snapped, as shown in diagram twenty-one, receives the ball from on as before, and dashes into the open...
-23. Guard between the opposite tackle and end.
To send lg around the opposite tackle, lg leaves the line as shown in diagram twenty-one, and receiving the ball from qb, plays as does le in diagram fifteen. Diag.23 Rh, fb, and lh start for the ...
-24. Guard around the opposite end.
To send lg around the right end, lg leaves the line as shown in diagram twenty-one; receives the ball at x from qb and passes around the right end at full speed, swing back several yards from the line...
-25. Criss-cross half-back play around the end.
To send lh around the right end on a criss-cross between the half-backs, the men stand in their regular positions with the exception of lh, who works out nearer le and slightly back, without attractin...
-26. End criss-crosses with half-back in play around the end.
To send the rh around the left end on a pass play from le to rh, le draws in slightly from his original position to le2, and as the ball is snapped, dashes for the right end, receiving the ball at x, ...
-27. Tackle criss-crosses with half-back in play around the end.
To send the lh around the re on a pass play from rt, rt leaves the line the instant the ball is snapped, and receiving it at x runs close in front of lh, passes him the ball as he goes by. Diag.27 ...
-28. Guard criss-crosses with half-back in play around the end.
To send the rii around the left end on a pass from lg, lg leaves the line as the ball is snapped, as shown in diagram twenty-one, and passes directly in front of rh, giving him the ball as he rushes b...
-29. Half-back criss-crosses with the end in play around the opposite end.
To send le around the re on a pass from rh, le draws slightly in and back to le2, nearly on a line with the half-backs, before the ball is snapped. Rh dashes forward as the ball is put in play, recei...
-30. Full-back criss-crosses with the end in play around the opposite end.
To send re around the left end on a pass from fb, re works slightly in and on a line with rh, at re2, before the ball is snapped, while fb moves a little to the left to FB2. Diag.30 As the ball is...
-31. Ends criss-cross and play around the end.
To send le around the right end on a pass from re, le and re both play in slightly, while le works back until he is nearly on a line with the half-backs. Diag.31 Re and rh start toward the left th...
-32. Tackle criss-crosses with the end in play around the opposite end.
To send re around the left end on a pass from lt, before the ball is snapped re works in and slightly back to re2. Diag.32 As the ball is put in play lt leaves the line as shown in diagram sevente...
-33. Guard criss-crosses with the end in play around the opposite end.
To send RE around the left end on a pass from lg, re tlraws in and slightly back to RE8. Diag.33 As the ball is snapped lg breaks away from his man as in diagram twenty-one, receives the ball at x...
-34. Tackle criss-crosses with tackle in a play around the end.
To send rt around the left end on a pass from lt, the instant the ball is snapped lt plays as shown in diagram eighteen and runs directly for rt. Diag. 34 As lt reaches the line rt jumps suddenly ...
-35. Double pass from end to full-back in play around the end.
To send fb around the right end on a double pass from le, le should work in slightly before the ball is snapped to le2, as in diagram twenty-six. Diag.35 The instant the ball is put in play, rh, f...
-36. Double pass from tackle to full-back in play around the end.
To send fb around the right end, on a double pass from lt, there is no change from the regular formation in the primary arrangement. Diag.36 The instant the ball is snapped, lt leaves the line, re...
-37. Double pass from guard to half-back in play around the end.
To send lh around the right end on a double pass from lg, there is no change in the arrangement. Diag.37 Lg leaves the line the instant the ball is put in play, as shown in diagram twenty-one, rec...
-38. Slow mass wedge from a down.
To send the slow pushing wedge through the center from a down, the men spring to their positions in the wedge formation, as shown in the cut, the instant the signal is given. Diag.38 Rg forces...
-39. Feint run around the end from the wedge in the line.
The wedge in the line is formed at the given signal as shown in diagram thirty-eight. The men are closely drawn into a compact formation, so that the opposing side cannot see what goes on within the w...
-40. Revolving wedge from a down.
To send the revolving wedge through the line the arrangement shown in the cut is formed in precisely the same manner as explained in diagram thirty-eight. Diag.40 The ball is put in play immediate...
-41. Lifting wedge through the center.
To send fb in a wedge through the line between 1 g and c, the play is peculiar in that it consists of two distinct parts. At a given signal to form the wedge, together with an additional signal which ...
-42. Wedge from the center around the tackle.
To send the wedge around the i.t, a preliminary signal of form the wedge is given, together with the signal which is to indicate the direction of the plays, and the formation seen in the large cut i...
-43. Quarter-back around the end from behind the wedge.
With the preliminary signal to form the wedge, a signal is given to indicate the direction of the play, and the formation as seen in the cut is taken in precisely the same manner as shown in diagram f...
-44. Feint play from the wedge.
At the signal the wedge is instantly formed as shown in diagram forty-one. Diag.44 As the ball is snapped fb rushes forward and, receiving it from qb at x, immediately crouches down behind c, shie...
-45. Wedge on the end of the line.
To form a wedge on the left end, at the given signal le comes up into the line, and rt, re, lh, and rh rush on instantly and form the wedge directly behind him, while FB moves over to a position about...
-46. Play around the opposite end from the wedge on the end.
After the wedge has been formed on the end, as shown in the preceding diagram, there may be some delay in snapping the ball, and the opposing lt, or in case of an inexperienced team, both lt and le ru...
-47. Running mass wedge through the center.
To send fb through the center on a running mass play directly behind c, the ends and backs start forward the instant the ball is snapped. Diag.47 The guards lift their men back and out from the ce...
-48. Running mass wedge between guard and center.
To send the running mass wedge through the line between LG and c, the halfbacks draw back slightly before the ball is snapped to lH2 and RH2, in a line with Fb, in order to give the ends more time to ...
-49. Running mass wedge directly at the guard.
To send the running mass wedge into the line directly behind lg, very little change is made from that shown in diagram forty-seven except that the play is directed at the guard instead of c. Diag.49 ...
-50. Running mass wedge directly at the tackle.
To send the running mass wedge into the line behind the tackle, the same principle is carried out as that shown in diagram forty-nine. Diag.50 The instant the ball is snapped all the men behin...
-51. Free opening play from the center of the field.
The men are lined up at the center of the field as shown in the cut, from five to six feet apart. Diag.51 A signal makes it understood around which end the play is to be made, and each player sele...
-52. Double pass opening play from the center.
To make the double pass opening play around the left end, the rushers are placed as indicated, on the center line, about two yards apart, leaving an interval of about ten yards between c and qb, and f...
-53. Opening play from the center with team divided.
The men are arranged as indicated in the diagram, on either side of the field, the rushers being about two yards apart and the ends about five yards from the side lines. Fb is placed about two yards, ...
-54. Princeton opening wedge from the center of the field.
To send the wedge straight down the field from the center, the men form in the positions shown in the cut, as closely and firmly bound together as possible. Diag.54 At the signal, c puts the ball ...
-55. Yale modification of Princeton wedge.
This wedge differs in one very important respect from the preceding. Instead of being a part of the wedge formation the guards are placed outside of the wedge directly abreast of c. Diag.55 The in...
-56. Princeton split wedge.
The formation is precisely the same as that shown in diagram fifty-four. The ball is put in play as before, and the wedge advances straight down the field. As the on-coming rushers strike it, the wed...
-57. Yale split wedge.
The formation is very similar to that of diagram fifty-six, but the two lines are arranged so that the parallel sides are nearer together. The half-backs and ends brace themselves well back, at arm's ...
-58. Side play from wedge at the center.
The formation is precisely as shown in diagram fifty-four. C puts the ball in play as before, and passes it back to qb, and the entire wedge advances with a rush. Diag.58 Qb quietly transfers the ...
-59. Hard running wedge with loose formation.
The men are formed in a wedge shaped as above, from three to four feet apart, with the half-backs in the center. Diag.59 C puts the ball in play by kicking it and passing it back to one of the hal...
-60. The Harvard flying wedge.
Qb stands with the ball in the center of the field. Fb stands from five to ten yards behind qb and a little to the right. The remainder of the team is divided in two sections. Section No. 1 is comp...
-61. Guard drops back and bucks the center.
To send rg to buck the center, at a given signal rg runs back from the line and takes the position at rg2, while rh jumps in and fills temporarily the position of rg. Diag.61 As soon as rg is in h...
-62. Guard through his own opening on the same side.
To send rg through his own opening to the right of c, the full-back and half-backs are placed back as if for a kick, as shown in the cut. FB assumes every appearance of being about to receive and kick...
-63. Full-back feints a kick and runs around the end.
To send fb around the end on a feint to kick, rh and lh draw from one to two yards behind their original positions, while fb moves over toward the right to fb2, from two to three yards in the rear of ...
-64. Full-back feints a kick and half-back darts through the line.
To send rh through the line on a feint to kick, lh and fb drop back. Rh remains in nearly his original position, while fb assumes every appearance of being about to receive and kick the ball. Just bef...
-65. Criss-cross play from the side line.
To perform the criss-cross play when the ball is out of bounds at the side line, c places one foot well within the field, keeping the other out of bounds, and faces the opponents' goal with the ball i...
-66. Harvard line wedge.
To form the line wedge upon the right side. At the given signal rh, re, lh, and le, dash toward the right and form a wedge directly behind rt, occupying the positions rh2, re2, lh2, and le2, and takin...
-67. Left end between guard and center from the line wedge.
This play is a modification of the one shown in diagram sixty-six. Diag.67 When the wedge has been sent forward several times in succession for short gains of from two to five yards, and the oppos...
-68. Feint wedge and full-back between left guard and center.
After the plays shown in diagram sixty-six and diagram sixty-seven have been worked a few times in succession, rg and rt on the opposing side may find that they can accomplish nothing, as the wedge is...
-69. Feint wedge and tackle around the end.
At the signal the wedge is instantly formed as shown in diagram sixty-six, and as the men reach their formation, c snaps the ball. As the ball comes back, fb dashes in behind the wedge in the same man...
-Index Of Plays
First Series. Diagram (1) No. 1 and No. 2. Half-back between guard and center on his own side. (2) No. 3 and No. 4. Half-back between guard and tackle on his own side. (3) No. 5 and No. 6. Half-bac...
-Team Play
American football is pre-eminently a game for the practice and display of what is known as team play. No other game can compare with it in this particular. Not that the individual element in skill,...
-Team Play. Part 2
From the foregoing, one draws the lesson to hide the intended play. At least, the play must not be indicated by any of these signs which the green player, and too often the experienced player, shows. ...
-Team Play. Part 3
In most plays the part which each player shall take in the interference can be laid out very definitely, but in the end play, and plays between end and tackle, only part of the interferers are to take...
-Field Tactics
Clever tactics on the football field depend first of all on the captain's possessing an accurate knowledge of the strength and weakness of his team, both in individual play and in team play. This can ...
-Field Tactics. Part 2
And this leads us to consider the moral effect of certain tactics. The three most effective styles of plays when successfully used are: a kicking game when there are weak catchers behind the opposing ...
-Field Tactics. Part 3
It would be foolish, even if it were possible, to lay down a complete system of tactics which should be followed in a game. Indeed, the wonderful part of football is, that it is a game which cannot be...
-Field Tactics. Part 4
When the center men of the line are rather light, if the backs are heavy and slow, the advantage will still be in attacking the openings between the center and guards and between the guards and tackle...
-Field Tactics. Part 5
When inside the opponents' twenty-five-yard line the greatest skill must also be used, and the aim should be to get the requisite five yards by the most reliable tactics. Plays which risk the loss of ...
-Field Tactics. Part 6
This suggests the thought that it is possible to use the side line helpfully when the ball is down very near it and when it is impossible to make any strong plays because of the limitations which must...
-Field Tactics. Part 7
The captain must weigh all these possibilities before making his decision. The great advantage in the wind does not consist alone in the increased distance the ball can be propelled, but also in the ...
-Signals
In the modern game of football it is absolutely necessary that before each play a signal should be given, which will inform every man on the team of the movement about to be executed. Every player has...
-Axioms
Line up quickly the moment the ball is down and play a dashing game from start to finish. Never under any circumstances talk about your hurts and bruises. If you are unable to play, or have a severe ...
-Rules Adopted By The America Intercollegiate Football Association For 1893
(Copyrighted and printed by permission of A. G. Spaulding & Bros.) Rule 1 (a) A drop-kick is made by letting the ball fall from the hands and kicking it at the very instant it rises. (b) A place-k...
-Rules Adopted By The America Intercollegiate Football Association For 1893. Continued
(b) Time shall not be called for the end of a three-quarter until the ball is dead; and in the case of a try-at-goal from a touch-down the try shall be allowed. Time shall be taken out while the ball ...









TOP
previous page: Football For Public And Player | by Herbert Reed
  
page up: Sport Books
  
next page: Kitecraft And Kite Tournaments | by Charles M. Miller