Highland Cattle, Near Winnipeg.
In the long, sunny days of these high latitudes wheat will mature rapidly. And such wheat! Professor Macoun, the botanist of the Canadian Government Survey, reports that at Prince Albert, five hundred miles northwest from Winnipeg, and even in the region of Peace River, seven hundred miles farther still in the direction of Alaska, five well-formed grains are sometimes found in each wheat cluster, as contrasted with the two grains usually met with elsewhere. The "Manitoba No. I, hard," is said to have a larger percentage of gluten and other nutritious ingredients than any other wheat in the world, and to yield a greater amount of good flour to the bushel than any of the softer varieties. It is not, therefore, strange that wheat from the Canadian Northwest is famous everywhere, and at present commands the highest price in the London market. The amount exported increases annually by leaps and bounds. In 1886 the shipment of wheat from the province of Manitoba alone was a little less than six million bushels. In 1892 it had risen to nearly fifteen million; in 1899, to twenty-eight million; and in 1901 to over forty million! Times have changed, indeed, since Lord Selkirk, in 1811, offered to sell more than half the land now included in Manitoba for fifty thousand dollars, "owing to its remoteness"! The report of the Department of Agriculture for this Province shows that the total quantity of grain produced here, in the year 1901, was more than eighty-five million bushels, of which fifty million were wheat, at an average yield of more than twenty-one bushels to the acre. To harvest this there was naturally a great demand for farm laborers, and although more than eighteen thousand men from the East responded to the call, five thousand more could have found employment. What, therefore, may not this gigantic granary become, when suitable means of transportation shall have been provided, and all its millions of prolific acres are brought to the perfection of productiveness by a sufficient number of energetic tillers of the soil?
Nor should it be forgotten that, though Manitoba alone is a third larger than the State of New York, it is itself but a fraction of the mighty area lying between Lake Winnipeg and the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, much of which is equally well adapted to the growth of cereals. That the Dominion has resolved to utilize these immense resources is evident from the efforts it is making to draw to itself industrious, agricultural settlers. The Prince of Wales, on his return from Canada in 1901, spoke with great earnestness of the promising openings for capable young men in this portion of the empire. At the time of this writing, also (January, 1902), the Deputy Minister of the Interior of the Canadian administration is in England, on a special mission to create an interest in emigration to British America. All that Canada asks is that the would-be farmers should be able to pay their way to her shores. Once there, the government will do the rest. It offers free transportation to the principal land centres of the great Northwest, and a free grant of one hundred and sixty acres to each settler, its desire being to help in every way all worthy immigrants to become permanent, prosperous citizens of the Dominion. It is a significant fact that during the year 1901 more than eighteen thousand settlers came into this part of Canada from the United States, selling their farms in Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, and Michigan,. in order to avail themselves of these facilities. There can be, therefore, little doubt that the expansion and prosperity of Canada are only in their infancy, and that the words of Whit-tier, written originally of the far West of the United States.
Emigrant Sleeping Car, Canadian Pacific Railroad.
Bell Farm, Assiniboia.
are equally appropriate when applied to the "Fertile Belt" of the Dominion:
" I hear the tread of pioneers Of nations yet to be; The first low wash of waves, where soon Shall roll a human sea.