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Chambers's Concise Gazetteer Of The World



The first question that naturally comes into one's mind when a place is mentioned is: 'Where is it?' 'What is to he known about it?' is as naturally the second. One cannot open a newspaper without lighting on some reference to the railway bridge over the Zambesi, the battle of Tsushima, difficulties at Koweit, the naval base at Rosyth, or, it may be, to Masampho, Skagway, Tchernavoda, Tuskegee, Zeebrugge; or there will be an allusion to ...

TitleChambers's Concise Gazetteer Of The World
AuthorDavid Patrick
PublisherW. & R. Chambers, Limited
Year1906
Copyright1906, W. & R. Chambers, Limited
AmazonChambers's Concise Gazetteer Of The World

Topographical Statistical Historical Pronouncing

Edited By David Patrick, Ll.D.

Revised Edition

-Preface
The first question that naturally comes into one's mind when a place is mentioned is: 'Where is it?' 'What is to he known about it?' is as naturally the second. One cannot open a newspaper without lig...
-Aberdeen
Aberdeen, the chief city and seaport in the north of Scotland, lies in the SE. angle of Aberdeenshire, at the mouth and on the north side of the Dee, 111 miles N. of Edinburgh. William the Lion confir...
-Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire, a large maritime county in the extreme NE. of Scotland. The fifth in size of the Scottish counties, it has a maximum length of 85 and breadth of 47 miles, with 62 miles of sea-coast, an...
-Abyssinia
Abyssinia (from the Arabic name Habesh, 'mixture,'given on account of the mixed population), is a highland state of Eastern Africa, jealous in defence of its independence, and lies between the flats a...
-Acre
Acre, St Jean d'Acre, or Acca, the Biblical Accho, is a seaport on the coast of Syria, not far from the base of Mount Carinel, and contains about 10,000 inhabitants. It is 80 miles NNW. of Jerusalem, ...
-Adelaide
Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, on the Torrens, 7 miles by rail SE. of Port Adelaide, on St Vincent Gulf. It stands on a large plain, and is walled in on the eastern and southern sides by th...
-Aden
Aden, a peninsula and town belonging to Britain, on the SW. coast of Arabia, 105 miles E. of the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, the entrance to the Red Sea. The peninsula is a mass of volcanic rocks, 5 mile...
-Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea, a large arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending 450 miles north-westward between Italy and the Balkan Peninsula, and terminated to the south by the strait of Otranto, 45 miles wide. The ...
-Aeolian Islands
Aeolian Islands. See Lipari. Aetna. See Etna. Afghanistan' is the country lying to the northwest of India. Its boundaries are, on the north, the Oxus or Amu Daria, from its source to Khoja Saleh, and...
-Africa
Africa, a continent of the eastern hemisphere, forming a south-western extension of Asia, to which it is attached by the narrow isthmus of Suez, now pierced by a canal 90 miles long. Africa is thus co...
-Agra
Agra, a city in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, on the Jumna, 139 miles SE. of Delhi by rail, and 841 NW. of Calcutta. The ancient walls embraced an area of 11 sq. m., of which about one-half i...
-Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad', chief town of a district in Guzerat, second amongst the cities of the province of Bombay, is 50 miles NE. of the head of the Gulf of Cambay. It was built in 1412 by Ahmed Shah, and finally...
-Aix-la-Chapelle
Aix-la-Chapelle (Aiks-la-shapel'; Ger. Aachen), a town of Rhenish Prussia, is situated in a fertile hollow, surrounded by heights, and watered by the Wurm, 39 miles W. by S. of Cologne. Pop. (1867) 67...
-Alaska
Alaska, a territory of the United States, occupying the NW. portion of the North American continent, together with a great number of islands, mostly in the Pacific Ocean. It is bounded N. by the Arcti...
-Albacete
Albacete (Al-ba-thay'teh), capital of a Spanish province, 140 miles SE. of Madrid by rail, in a fertile but treeless plain. It has great cattle-fairs. Pop. 20,671. - The province is partly formed from...
-Albany
Albany, capital of the state of New York, and seat of justice of Albany county, stands on the west bank of Hudson River, 142 miles N. of the city of New York. The river is an important channel of comm...
-Albert Nyanza
Albert Nyanza (Mwutan Nzige, Luta Nzige), a large lake of East Central Africa, is situated in a deep rock-basin, 80 miles NW. of the Victoria Nyanza. It is of an oblong shape, 100 miles long from N. t...
-Alderney
Alderney (Fr. Aurigny), a British island in the English Channel, 55 miles S. by E. of Portland Bill, 15 NE. of Guernsey, 31 N. of Jersey, and 10 W. of Cape la Hogue. The Pace of Alderney, or strait th...
-Aleppo
Aleppo (Italianised form of Haleb), a town in the north of Syria, capital of a Turkish province between the Orontes and the Euphrates, in a fruitful valley watered by the Kuweik. It stands in a large ...
-Alexandria
Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. It was situated originally on the low tract of land which separates the lake Mareotis from the Mediterranean, 14 miles west of the Canopic mou...
-Algeria
Algeria (Fr. Alger ie), a country on the north coast of Africa, which has since 1830 been a French possession, and is now regarded as an outlying part of France rather than as a colony. It lies betwee...
-Algiers
Algiers (Aljeers'; Fr. Alger; Ar. Al-jezair, 'the islands'), the capital of Algeria, was built about 935 a.d. by an Arab chief. It rises from the sea-shore up the sides of a precipitous hill in the fo...
-Alhambra
Alhambra, a fortified suburb of Granada, which forms a sort of acropolis to the city, and in which stand the exquisite remains of the palace of the ancient Moorish kings of Granada. The name is a corr...
-Allahabad
Allahabad ('city of God'), the seat of the government of the United Provinces of British India, occupies the fork of the Ganges and Jumna, 390 miles SE. of Delhi, and 564 WNW. of Calcutta. The situati...
-Alps
Alps (possibly a Celtic word meaning ' high;' of. Gaelic alp, ' a high mountain;' or connected with Lat. albus, 'white'), the most extensive system of lofty mountains in Europe, raising their giant ma...
-Alsace-Lorraine
Alsace-Lorraine (Ger. Elsass-Lothringen), since 1871 a state or 'imperial territory' (Reichsland) of the German empire, bounded west by France, east by Baden, and south by Switzerland. Its utmost leng...
-Altai
Altai, the Ghin-shan or Golden Mountains of the Chinese, is the name given to a wild mountainous region which covers the southern parts of Tomsk, in Siberia, and partly extends into Mongolia. It compr...
-Amazon
Amazon, or Amazons (Portuguese Amazonas, from an Indian word Amassona-, 'boat-destroyer'), a river of South America, and the largest stream on the face of the globe. It is known locally as Maranon, Or...
-America
America, the western continent and its adjacent islands, forming the main body of land found in the western hemisphere. America has an area of about 16,500,000 sq. m., and is larger than Europe and Af...
-All the states of America
All the states of America, each with a separate article, are either republics or colonies. North America States. Area in sq. m. Pop. United States........... 3,025,600 ...
-Amiens
Amiens (Fr. pron. Ami-i-ong; anc. Samarobriva), a French city, capital once of Picardy, and now of the dep. of Somme, on the many-channelled, navigable Somme, 81 miles N. of Paris by rail. Its fortifi...
-Amsterdam
Amsterdam ('dam' or 'dike of the Amstel'), the capital of the Netherlands, is situated at the influx of the Amstel to the Ij or Y (pron. eye), an arm (now mostly drained) of the Zuider-Zee, 44| miles ...
-Amur
Amur (Amoor), or Sakhalin, a river formed by the junction of the Shilka and the Argun, which both come from the south-west - the former rising in the foothills of the Yablonoi Mountains. From the junc...
-Ancona
Anco'na, the capital of a province in Italy, on a promontory of the Adriatic, 127 miles SE. of Ravenna by rail. Its harbour had become much silted up, but in 1887 was improved and deepened; and it is ...
-Andamans
An'damans, a group of thickly wooded islands towards the east side of the Bay of Bengal, 680 miles S. of the Hooghly mouth of the Ganges. They consist of the Great and Little Andaman groups. The forme...
-Andes
Andes (said to be derived from the Peruvian anti, copper, metal), a lofty mountain-system of South America, extending north and south along the whole Pacific coast, and really a continuation of the va...
-Anglesey
Anglesey, or Anglesea (A.S. Angles Ey - i.e. ' the Englishmen's island'), an island and county of Wales, separated from the north-west mainland by the Menai Strait (q.v.), which is spanned by the susp...
-Angola
Angola, a name formerly used loosely of the whole West African coast from Cape Lopez to Benguela, but restricted, since the establishment of the Congo Free State in 1885, to the Portuguese West Africa...
-Annam
Annam, an 'empire' on the east coast of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, has since 1885 been a French protectorate and part of French Indo-China, which comprises, besides Annam, Tong-king or Tonquin in the...
-Antarctic Ocean
Antarctic Ocean, the ocean situated about, or within, the Antarctic Circle. The Great Southern Ocean is that part of the ocean which surrounds the world between the latitude of 40 S. and the Anta...
-Antioch
An'tioch, the ancient capital of the Greek kings of Syria, and long the chief city in Asia, lies in a fertile and beautiful plain, on the left bank of the river Orontes, 14 miles from the sea. In the ...
-Antrim
Antrim, a maritime county of Ulster, stands second among the Irish counties in population, but in size only ninth. Its greatest length is 57 miles; its greatest breadth, 28; its extent of sea-coast, 9...
-Antwerp
Antwerp (Fr. Anvers; Flem. Antwerpen, 'on the wharf), the chief commercial city of Belgium, on the river Scheldt, 52 miles from the sea, and 27 N. of Brussels. It is the Liverpool of the Continent, an...
-Apennines
Apennines (Ital. Appennini, Lat. Mons Apen-ninus), a mountain-chain extending 740 miles uninterruptedly throughout the whole length of the Italian peninsula. It belongs to the system of the Alps. The ...
-Appalachians
Appalachians, a great mountain-system of North America, nearly parallel with the Atlantic coast, and extending from the Gulf of St Lawrence SSW. to the west central portion of Alabama. Geologically, i...
-Arabia
Arabia, the great south-western peninsula of Asia. Its greatest length from NW. to SE. is about 1800 miles; its mean breadth, about 600; its area, 1,230,000 sq. m.; and its population conjectured to b...
-Ararat
Ar'arat, a general old name for the district through which the Aras flows, and never the name by which the Mount of Ararat has been known to the people around it. Associated, however, as the mountains...
-Archangel
Archangel, the chief city of a Russian government, 40 miles above the junction of the Dwina with the White Sea. It is the seat of an archbishop, and the chief commercial city for the north of Russia a...
-Archipelago
Archipel'ago, an Italian coinage, first met with in 1268, and signifying 'the chief sea,' was applied originally to that part of the Mediterranean which separates Greece from Asia (the Aegean Sea of t...
-Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean. The Arctic Ocean lies to the north of Europe, Asia, and North America, and surrounds the North Pole; it is usually defined as the water area within the Arctic Circle. Physiographically, ...
-Argentine Republic
Argentine Republic, or Argentina, a federal republic of South America, taking its name from the river La Plata ('River of Silver'). It has an area of 1,125,086 sq. m., including the unsettled territor...
-Argyllshire
Argyll'shire, a county in the west of Scotland. Its greatest length is 115 miles; its greatest breadth, 55; and its extent of coast-line as much as 2289 miles, owing to the numerous sea-lochs. Next to...
-Arizona
Arizona, till 1906 a territory of the United States, bounded N. by Utah, E. by New Mexico, S. by the republic of Mexico (Sonora), and W. by California and Nevada. Its western boundary is mostly formed...
-Arkansas
Arkan'sas (formerly pron. Ar'kansaw), a state of the American Union, is bounded on the N. by Missouri, on the E. by Missouri, Tennessee, and Mississippi, on the S. by Louisiana, and on the W. by Texas...
-Armagh
Armagh', the capital of County Armagh, 33 miles SW. of Belfast, is situated on a gentle eminence, whence its Ard-Magha, 'high field. The cruciform 12th-century cathedral occupies the site of one found...
-Armenia
Armenia, a high tableland in the upper valleys of the Euphrates, Tigris, Aras, and Kur, some 500 miles long, by nearly the same breadth. In ancient times an independent country, it repeatedly recovere...
-Arran
Arran, a town of Bengal, 320 miles NW. of Calcutta by rail. Here in 1857 a dozen Englishmen, with 50 Sikhs, held out for eight days against 3000 sepoys. Pop. 46,998. Arran Arran, an island of Butesh...
-Ashanti
Ashanti, or Ashantee, a negro kingdom of Western Africa, included since 1896 in the British protectorate, and attached to the Gold Coast colony, behind which it lies. It is a hilly country; its rivers...
-Asia
Asia, the largest of the divisions of the world, occupies the northern portion of the eastern hemisphere in the form of a massive continent which extends beyond the Arctic Circle, and by its southern ...
-Asia Minor
Asia Minor (Asia the Less) is the name usually given to the western peninsular projection of Asia, forming part of Turkey in Asia. The late Greek name for Asia Minor is Anatolia - Anatole, ' the East,...
-Assam
Assam', from 1S74 to 1905 a separate province at the NE. extremity of British India, with an area of 46,341 sq. m.; but in 1905 made part of the new joint province of Eastern Bengal and Assam (see Ben...
-Assyria
Assyria, the northernmost of the three great countries that occupied the Mesopotamian plain. It was bounded on the N. by the Niphates Mountains of Armenia; on the S. by Susiana and Babylonia; on the E...
-Astrakhan
Astrakhan', a barren government in the SE. of European Russia, watered by the Volga, and washed on the SE. by the Caspian Sea. Area, 91,327 sq. m.; pop. l,003,500. - Astrakhan, the capital, is situate...
-Athabasca
Athabas'ca (locally La Biche, 'red-deer or elk river'), a river and lake in the North-west Territory of the Canadian Dominion, forming part of the great basin of the Mackenzie. The river rises in the ...
-Athens
Athens, anciently capital of the Greek state of Attica and centre of Greek culture, now capital of the modern kingdom of Greece, 4 1/2 miles from its harbour of Pirceus, on the Gulf of Aegina. The cit...
-Athos
A'thos (Gr. Hagion Oros, 'Holy Hill'), the most eastern of the three tongues of the Chalci-dice Peninsula on the Aegean Sea, connected with the mainland by a low and narrow isthmus, about a mile acros...
-Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean (so called either from Mount Atlas or from the fabulous island of Atlantis), separating the Old from the New World, Europe and Africa being on the E., and North and South America on the...
-Auckland
Auckland, the northern provincial district of New Zealand, includes fully half of North Island, and is about 400 miles long by 200 wide at its widest. The coast-line of nearly 1200 miles is very long ...
-Augsburg
Augsburg, a city of Bavaria, capital of the province of Swabia, is situated in the angle between the rivers Wertach and Lech, 37 miles WNW. of Munich. It has a noble street, the Maximilian Strasse, ad...
-Augusta
Augusta, or Agosta, a fortified seaport of Sicily, 11 miles N. of Syracuse by rail. Pop. 12,210. Near it, in 1676, the French under Duquesne gained a great naval victory over a Spanish and Dutch fleet...
-Australia
Australia, by far the largest island on the earth's surface, and with or without adjoining islands, reckoned one of the continents, lies between 10 39' and 39 ll 1/2' S. lat., and between 11...
-Austria
Austria, the usual name of the great empire now officially called the Austro - Hungarian Monarchy, is a Latinised form of the German Oesterreich (Fr. Autriche), meaning ' Eastern Kingdom.' Since 1867,...
-Avignon
Avignon (Aveaio), a city of Provence, capital of the French dep. of Vaucluse, on the left bank of the Phone, 75 miles NW. of Marseilles. With narrow, crooked streets, 'windy Avignon' still is encircle...
-Avon
Avon (Celt. 'river' or 'stream'), the name of several of the smaller British rivers. (1) The Upper or Warwickshire Avon rises at Naseby in Northamptonshire, runs 96 miles south-west through Warwickshi...
-Awe
Awe, Loch, an Argyllshire lake, with Loch Awe station and hotel near its foot, 22 miles E. of Oban. Lying 118 feet above sea-level, it extends 22f miles north-eastward, is from 3 furlongs to 3 1/2 mil...
-Ayr
Ayr, the county town of Ayrshire, at the mouth of the river Ayr, 40 1/2 miles SSW. of Glasgow by rail. The Town's Buildings, with a spire 226 feet high, were erected in 1828, and greatly enlarged in 1...
-Ayrshire
Ayrshire, a large maritime county in the SW. of Scotland, washed on the W. by the Firth of Clyde and the North Channel. Its greatest length is 78 miles; its greatest breadth, 28; and its area is 1149 ...
-Azores
Azo'res, or Western Islands, a Portuguese archipelago in the mid-Atlantic, in 36 55' - 39 55' N. lat. and 25 10' - 31 16' W. long. Stretching over a distance of 400 miles, their ni...
-Azov
Azov, a town in the south of Russia, on the left bank of the Don, 7 miles from its mouth. Spite of the silting of the harbour, there is a large export of grain, with fishing and fish-curing. Pop. 27,5...
-BAALBEK
BAALBEK, a ruined city of Syria, 35 miles NNW. of Damascus, and 38 SSE. of Tripoli. The name signifies ' City of Baal,' the Sun-god, and was by the Greeks, during the Seleucide dynasty, converted into...
-Babylonia
Babylonia (Babilu in the Assyrian inscriptions, Babirush in the Persian) was the name given by the Greeks, and after them the Romans, to the low alluvial plain watered by the lower streams of the Tigr...
-Baden
Baden (Bah-den), a grand-duchy in the SW. corner of the German empire between Alsace- Lorraine and Wurtemberg, separated from Swit-zerland by the Rhine. Area, 5824 sq. m., less than Yorkshire; pop. (1...
-Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden, a town in the grand-duchy of Baden, situated in the pleasant valley of the Oos, at the edge of the Black Forest, 8 miles from the Rhine, and 23 SSW. of Karlsruhe by rail. Pop. above 16,00...
-Bagdad
Bagdad, or Baghdad, the capital of a province of Asiatic Turkey, on the Tigris, 500 miles from its mouth. It is surrounded by a brick wall, 5 miles in circumference, and 40 feet high, but in some plac...
-Bahamas
Baha'mas, or Lucayos (Span. Los Cayos), a chain of British West Indian islands, stretching nearly 600 miles north-westward from near the north coast of Hayti to the east coast of Florida. The chain ex...
-Baikal
Baikal (Turkish, Bei-kul, ' rich lake') is, after the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Aral, the largest lake of Asia, with an area of 13,500 sq. m. It is a fresh-water lake, and is situated in the south of...
-Baku
Baku, an important seaport of Russian Transcaucasia, on the Apsheron peninsula, on a crescent-shaped bay in the Caspian Sea. Since 1883 it has been connected by rail with Tiflis, and so with Poti and ...
-Balkans
Balkans, a ridge or series of ridges of mountains in south-eastern Europe (anc. Hmus; Balkan is Turkish for 'mountain'). They form the boundary between Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia, extending f...
-Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea, the great gulf or inland sea bordered by Denmark, Germany, Russia, and Sweden, and communicating with the Kattegat and North Sea by the Sound and the Great and Little Belts. Its length is ...
-Baltimore
Baltimore, a fishing-village in County Cork, on Baltimore Bay, 7 miles SW. of Skibbereen. Here in 1887 the Baroness Burdett-Coutts established a technical fishery school. Pop. 597. Baltimore Baltimo...
-Banff
Banff (pron. Bamf), the capital of Banffshire, on the Moray Firth, at the mouth of the Deveron, 50 miles NNW. of Aberdeen by rail. On the right bank of the Deveron, 1 1/4 mile ENE., is the fishing-tow...
-Banffshire
Banffshire, a county in the NE. of Scotland, bounded N. by the Moray Firth. Its greatest length is 59 miles, its greatest breadth 31, and its area 64G sq. m. The coast is rocky, but not high, except t...
-Bangkok
Bangkok, the capital of Siam, stands on the Menam, 20 miles from its mouth, in 13 38' N. lat. and 100 34' E. long., and stretches for some 6 or 7 miles along both sides of the river, here a ...
-Bangor
Bangor, a city and seaport of Carnarvonshire, on the Menai Strait, 60 miles W. of Chester by the main railway route from London to Dublin (1850). Its chief trade is derived from the great Penrhyn slat...
-Barbadoes
Barba'does, one of the Windward Islands, the most easterly of all the West Indies, lies 78 miles E. of St Vincent, in 13 4' N. lat., and 59 37' W. long. Its length is 21 miles; its greatest ...
-Barcelona
Barcelona, the second largest and the most important manufacturing city in Spain, is beautifully situated on the Mediterranean between the mouths of the Llobregat and the Besos, 228 miles E. of Sarago...
-Barrow
Barrow, a term applied in honour of Sir John Barrow, to (1) Point Barrow, on the northern coast of Alaska, in 71 23' N. lat. and 156 31' W. long., long received as the most northerly spot on...
-Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness, a seaport and manufacturing town of North Lancashire, situated on the south-western coast of the peninsula of Furness. By rail it is 36 miles WNW. of Lancaster, and 268 NNW. of Lond...
-Basel
Basel (Bah'zel; Fr. Bale; old Fr. Basle), a Swiss city and canton. The canton was divided in 1833 into two independent half-cantons, called Basel-town and Basel-country. The urban half-canton consists...
-Batavia
Bata'via, properly the name of the island occupied by the ancient Batavi, became at a later date the Latin name for Holland and the whole kingdom of the Netherlands. The name Batavian Republic was bor...
-Bath
Bath, the chief city of Somerset, is beautifully situated in the wooded valley of the sinuous Avon, 12 miles ESE. of Bristol, and 107 W. of London. Its houses are built wholly of white freestone - 'Ba...
-Bathurst
Bath'urst, a name applied to various localities in honour of Earl Bathurst, Colonial Secretary (1812-28). - (1) Bathurst in New South Wales, the first county settled beyond the Blue Mountains, is boun...
-Bavaria
Bavaria (Ger. Bayern), the second state of the German empire. It is divided into two unequal parts, separated by Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt, of which the eastern comprises eleven-twelfths of the whole....
-Bechuanaland
Bechuanaland (Betchooah'naland), a tract of South Africa, inhabited by the Bechuanas, extending from the Zambesi to the Transvaal border. The Bechuanas, who speak a Bantu language, also occupy a consi...
-Bedford
Bedford, the county town of Bedfordshire, on the navigable Ouse, 49 miles NNW. of London by rail. The Ouse is spanned here by two bridges - a stone one of five arches, 306 feet long, built in 1811 at ...
-Bedford Level
Bedford Level, an extensive tract of flat land in the east of England, embracing nearly all the marshy district called the Fens. It extends inland around the Wash into the six counties of Northampton,...
-Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire, a midland county, the 37th of the 40 English counties in size, and 36th in population. Extreme length, 31 miles; breadth, 25; area, 461 sq. m. The general surface is level, with gentle u...
-Behistun
Behistun, or Bisutun (anc. Baghistan), the site of an ancient Persian city, 22 miles E. of the city of Kirmanshahan. It is noted for its famous precipitous rock, which on one side rises perpendicularl...
-Belfast
Belfast', the largest and most prosperous city in Ireland, since 1898 a county apart from Antrim, is situated mainly on the left bank of the Lagan, at its entrance to Belfast Lough (12 x 3 miles). It ...
-Belgium
Belgium (Fr. Belgique), one of the smaller European states, consists of the southern portion of the former kingdom of the Netherlands (as created by the Congress of Vienna), lying between France and H...
-Belgium is
Belgium is, on the whole, a level, and even low-lying country; diversified, however, by hilly districts. In the south-east, a western branch of the Ardennes highlands (2000 feet) separates the basin o...
-Belgrade
Belgrade' (Serb. Bielgorod, ' white town'), the capital of Servia, lies opposite Semlin, at the confluence of the Save and Danube, 215 miles SSE. of Pesth, and 234 miles NNW. of Vranja, by rail. The w...
-Belize
Belize (Be-leeze'), or British Honduras, a British colony washed on the E. by the Bay of Honduras, in the Caribbean Sea, and elsewhere surrounded by Guatemala and Mexico. It forms the south-east part ...
-Beluchistan
Beluchistan, or Baluchistan (Belootch'istan), a country of Asia, bounded on the N. by Afghanistan, on the E. by Sind, on the S. by the Arabian Sea, and on the W. by the Persian province of Kerman. The...
-Benares
Benares (Be-nah'rcz), or Varanasi, the most sacred city of the Hindus, and one of the chief towns of North India, situated on the northern bank of the Ganges, 420 miles from Calcutta. In the United Pr...
-Bengal
Bengal' (old Bangala), a name given to part of British India, but variously signifying - (1) the old historical presidency which, in pre-mutiny times, comprised the greater portion of Northern India; ...
-Bergen
Bergen (Bergen; g hard), a seaport in the west of Norway, and the second city of the kingdom, situated on a promontory at the head of a deep bay. The harbour is safe and commodious, and around it the ...
-Berkshire
Berkshire (Bark'shir), a midland county, bounded by Gloucester, Oxford, Bucks, Surrey, Hampshire, and Wiltshire. Its greatest length is 53 miles; its greatest breadth, 30; and the area, 705 sq. m., or...
-Berlin
Berlin', the capital of Prussia, and since 1871, of the German empire, and the third largest city of Europe, is situated on a flat sandy plain, in 52 30' N. lat., 13 24' E. long., and is div...
-Bermudas
Bermu'das, or Somers' Islands, British possessions in Mid-Atlantic, 2900 miles from Liverpool, and 677 from New York. They were so named from Bermudas, a Spaniard, who first sighted them in 1515, and ...
-Bern
Bern, or Berne, a Swiss canton, bounded on the N. by France. It is the most populous, and next to the Grisons the largest canton of Switzerland; its area being 2650 sq. m., and its pop. (1900) 589,433...
-Berwick-on-Tweed
Berwick-on-Tweed (Ber'rick), at the mouth of the Tweed, 58 miles ESE. of Edinburgh, and 67 N. by W. of Newcastle. The liberties of the borough, called 'Berwick Bounds,' have an area of 8 sq. m., and w...
-Berwickshire
Berwickshire (Berrickshir), a Border county of south-east Scotland, bounded by Haddingtonshire, the German Ocean, Berwick-on-Tweed, Northumberland, Roxburghshire, and Midlothian. It extends from east ...
-Bethlehem
Bethlehem (' house of bread'), the birthplace of Jesus Christ and of King David, and the Ephratah of the history of Jacob, is now a small unwalled village of white stone houses, 6 miles S. of Jerusale...
-Beyrout
Beyrout, or Beirut (Bay-root'; Old Test. Ber-othai or Berothah; anc. Berytus), a flourishing town, on the coast of Syria, and at the foot of Lebanon, 55 miles from Damascus, and 147 from Jerusalem. It...
-Bhutan
Bhutan (Boo-tan'), a native state in the eastern Himalayas, bounded by Tibet, Assam, and Sik-kim. It is divided into East and West Bhutan; and before the British annexation in 1841 and 1865 of the eig...
-Bilbao
Bilba'o (Span. Beel-bah'o), a town of Spain, the capital of the province of Vizcaya (Biscay), in a mountain gorge on the Nervion, 8 miles SE. of its mouth at Portugalete, and 63 miles N. by E. of Mira...
-Birkenhead
Birkenhead, a market-town, seaport, municipal, parliamentary, and county borough of Cheshire, lies opposite Liverpool, on the left bank of the Mersey. Birkenhead owes its origin to the Benedictine Pri...
-Birmingham
Birmingham, a city and a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, the chief town of the Midlands, is celebrated for its metallic manufactures throughout the world. It stands near the centre of En...
-Baskerville
Baskerville, the printer, carried on his business in Birmingham. Wilmore and Pye, the engravers, David Cox, and Burne-Jones were Birmingham men. Dr Joseph Priestley was a Unitarian minister in Birming...
-Blackburn
Blackburn, a town of Lancashire, 21 miles NNW. of Manchester, and 9 E. of Preston, stands on a stream from which it appears to derive its name, a branch of the Ribble. It had acquired some importance ...
-Black Forest
Black Forest (Ger. Schwarzald), a wooded mountain-chain in Baden and Wurtemberg, running parallel with the course of the Rhine after its great bend near Basel, often only a few miles distant from it, ...
-Black Sea
Black Sea, or Euxine (anc. Pontus Euxinus), is an inland sea lying between Europe and Asia, extending from 41 to 46 38' N. lat., and from 27 30' to 41 50' E. long. Its greatest len...
-Bogota
Bogota, under Spanish rule Santa fe de Bogota, in South America, the federal capital of the United States of Colombia. It is on a tableland 400 sq. m. in area, and 8694 feet above the sea, which separ...
-Bohemia
Bohemia (Ger. Bohmen), formerly one of the kingdoms of Europe, now forms the most northern province of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. It has an area of 19,980 sq. m., or about two-thirds that of Scotl...
-Bokhara
Bokhara (Bok-hah'ra or Bo-hah'ra), the portion of Turkestan under the rule of the khan (or emir) of Bokhara, nominally independent, but practically a vassal state of Russia. It lies between Russian Tu...
-Bolivia
Bolivia, a republic on the west side of South America, deriving its name from the liberator Bolivar, and formed in 1825, till which year, as Upper Peru, it had formed part of the vice-royalty of Bueno...
-Bologna
Bologna (Bolon'ya), one of the most ancient cities of Italy, beautifully situated on a fertile plain at the foot of the lower slopes of the Apennines, 82 m. N. of Florence, and 135 SE. of Milan by rai...
-Bolton
Bolton, or Bolton-Le-Moors, an important manufacturing town and parliamentary, municipal, and county borough in South Lancashire, on the Croal, 11 miles NW. of Manchester. It was celebrated as far bac...
-Bombay
Bombay, the western province of India. Including Sind and Aden (q.v.), it comprises 26 British districts and 19 native or feudatory states, and contains 194,189 sq. m., of which 69,045 are in native s...
-Bonn
Bonn (anc. Bonna), a town of Rhenish Prussia, beautifully situated on the left bank of the Rhine (here 600 yards wide), 21 miles SSE. of Cologne by rail. The Minster, said to have been founded by the ...
-Bordeaux
Bordeaux (Bor-do'), the third seaport of France, and chief town in the dep. of Gironde, is beautifully situated in a plain on the left bank of the Garonne, about 60 miles from its mouth in the Atlanti...
-Borders
Borders, the tract of country lying immediately on both sides of the frontier line between England and Scotland, which runs diagonally northeast or south-west, between the head of the Solway Firth at ...
-Borneo
Borneo, next to Australia and New Guinea the largest island in the world, is situated in the Indian Archipelago, in 7 3' N. - 4 10' S. lat., and 108 53' - 119 22' E. long. It is bo...
-Bornu
Bornu, or Bornoro, a powerful but declining state of Central Africa, somewhat larger in extent than England, bounded on the E. by Lake Chad, and N. by the Sahara. By treaty with France of 1890 it is w...
-Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, a province lying between Dalmatia and Slavonia, which has made rapid progress in prosperity since the Berlin Treaty of 1878 transferred it from Turkey to Austria. (Herzegovi'na...
-Bosphorus
Bos'phorus, or Bosporus (Latinised forms of a Greek word meaning ' ox-ford'), the ancient name of the channel which separates Europe from Asia, and connects the Black Sea (Euxine) with the Sea of Marm...
-Boston
Boston, a parliamentary and municipal borough and seaport in Lincolnshire, on the Witham, 30 miles SE. of Lincoln and 107 miles NE. of London by rail. Its name is a contraction of 'Botolph's town,' an...
-Boulogne-sur-Mer
Boulogne-sur-Mer, a fortified seaport in the French dep. of Pas-de-Calais, situated at the mouth of the Liane in the English Channel, 27 miles SW. of Calais, and 158 N. by W. of Paris by rail. The tow...
-Bradford
Bradford, an important manufacturing town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, on a tributary of the Aire, at the meeting of three vales, 9 miles W. of Leeds, 34 SW. of York, and 191 NNW. of London by rai...
-Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra (' son of Brahma'), one of the largest rivers of India, rises in Tibet, and, after partially mingling with the Ganges, flows into the Bay of Bengal. From explorations (1878-82) by one of t...
-Brazil
Brazil', the largest state of South America, covering nearly half of the South American continent, is little less in area than the whole of Europe; even if it be found that the estimated area, 3,288,0...
-Brecknockshire
Brecknockshire, or Brecon, an inland county of South Wales. The maximum length is 39 miles; its breadth ranges between 11 1/2 and 30 miles; and its area is 719 sq. m., of which only 43 per cent. is cu...
-Bremen
Bremen (Bray'men), a free city of Germany, on the Weser, 39 miles by rail SSE. of Bremerhaven, and 76 NW. of Hanover. Pop. (1875) 102,177; (1900) 163,297, Bremen is divided into the Old and the New To...
-Breslau
Breslau (Breztlow), capital of Prussian Silesia, 150 m. SE. of Frankfort-on-Oder by rail, is situated at the confluence of the Ohlau and Oder. It has a university founded by the Emperor Leopold I. in ...
-Brest
Brest, a strongly fortified city in the dep. of Finistdre, one of the chief naval stations of France, is situated 389 miles by rail W. of Paris, on the north side of the Bay or Road of Brest. One of t...
-Bridgnorth
Bridgnorth, a municipal borough of Shropshire, 19 miles SB. of Shrewsbury. The Severn divides it into the upper or 'High Town,' and lower or'Low Town,' the two connected by an inclined railway (1892) ...
-Bridgwater
Bridgwater, a municipal borough and river-port of Somersetshire, on the Parret, 6 miles in a direct line, and 12 by the river, from the Bristol Channel, and 29 miles SW. of Bristol. It stands on the b...
-Brighton
Brighton, a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough and fashionable watering-place in Sussex, 50 1/2 miles S. of London by rail (1 1/4 hour). Its former name, Brighthelmstone (1252-1810), was sup...
-Brindisi
Brin'disi (anc. Brundisium, or Brundusium), a seaport town of Southern Italy, on a small promontory in a bay of the Adriatic, 346 miles SE. of Ancona by rail. It was the principal naval station of the...
-Brisbane
Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, a seaport and chief seat of trade in the colony, is situated about 500 miles N. of Sydney, and 25 miles from the mouth of the Brisbane River, which falls into More...
-Bristol
Bristol, a mercantile city, 118 miles W. of London, and 6 from the mouth of the Avon, at its junction with the Frome, is locally partly in Gloucestershire and partly in Somerset, but since 1373 has be...
-Broads
Broads, The Norfolk, a series of inland lakes usually said to be formed by the widening or 'broadening' out of the rivers. More probably their origin is due to a change in the general level of the lan...
-Brooklyn
Brooklyn, since 1898 a borough in the enlarged New York City, and capital of King's county, New York, is on the west end of Long Island, opposite (old) New York, from which it is separated by a strait...
-Broussa
Broussa, Brusa, or Boursa, the ancient Prusa, where the kings of Bithynia usually resided, situated in Asiatic Turkey, at the foot of Mount Olympus, in Asia Minor, 13 miles S. of the Sea of Marmora. T...
-Bruges
Bruges (Bruzh; Flem. Brugge, 'the bridges'), a city of Belgium, 8 miles from the sea, with which it is connected by the three canals from Ghent, Sluys, and Ostend, all much inferior to the direct ship...
-Brunswick
Brunswick, Duchy of (Ger. Braunschweig), a state of Northern Germany, consisting of three larger and five smaller distinct parts, with a total area of 1423 sq. m. Pop. (1875) 327,493; (1900) 464,333, ...
-Brussels
Brussels (Fr. Bruxelles), the capital of Belgium, is situated in a fertile plain on the ditch-like Senne, 27 miles S. of Antwerp, and 193 NE. of Paris. It has a circumference of about 5 miles, and is ...
-Bucharest
Bucharest (Bucuresci), the capital of the former principality of Wallachia and of the present kingdom of Roumania, stands 265 feet above sea-level, in the fertile but treeless plain of the small slugg...
-Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire, or Bucks, a south-midland county of England, surrounded by Bedfordshire, Herts, Middlesex, Surrey, Berks, Oxfordshire, and Northamptonshire. Thirty-third in size of the English counti...
-Buenos Ayres
Buenos Ayres (Bwaynos I'rez; Eng. pron. usu. Bonos Ai'rez), the largest province of the Argentine Republic, extending along the Atlantic, from the mouth of the Plata to that of the Rio Negro; on the N...
-Buffalo
Buffalo, a city of New York state, capital of Erie county, is at the east end of Lake Erie, and at the head of Niagara River. It is 295 miles NW. of New York City in a direct line, but 423 by the Erie...
-Bulgaria
Bulgaria, a principality in the Balkan Peninsula, between the Danube and the Balkans. It was created by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), and since 1885 Eastern Roumelia, lying to the S., has been practica...
-Burgos
Burgos (Boor'gos), a city of Spain, the ancient capital of Old Castile, on the river Arlanzon, 225 miles N. of Madrid by rail. Founded in 884, it has a castle, in which our Edward I. was wedded, and P...
-Burlington
Burlington, three cities in the United States: (1) The capital of Des Moines county, Iowa, on the right bank of the Mississippi (here crossed by a railway bridge), 207 miles WSW. of Chicago. Laid out ...
-Burma
Burma, once the chief state in the Indo-Chinese peninsula, is now the largest of all the provinces of the Indian empire. It stretches from 28 lat., on the confines of Tibet, southward for 1100 mi...
-Burton-on-Trent
Burton-on-Trent, a municipal borough (since 1878) of East Staffordshire and South Derbyshire, 25 miles E. of Stafford, on the river Trent, the ancient bridge over which was superseded in 1864 by one 4...
-Bury
Bury, a flourishing manufacturing town of South-east Lancashire, on a rising ground backed by hills on the north and east, between the Irwell and the Roche, 10 miles NNW. of Manchester. The woollen ma...
-Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds, or St Edmundsbury, a clean, well-built town of West Suffolk, on the little river Lark, 26 miles NW. of Ipswich, and 76 NNE. of London. It was named after Edmund the Martyr, who on Chr...
-Bute
Bute, an island in the Firth of Clyde, separated from Argyllshire by the winding Kyles of Bute, mostly under a mile wide, and about 6 miles distant from Ayrshire, 8 NE. of Arran. It is 15 1/2 miles lo...
-Cadiz
Cadiz (Kay'diz; Span. pron. Kah'deeth), a great Spanish port, capital of a province in Andalusia, is situated on the Atlantic at the extremity of a narrow tongue of land projecting 5 miles NW. from th...
-Caen
Caen (Kong), chief town of the French dep. of Calvados, and the former capital of Lower Normandy, is situated on the left bank of the navigable Orne, here joined by the Odon, 9 miles from its mouth, 1...
-Cairo
Cairo (Ki'ro), the capital of modern Egypt, is in 30 6' N. lat., and 31 26' E. long., on the right bank of the Nile, 131 miles by railway from Alexandria, and near the apex of the Delta. In ...
-Caitfhness
Caitfh'ness, a county in the extreme NE. of the Scottish mainland, 43 miles long, 28 miles in extreme width, and 701 sq. m. in area. Except in the west and south, where the mountam-range dividing Cait...
-Calabar
Calabar', a coast-district on the Gulf of Guinea, now embraced in the southern division of the British protectorate of Nigeria. Its limits are not clearly defined; but it is usually understood to exte...
-Calabria
Calabria, the south-west peninsula of the kingdom of Italy, bounded N. by the province of Basilicata. Area, 6637 sq. m.; pop. about 1,400,000. It is traversed throughout its entire length of 160 miles...
-Calais
Calais (Fr. pron. Ka-lay), a port in the dep. of Pas-de-Calais, on the Strait of Dover, here 21 m. wide, by rail is 184 miles N. of Paris. It ranks as a fortress of the first class, the old walls, div...
-Calcutta
Calcutta, the capital of Bengal and of British India, is situated on the left bank of the Htig (Hooghly), an arm of the Ganges, in 22 34' N. lat., and 88 24' E. long., about 80 miles from th...
-Caledonian Canal
Caledonian Canal, a chain of natural lakes united by artificial canals, running straight across Scotland south-westerward from the North Sea to the Atlantic, through Glenmore, or the Great Glen of Alb...
-California
California, a state of the American Union, bounded by Oregon, Nevada, Arizona, the Mexican territory of Lower or Old California, and the Pacific Ocean. The parallels of 32 28' and 42 N. lat....
-Cambodia
Cambodia, or Camboja (Fr. Cambodge), nominally a kingdom in Indo-China under a French protectorate, but practically a French dependency, on the lower course of the Mekong, between Siam, Annam, and Fre...
-Cambridge
Cambridge (Kaim'brij), county town of Cambridgeshire, lies on the Cam, 58 miles N. by E. of London, and 76 NE. of Oxford. Two important Roman roads, Akernan Street and the Via Devana, here cross the v...
-Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire, an inland eastern county of England, 48 miles long, 11 1/4 to 33 miles broad, and 821 sq. m. or 525,182 acres in area. As much as 92 per cent. of that area consists of arable land, mea...
-Cameroon
Cameroon (often Cameroons; in German spelt Kamerun), a German colony on the west coast of Africa, extending from the Rio del Rey, a little east of the Old Calabar River, southwaixls to a point slightl...
-Canada
Canada (probably derived from an Indian word kannatha, meaning a village, but understood by the first French discoverers to apply to the country at large), a British dominion occupying the northern pa...
-Canada is bounded on the N
Canada is bounded on the N. by the Arctic Ocean, on the W. by the Pacific and Alaska, on the E. by Newfoundland and the Atlantic, and on the S. by the United States. Both the Atlantic and Pacific shor...
-Canary Islands
Canary Islands, a Spanish group in the Atlantic Ocean, where 15 W. long. crosses 29o N. lat.; the nearest is only 62 1/2 geographical miles from the NW. coast of Africa. There are seven large and...
-Cannes
Cannes (Kann), a watering-place in the dep. of Alpes-Maritiines, charmingly situated on a bay of the Mediterranean, 19 miles SW. of Nice by rail. Though founded by the Romans, it was but a place of 30...
-Canterbury
Canterbury, a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, and the seat of the metropolitan see of all England, in East Kent, 56 miles ESE. of London by road (62 by rail), and 16 NW. of Dover. Standi...
-Canton
Canton, a large commercial city and port in the south of China, and capital of the province of Kwang-tung (of which the name Canton is merely a corruption), is situated in 23 7' 10 N. lat., and ...
-Cape Colony
Cape Colony, officially Colony of the Cape of Good Hope, is a British colony situated at the southern extremity of the African continent. It is bounded on the N. by German South-west Africa, the Bechu...
-Capetown
Capetown, the capital of Cape Colony, is situated between the north base of Table Mountain and Table Bay, in 33 55' S. lat., 18 28' E. long. The view of the town, alike from the bay and from...
-Cape Verd Islands
Cape Verd Islands (Ilhas do Cabo Verde), a group of Portuguese islands, lying 350 miles W. of Cape Verd. They comprise ten inhabited islands, the chief being Santiago, Sao Antao, Fogo, Brava, and Sao ...
-Capri
Capri (Kah'pree; anc. CapreAe), a charming Mediterranean island, at the enti-ance of the Bay of Naples, 3| miles from Cape Campanella, and 21 S. of Naples. Only 3 3/4 sq. m. in area, it yet displays a...
-Cardiff
Cardiff (Caer-Taff, 'fort of the Taff'), a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough and seaport, the county town of Glamorganshire, South Wales, on the river Taff, a new bridge over which was open...
-Cardiganshire
Cardiganshire, a maritime county in South Wales, on Cardigan Bay, with a crescent-shaped coast-line of 48 miles, a maximum width of 32 miles, and an area of 693 sq. m. On the Montgomeryshire border is...
-Carlisle
Carlisle, the county town of Cumberland, stands on a gentle eminence in a wide-spreading plain, at the influx of the Caldew and Petteril to the Eden - three streams that nearly encircle it. It is 299 ...
-Carlow
Carlow, a small inland county of Leinster, Ireland, with an area of 346 sq. m. Except for Mount Leinster (2610 feet), on the south-east border, it is a triangular fertile level, or gently undulating p...
-Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire, a maritime county of South Wales, washed on the south by Carmarthen Bay, a semicircular inlet of the Bristol Channel, and bounded on the other sides by Pembroke, Cardigan, Brecknock, ...
-Carnarvon
Carnarvon (Caer-yn-ar-Fon,' fort opposite Mon, or Anglesey'), the capital of Carnarvonshire, stands near the south end of the Menai Strait, on the right bank of the Seiont, 69 miles W. of Chester. Car...
-Carnarvonshire
Carnarvonshire, a maritime county of North Wales, bounded E. and SE. by Denbigh and Merioneth shires, and on all other sides by the Irish Sea and the Menai Strait. With a maximum length and breadth of...
-Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands, a group in the Western Pacific, lying between the Marshall and Pelew islands, with an area of about 270 sq. m., and a pop. of some 36,000; but the Pelew (q.v.) group is generally inc...
-Cartagena
Cartagena (Kartahay'na), a fortified seaport of Spain, on a bay of the Mediterranean, 326 miles SE. of Madrid by rail. The hill-protected harbour is one of the best in the Mediterranean, its entrance ...
-Cartago
Cartago (Kartah'go), (1) a river and landlocked bay or lagoon, communicating with the Caribbean Sea, near the northern extremity of the Mosquito Coast. - (2) A town of Costa Rica, 12 miles E. of the p...
-Cascade Range
Cascade Range, a chain of mountains in Oregon and Washington, U.S., and in British Columbia. It takes its name from the great cascades of the river Columbia, which are situated at the point where that...
-Cashmere
Cashmere, or Kashmir, a native state embracing an irregular-shaped mountainous region, part of the Himalayan system, in the extreme north of India. Much of it is mere desert, but within its borders ar...
-Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea, an inland sea or great salt lake, the largest in the world, on the boundary between Europe and Asia, extending from 36 40' to 47 20' N. lat., and 46 50' to 55 10' E. l...
-Cassel
Cassel, or Kassel, chief town of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, and the old capital of the former electorate of Hesse-Cassel, on the navigable Fulda, 120 miles by rail NNE. of Frank-fort-on-Ma...
-Castile
Castile (Kast-eel; Span. Castillo), the central district of Spain, divided by the Castilian Sierras (8730 feet) into Old and New Castile. The former district - so called because it was first recovered...
-Caucasus
Caucasus, a great mountain-range that forms the backbone of a well-marked geographical region, nearly corresponding with the Russian governor-generalship or lieutenancy of Caucasia. It occupies the is...
-Cawnpore
Cawnpore' (Kanhpur), a city of the Northwestern Provinces, on the right bank of the Ganges, 42 miles SW. of Lucknow, 266 SE. of Delhi, and 628 NW. of Calcutta. The river here varies according to the s...
-Celebes
Celebes (Span. pron. The-lay'bez; Eng. usu. Sel-e-bez), practically a Dutch island, is separated from Borneo by the Strait of Macassar, and 800 miles long by 200 broad. It consists of a central nucleu...
-Central Provinces
Central Provinces, a chief-commissionership of India, near the centre of the peninsula, embracing 18 British districts and 15 native states. Area, 86,500 sq. m. British and 30,000 native; pop. 10,000,...
-Ceylon
Ceylon (the Taprobane of the Greeks and Romans, and the Serendib of the Arabian Nights), a British crown colony in the Indian Ocean, is an island to the south-east of India, from which it is separated...
-Chad
Chad, Tchad, or Tsad, Lake, a lake in the Soudan, Northern Africa, with an estimated area of 10,000 sq. m. in the dry season, and four or five times that extent during the rainy months. The western ha...
-Chamouni
Chamouni, or Chamonix (Shah-moo-nee'; Lat. Campus munitus, as sheltered by the mountains), a celebrated valley among the French Alps, in the dep. of Upper Savoy, 53 miles ESE. of Geneva, at an elevati...
-Channel
Channel, The English (Fr. La Manche, 'sleeve;' Roman Mare Britannicum), is the narrow sea between England and France. On the east, it joins the North Sea at the Strait of Dover, 21 miles wide, from wh...
-Channel Islands
Channel Islands, a group of small islands off the NW. coast of France, which from the 10th century formed part of the old duchy of Normandy, and since the Norman Conquest has remained subject to the B...
-Charleston
Charleston, a port of entry, capital of a county of its own name, and the largest city of South Carolina, is situated on a tongue of land between the rivers Ashley and Cooper, which unite immediately ...
-Chatham
Chatham (Chat'tam; Ceteham, ' village of cottages '), a municipal and parl, borough, river-port, and naval arsenal of Kent, on the right bank of the Medway, at the upper part of its estuary, 30 miles ...
-Chelsea
Chelsea, a suburb of London, on the north bank of the Thames, here crossed by bridges to Battersea (q.v.). In the sixteenth century the village of Chelsea was the residence of Sir Thomas More, Queen C...
-Cheltenham
Cheltenham, a fashionable watering-place of Gloucestershire, on the Chelt, a little affluent of the Severn, 44 miles NNE. of Bristol, 47 SSW. of Birmingham, and 121 WNW. of London (by road only 95). I...
-Cherbourg
Cherbourg (Sher-boorg'), a French port and arsenal in the dep. of Manche, at the head of a deep bay on the N. extremity of the peninsula of Cotentin, 70 miles S. of the Isle of Wight, and 230 WNW. of ...
-Cheshire
Cheshire, a maritime county in the west of England, on the Welsh border, bounded N. by the river Mersey, separating it from Lancashire, and partly also by the Irish Sea. Its greatest length from north...
-Chester
Chester, an ancient episcopal city, municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, and river-port, the capital of Cheshire, on the right bank of the Dee, 22 miles from the mouth of its estuary, 16 mile...
-Chicago
Chicago (pron. Shekahgo) is situated in the north-east corner of the state of Illinois, about the fork and mouth of the Chicago River, on the west shore and near the head of Lake Michigan. It is 850 m...
-Chichester
Chichester, a municipal borough and episcopal city in Sussex, 17 miles ENE. of Portsmouth, and 28 W. of Brighton. It stands on a plain between an arm of the sea and the South Downs, which rise gently ...
-Chikislar
Chikislar, a small port in Russian Turkestan, on the east shore of the Caspian, north of the Atrek's mouth. Chili(Tchee'lee; Span. Chile, pron. Tchee'lay),one of the republics of South America, on th...
-China Proper
China Proper, washed on the east by the Pacific, consists of eighteen provinces - the three provinces of Manchuria not being reckoned. On the north are Chih-li, Shan-hsi (Shansi), Shen-hsi (Shensi), a...
-Chios
Chios (Keeos; now Chio, Italianised Scio), one of the most beautiful and fertile islands in the Aegean Sea, belonging to Turkey, 7 miles off the coast of Asia Minor, at the entrance to the Gulf of Smy...
-Christchurch
Christchurch, a parliamentary and municipal borough of Hampshire, at the head of the estuary fonned by the Avon and Stour, 24 miles SW. of Southampton by road, but 33 1/2 by rail. The noble church of ...
-Christiania
Christiania, the modern capital and chief commercial town of Norway (the ancient capital is Trondhjem, 'home of the throne,' where the kings are still crowned), 59 56' N. lat., 10 50' E. lon...
-Cincinnati
Cincinnati (Sin-sin-nah'tee), the second city of Ohio, on the north bank of the river Ohio,'270 miles SE. of Chicago by rail, opposite the cities of Covington and Newport in Kentucky. Steam-ferries an...
-Clare
Clare, a maritime county in the province of Munster, Ireland, lying between Galway Bay and the Shannon. It has a length of 67 miles, a greatest breadth of 43, and an area of 1294 sq. m. In the east th...
-Clermont
Clermont (mediaeval Clair-mon'; Clarus Mons, or Clarimontium), the name of several towns in France. (!) In the dep. of Oise, 41 miles N. of Paris by rail. Pop. 4617. - (2) Clermont-Ferrand (Roman Aug...
-Cleveland
Cleveland, a wild mountainous district, with some picturesque fertile valleys, forming the east part of the North Riding of Yorkshire between Whitby and the Tees. In the south the hills rise 1300 to 1...
-Clyde
Clyde (Welsh Clwyd, ' strong'), a world-famous river and firth of south-west Scotland. The river rises as Daer Water at an altitude of 1600 feet, and runs 106 miles northward and north-westward, round...
-Coblenz
Coblenz, or Koblenz (Ko-blentz), capital of Rhenish Prussia, 56 m. SSE. of Cologne by rail, at the junction of the Rhine and Moselle. It is very strongly fortified with a Avail and a series of detache...
-Coburg
Coburg (Ko'boorg), capital of the duchy of Coburg, in the united duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, is picturesquely situated on the left bank of the Itz, 81 m. SSE. of Eisenach by rail. The ducal palace (1...
-Cochin-China
Cochin-China, a name for Annam (q.v.), is used specially for French Cochin-China, a part of French Indo-Chine, occupying the south extremity of the Indo-China peninsula, and bounded N. by Cambodia and...
-Colchester
Colchester, an ancient municipal and parliamentary borough in the NE. of Essex, on the right bank of the Colne, 51 miles NE. of London, and 12 miles from the sea. It is built on the ridge and sides of...
-Cologne
Cologne (Ger. Koln), a city and free port on the left bank of the Rhine, 362 miles by rail WSW. of Berlin, 175 SE. of Rotterdam, 149 E. of Brussels, and 302 NE. of Paris. Formerly an independent city ...
-Colorado
Colorado (Co-lo-rah'do; Span, 'reddish'), a remarkable river of North America, formed in 39o 17' N. lat., 109o50' W. long., by the union of the Grand and Green rivers, rising, one in Colorado state, t...
-Columbia
Columbia, the name of nearly thirty places in the United States, of which the most important are: (1) The capital of South Carolina, at the head of navigation on the Congaree River, 130 miles NNW. of ...
-Columbus
Columbus, the capital of the state of Ohio, on the Scioto River, 116 miles NE. of Cincinnati and 138 SSW. of Cleveland. In a central square of 10 acres stands the state capitol, a fine stone structure...
-Como
Como, a walled city of Lombardy, Northern Italy, at the south-west extremity of the Lake of Como, 30 miles N. of Milan by rail. It lies in a valley, surrounded by hills, clad with luxuriant gardens, o...
-Congo
Congo, the great equatorial river of Central Africa, in respect of its basin the second largest river of the world, has its reservoir in Lake Bangweolo, of which the Chambezi is the largest feeder, an...
-Congo Free State
Congo Free State, now called Independent State of the Congo, developed out of the Association Internationale formed by Leopold II., king of the Belgians, was recognised as a state by the European Powe...
-Connecticut
Connecticut (kon-net'-e-cut), one of the six New England states of the American Union, is bounded by Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Long Island Sound, and the state of New York. The smallest in area of ...
-Constance
Constance, or Kostnitz, a city of Baden, once a free imperial city, is situated on both sides of the Rhine, at its exit from Lake Constance, 91 miles E. of Basel by rail. One of the most ancient towns...
-Constantinople
Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman empire, in 49 N. lat, 28 59' E. long., was founded in 330 a.d. by Constantine the Great, from whom it derives its name, on a site partly occupied b...
-Christian Constantinople
Christian Constantinople, on the north side of the Golden Horn, comprises Galata, Pera, and Top-hana. Galata is pre-eminently the merchant quarter, founded by a colony of Genoese merchants in 1216. Th...
-Conway
Conway, a river of North Wales, rises in a mountain-lake where Merioneth, Denbigh, and Carnarvon meet, and runs 30 miles northward past Conway to Beaumaris Bay. Conway Conway, or Aberconway, a pictu...
-Copenhagen
Copenhagen (Dan. Kjobenhavn, 'Merchants' Haven'), the capital of Denmark, is situated on the low-lying eastern shore of the island of Zealand, in the Sound, which is here about 12 miles broad. The cha...
-Corea
Corea (native name Choson, ' Morning Radiance'), a kingdom on the east coast of Asia, stretching as a peninsula from 34 30' to 43 N. lat, and from 124 30' to 130 30' E. long., betw...
-Corinth
Corinth, a city of Greece, celebrated in antiquity for its vices, situated on the rocky isthmus of Corinth (3 2/3 miles wide, and 262 feet high), which connects the Peloponnesus with the mainland. It ...
-Cork
Cork, a maritime county in Munster, the south-most and largest of the Irish counties. Greatest length from east to west, 110 miles; greatest breadth, 70; area, 2890 sq. m. Cork is hilly, with great va...
-Cornwall
Cornwall, a maritime county, forming the south-western extremity of England. Its extreme length is 81 miles; its extreme breadth 45 miles; and its area is 1365 sq. m., of which 63.4 per cent. is under...
-Corsica
Cor'sica, the fourth largest island of the Mediterranean, is 114 miles long by 52 miles broad, with 300 miles of coast-line. Area, 3378 sq. m.; pop. (1872) 258,507; (1901) 295,589. Corsica is separate...
-Coruna
Coruna, La (in English, Corunna), a fortified seaport of Spain, midway between Capes Ortegal and Finisterre, on a peninsula in the Bay of Coruna, 263 miles NW. of Leon by rail. The harbour is commodio...
-Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Reeka), the most southerly of the republics of Central America. It occupies the entire breadth from sea to sea between Nicaragua on the one side and Colombia on the other. Area, 21,495 mil...
-Coventry
Coventry, a city, parliamentary, municipal, and county borough, and manufacturing town in the north of Warwickshire, on the Sherbourne, an affluent of the Avon, 18 1/2 miles ESE. of Birmingham, and 94...
-Cracow
Cracow (Pol. Krakov, Ger. Krakau), a city of Austrian Galicia, 259 miles NE. of Vienna. It stands 672 feet above sea-level, in a wide, hill-girt plain on the left bank of the Vistula, which here becom...
-Crete
Crete (Ital. Candia, Gr. Krete), an autonomous Turkish island in the Mediterranean, still under Turkish suzerainty. It is 60 miles S. of Cape Malea in Greece, 110 SW. of Cape Krio in Asia Minor, 100 S...
-Crimea
Crime'a (Tartar Krym, anciently the Tauric Chersonese), a peninsula of South Russia, between the Black Sea and Sea of Azov, joined to the continent of Russia by the Isthmus of Perekop, 18 1/2 miles lo...
-Cromarty
Crom'arty, a town of Ross and Cromarty, on the south shore of the Cromarty Firth, 2 miles from its entrance, and 19 NNE. of Inverness. Nothing remains of the old stronghold of the Urquharts, the most ...
-Croydon
Croydon, a town in Surrey, 10 1/2 miles S. of London Bridge, yet practically a suburb of London. It lies on the edge of the chalk and plastic clay, near the Banstead Downs, at the source of the Wandle...
-Cuba
Cuba, the most westerly and largest of the West Indian islands, since 1902 an independent republic, stretches in the form of a long narrow crescent, convex on the north side, at the entrance of the Gu...
-Cumberland
Cumberland, a Border county of England, washed on the W. by the Irish Sea and the Sol-way Firth. Eleventh in size of the English counties, it has a maximum length of 75 miles, a maximum breadth of 45,...
-Cyprus
Cyprus (Gr. Kripros, Turk. G'br's, Fr. Chypre, Ital. Cipro), a Mediterranean island, 60 miles W. of Syria, and 40 S. of Asia Minor, nominally belonging to Turkey, but actually occupied and administere...
-DACCA
DACCA, a city of Bengal, 150 miles NE. of Calcutta, on the north bank of the Buriganga. From 1010 to 1704 capital of Mohammedan Bengal, it was in 1905 made headquarters of the newly-constituted joint ...
-Dahomey
Dahomey, a French dependency in Africa, extending inland from the Slave Coast, bordering on Yoruba. The seaboard is confined to a district of 35 miles; and the long lagoon which, shut in from the ocea...
-Damascus
Damascus, the capital of Syria, and the largest town in Western Asia. It is called by the natives Dimashk es-Sham, or simply es-Sham, the name which is generally applied to all Syria. The city stands ...
-Danube
Danube (Lat. Danubius; Ger. Donau; Hung. Dana; Slav. Dunai), next to the Volga the chief river of Europe, is formed by the Brege and the Brigach, rising in the Black Forest, Baden, and uniting at Dona...
-Danzig
Danzig, or Dantzic (Polish Gdansk), a great seaport and fortress, capital of West Prussia, on the left bank of the western branch of the Vistula, 284 miles NE. of Berlin, and 4 from the river's mouth ...
-Darlington
Darlington, a town in the south of the county of Durham, on a slight elevation overlooking the Skerne near its junction with the Tees, 23 miles S. of Durham, and 45 NNW. of York. The chief industry is...
-Dartmoor
Dartmoor, a great granitic upland in Devonshire, the source of nearly all the principal rivers of the county, remarkable alike for its wild and rugged scenery, its antiquities, its wide, solitary, tra...
-Dartmouth
Dartmouth, a seaport and municipal borough (till 1867 also parliamentary) of South Devon, 32 miles S. by W. of Exeter. It is built in picturesque terraces on a steep slope 300 to 400 feet high, on the...
-Dead Sea
Dead Sea, the usual name, dating from the time of Jerome, for a most remarkable lake in the south-east of Palestine, called in the Old Testament The Salt Sea, Sea of the Plain, or East Sea; by Josephu...
-Deal
Deal, a municipal borough and sea-bathing place of Kent, on a bold open beach, near the south extremity of the Downs, between North and South Foreland, 89 miles by rail ESE. of London. Till 1885 it wa...
-Dee
Dee, a Welsh and English river, issuing from Bala Lake, in Merionethshire, and flowing 90 miles NE., N., and N W. to the Irish Sea. Near Trevor it is crossed by the Ellesmere Canal, on an aqueduct 100...
-Delagoa Bay
Delagoa Bay, a Portuguese possession, is a large inlet of the Indian Ocean on the southeast coast of Africa. Stretching for 70 miles between 26 20'and 25 30' S. lat., it is 25 miles wide, an...
-Delaware
Delaware, one of the Atlantic States of the American Union, forms a part of a peninsula lying between the lower reaches of the Susquehanna and Chesapeake Bay on the west, and the Delaware River and Ba...
-Delhi
Delhi (Del'lee), the chief commercial and industrial centre of the Punjab, on the right bank of the Jumna, 113 miles NNW. of Agra, and 954 NW. of Calcutta. It is the terminus of the East Indian and Ra...
-Denbighshire
Denbighshire, a county of North Wales, on the Irish Sea, and between the Dee and the Conway. With 8 miles of coast, it is 41 miles long, 17 broad on an average, and 603 sq. m. in area. The surface is ...
-Denmark
Denmark (Dan. Danmark), the smallest of the three Scandinavian kingdoms, consists of the peninsula of Jutland and a group of islands in the Baltic, and is bounded by the Skager-Rak, the Cattegat, the ...
-Denver
Denver, the capital of Colorado, on the South Platte River, 922 miles W. of St Louis. It lies on a level plain, 5196 feet above the sea, beyond which rise the snow-capped peaks and deep blue shoulders...
-Deptford
Deptford, a town of Kent and Surrey, on the south bank of the Thames, 4 1/2 miles below London Bridge, now one of the metropolitan boroughs. In 1885 it was constituted a parliamentary borough, returni...
-Derby
Derby (often Darby), a parl., munic., and county borough, the capital of Derbyshire, on the Der-went, 92 miles SE. of Liverpool and 129 NNW. of London. The Roman station of Derventio was at Little Che...
-Derbyshire
Derbyshire, an inland county of England, lying between Yorkshire and Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire and Staffordshire. Its length is 56 miles; its greatest breadth, 34 miles; and its area, 1029 sq. m...
-Devonport
Devonport (before 1824 called Plymouth Dock), a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough, maritime town, and naval arsenal, of Devonshire, on the estuary of the Tamar (which is 4 miles long by 1/2...
-Devonshire
Devonshire, a maritime county of south-west England between the Bristol and the English Channel. Its greatest length is 70 miles; its greatest breadth, 65; its coast-line, about 150; and its area, 258...
-Dieppe
Dieppe (De-epp', or Dyepp'), a seaport in the French dep. of Seine-Inferieure, on the English Channel, 40 miles N. of Rouen by rail. It is situated among chalk-cliffs, at the mouth of the river Arques...
-Dijon
Dijon (Dee-zhong,), chief town in dep. of Cote-d'Or, lies, spread out on a fertile plain, at the foot of Mont Afrique (1916 feet), at the junction of the Ouche and Suzon, and on the Canal de Bourgogne...
-Dinan
Dinan (Deen-ong'), an old town in the French dep. of Cotes-du-Nord, on the Rance, 30 m. NW. of Rennes, and 14 S. of St Malo. Its situation, on the summit of a steep granite hill, with the Rance flowin...
-Dominica
Domin'ica (Fr. Dominique), the largest and most southerly British island in the Leeward group of the Lesser Antilles, midway between the French islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe. Area, 291 sq. m.; ...
-Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic, or Santo (commonly San) Domingo, a state formed of the eastern portion of Hayti (q.v.). Area, 20,587 sq. m., or over two-thirds of the whole island; population, 617,000, mostly neg...
-Don
Don, a river of the West Riding of Yorkshire, rising in the Penistone moors on the borders of Derbyshire and Cheshire, and running 70 miles SE. and NE. past Sheffield, Rotherham, Don-caster, and Thorn...
-Doncaster
Doncaster, a municipal borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and an important railway junction, on the right bank of the Don, 33 miles S. of York, and 156 NNW. of London. Fine old elms line the bro...
-Donegal
Donegal (Don-eh-gawl'; ' fort of the stranger'), a seaport in the south of Donegal county, at the Eske's mouth, on a shallow creek of Donegal Bay (a valuable fishing-ground, especially for herrings), ...
-Dorchester
Dor'chester, a municipal borough, the county town of Dorsetshire, on the Frome, 8 miles N. of Weymouth, and 110 by rail (by road 119) WSW. of London. Till 1867 it returned two members to parliament, t...
-Dorsetshire
Dor'setshire, or Dorset, a county on the English Channel, between Hampshire and Devonshire. Its greatest length is 58 miles; its greatest breadth, 40; and its area, 998 sq. m., or 627,265 acres, of wh...
-Douglas
Douglas, the capital of the Isle of Man, a seaport and favourite watering-place, is so called from its being situated near the junction of two streams - the Dhoo (black) and Glass (gray). It lies on a...
-Dover
Dover, a Cinque Port and parliamentary and municipal borough of Kent, 77 1/2 miles by rail ESE. of London. It is not only a charmingly situated watering-place, but, being the nearest point of the Engl...
-Down
Down, a maritime county of Ireland, in the south-east of the province of Ulster, 50 miles long (NE. to SW.) and 35 broad. Area, 612,399 acres; pop. (1841) 368.143; (1881) 272,107; (1901) 205,889 (80,0...
-Downs
Downs (Fr. dunes, from Celtic dun, 'a hill'), a term applied, like denes in Norfolk, to hillocks of sand thrown up by the sea or the wind along the sea-coast. It is also a general name for any undulat...
-Dresden
Dresden, the capital of Saxony, is situated in a charming valley on the Elbe, 116 miles SE. of Berlin, and 62 ESE. of Leipzig. The Altstadt and Friedrichstadt on the left bank of the Elbe, and the Neu...
-Dublin
Dublin, a maritime county in the province of Leinster. Area, 354 sq. m., six-sevenths being in cultivation, and one-fortieth in wood. The coast, much indented with creeks and bays, is 70 miles long, a...
-Dudley
Dudley, a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough in a detached part of Worcestershire and the south of Staffordshire, 26 miles NNE. of Worcester, and 8 1/2 WNW. of Birmingham. Situated in the he...
-Duluth
Duluth (Doo-looth'), a city of Minnesota, the capital of St Louis county, at the west end of Lake Superior, 156 miles NNE. of St Paul. It has one of the finest harbours in the United States, protected...
-Dumbarton
Dumbarton, or Dunbarton, the county town of Dumbartonshire, lies mainly on the left bank of the Leven, a little above its influx to the Clyde, and 15 miles WNW. of Glasgow. Its chief public building i...
-Dumbartonshire
Dumbartonshire, a Scottish county, 25 miles long and 1 1/4 to 15 1/2 miles broad, with an area of 270 sq. m., of which 30 belong to a detached south-eastern portion. Loch Lomond (22 by 5 miles) lies o...
-Dumfries
Dumfries', the county town of Dumfriesshire, the ' Queen of the South,' stands on the Nith's left bank, and is connected with its Kirkcudbrightshire suburb of Maxwelltown by three bridges, of which th...
-Dumfriesshire
Dumfriesshire, a Scottish Border county, bounded SE. by Cumberland, and S. for 21 miles by the Solway Firth. Its greatest length, from east to west, is 47 miles; its breadth varies between 13 and 32 m...
-Dundee
Dundee (Lat. Taodunum, 'hill or fort on the Tay'), a' city' (since 1889) of Forfarshire, on the left bank of the estuary of the Tay, here 2 miles broad, 10 miles from the sea, and 50 NNE. of Edinburgh...
-Dunedin
Dunedin (Dun-ee'din), capital of the provincial district of Otago, and the chief commercial city in New Zealand, at the head of Otago Harbour, on the east side of South Island, towards its southern ex...
-Dunfermline
Dunfermline, a 'city' of Fife, 16 miles NW. of Edinburgh, and 20 E. by S. of Stirling. It stands on a long swelling ridge, 3 miles from and 300 feet above the Forth, and, backed by the Cleish Hills (1...
-Dunkirk
Dunkirk, or Dunkerque, the most northerly seaport of France, on the Strait of Dover, in the dep. of Nord, 189 miles N. of Paris by rail, and 67 W. of Ghent. It is a very strong place, as well from rec...
-Durham
Durham, a maritime county in the north-east of England, between the Tyne and Tees. It has 32 miles of coast, generally low, and an area of 1012 sq. m., two-thirds being arable. The surface is hilly, a...
-Dusseldorf
Dusseldorf, the chief town of the populous district of Dusseldorf, in Rhenish Prussia, on the right bank of the Rhine, at the influx of the Dussel, 24 miles NNW. of Cologne. Its ramparts were converte...
-Eastbourne
Eastbourne, a favourite Sussex watering-place, in the Rape of Pevensey, nearly midway between Brighton and Hastings, and 66 miles S. of London. Roman remains bear witness to its antiquity, but nothing...
-Easter Island
Easter Island, a lonely Pacific islet in 27 8' S. lat., and 109 24' W. long. Discovered by Roggeveen on Easter Day 1722, and visited in 1773 by Captain Cook, it is 47 sq. m. in area; is enti...
-Ecuador
Ecuador', a republic of South America, so named from its position on the equator, lies between 1 23' N. and 4 45' S. lat., and in about 73-81 W. long. Bounded on the west by the Pa...
-Eddystone
Eddystone, a group of gneiss rocks, daily submerged by the tide, in the English Channel, 9 miles off the Cornish coast, and 14 SSW. of Plymouth Breakwater. The rocks lie in 50 10' 54 N. lat., an...
-Edinburgh
Edinburgh (Ed'din-bur-ro), capital of Scotland, and county town of Midlothian, situated in 55o 57' N. lat., 3 11' W. long. By rail 393 miles NNW. of London, 44 to 47 1/4 E. of Glasgow, it stands ...
-Edinburghshire
Edinburghshire, or Midlothian, a Scottish county, extending 12 miles along the low southern shore of the Firth of Forth. Its greatest length from east to west is 36 miles; its greatest breadth, 24; an...
-Egypt
Egypt, a country in North-east Africa, extending from the Mediterranean to the first cataract of the Nile at Assouan, from 31 36' to 24 6' N. lat. The name is derived from the Greek Aigyptos...
-Eisenach
Eisenach (I'zen-ahh), a town of Saxe-Weimar, is beautifully situated at the north-western verge of the Thuringian Forest, 69 miles by rail SE. of Cassel, and 49 W. of Weimar. It has a ducal palace (17...
-Elbe
Elbe (the Roman Albis and the Bohemian Lobe), an important river of northern Europe. It is formed by numerous streams which rise on the southern side of the Riesengebirge, a range on the borders of Bo...
-Elgin
Elgin (Elgin; g hard), county town of Elginshire, 5 m. by rail SSW. of its port, Lossiemouth, 37 ENE. of Inverness, 178 N. of Edinburgh. It lies on the Lossie, in the ' garden of Scotland;' and while ...
-Elginshire
Elginshire, or Moray, a Scottish county extending 33 miles along the low shore of the Moray Firth. It is 34 miles long, and 488 sq. m. in area, a former detached portion having in 1870 been annexed to...
-Ely
Ely (Ea'lie), a city of Cambridgeshire, crowns a low eminence on the left bank of the Ouse, amid the fen-land, 16 miles NNE. of Cambridge, and 30 SE. of Peterborough. Here, in 673, St Ethel-dreda foun...
-England is the southern
England is the southern, the larger, and by far the more populous portion of Great Britain, the largest and most important of European islands. Separated from Belgium, Holland, Germany, and Denmark by...
-England
England (peopled by a mixed race descended from pre-Aryan 'Euskarians,' Celts, 'Anglo-Saxons,' Danes, Normans, and other elements) became the special home and headquarters of agricultural enterprise, ...
-Epping
Epping, a market-town of Essex, at the north end of Epping Forest, 16 miles NNE. of London. It is noted for its cream, butter, sausages, and pork. Population, 4000. - Epping (formerly Waltham) Forest ...
-Erfurt
Erfurt (Er-foort), a city of Prussian Saxony, once capital of Thuringia, stands in a highly cultivated plain, on the Gera, 13 m. W. of Weimar by rail. Till 1873 it was strongly fortified. Its two cita...
-Erie
Erie (Ee'ry), the most southern of the five great lakes which empty themselves by the St Lawrence, separates the province of Ontario, in Canada, from Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. It rec...
-Escorial
Escorial, or Escurial (Span., 'mining rubbish, of. scori), an immense royal palace, mausoleum, and monastery of Spain, 31 miles NW. of Madrid, on the south-eastern slope of the Sierra Guadarrama...
-Esk
Esk (Cymric wysg, Gael. uisge, 'water,' akin to Exe), the name of several small Scotch rivers. The Dumfriesshire Esk, formed by the Black and White Esks (12 and 14 miles long), runs 22 miles SSE., nex...
-Essex
Essex, a county in the east of England, washed by the North Sea, and separated from Kent by the Thames estuary, from Suffolk by the Stour. Measuring 57 miles from east to west, and 44 from north to so...
-Esthonia
Esthonia, called by the natives Wiroma, the most northerly of the Baltic provinces of Russia, is bounded S by Livonia, W. and N. by the Baltic. Area, 7818 sq. m.; pop. 415,000. A large part of the sur...
-Ethiopia
Ethiopia, a term of ancient geography, somewhat vaguely and variously used. Originally, all the nations inhabiting the southern part of the globe, as known to the ancients, or rather all men of dark-b...
-Etive
Etive (Et'iv), a salmon-river and a sea-loch of Argyllshire. The river runs from a loch on the Moor of Rannoch, near Kingshouse Inn, 15 miles south-westward to the loch, which itself extends 10 1/2 mi...
-Eubœa
Euba (anc. Euboia, Turk. Egripo, Ital. Negro-ponte), an island of Greece in the Aegean Sea. runs 98 miles south-eastward parallel to the mainland, its breadth varying from 30 miles to 4. Area. 1...
-Euphrates
Euphrates (Pers. Ufratu, Heb. Phrat, Syr. Ephrat, Arab. Furat), the largest river in Western Asia, has its source in the heart of Armenia in the Kara-Su (270 miles) and the Murad (300 miles), of which...
-Europe
Europe, historically and politically the most important of the five great divisions of the world, is, next to Australasia, the smallest in area, but Asia alone exceeds it in population. Geographers ar...
-Exeter
Ex'eter, the capital of Devonshire, 171 miles by rail WSW. of London, and 75 SW. of Bristol. Dominated by higher hills, it is built on the summit and slopes of a flat ridge, rising 150 feet from the l...
-Exmoor Forest
Exmoor Forest, in the west of Somersetshire and north-east of Devon, is a wild, mostly uncultivated waste, consisting of long ranges of steep hills and lonely valleys, and bordered by deep wooded glen...
-Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands, a British colony in the South Atlantic, lying between 51 and 53 S. lat. and 57. and 62 W. long., 250 miles E. of Patagonia. The group consists of East Falkland (2849 s...
-Falmouth
Falmouth, a Cornish seaport, on the south side of the Fal's estuary, 18 miles NNE. of the Lizard, and 66 by a branch line (1863) WS W. of Plymouth. The harbour, one of the best in England, is 5 miles ...
-Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands (Dan. Faar-Oer,' sheep islands'), a Danish group of islands, twenty-two in number, of which seventeen are inhabited, lying between the Shetlands and Iceland, 200 miles NW. of the former,...
-Fez
Fez, or more properly Faz, the second capital of the sultanate of Morocco, lies in a hill-girt valley, 100 miles E. of Rabat on the Atlantic. With crumbling walls, and narrow, dirty, sunless streets, ...
-Fezzan
Fezzan, a Turkish province (since 1842) to the south of, and politically attached to, Tripoli. Extending some 390 miles N. and S., and 300 E. and W., between 24 and 29 N. lat. and 12 an...
-Fife
Fife, a peninsular Scottish county, washed by the Firth of Tay, the German Ocean, and the Firth of Forth. Its extreme length is 42 miles, its extreme breadth 21, and its area 513 sq. m. The surface of...
-Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands (Fee-jee), a British crown colony of the South Pacific Ocean, in 15 - 22 S. lat. and 176 E. - 178 W. long. Their nearest neighbours are the Tonga or Friendly Islands, ...
-Finland
Finland (Finnish Suomi or Suomenmaa, 'the land of fens and lakes'), a grand-duchy annexed to Russia in 1809, which, though nominally enjoying administrative autonomy, has (since 1890 especially) been ...
-Fiume
Fiume (pron. Fu'ma; Illyr. Rika, Lat. Fanum Sti Viti ad flumen), a great seaport of Hungary, at the mouth of the Fiumara, 142 miles WSW. of Agram by rail, and 35 miles ESE. of Trieste across the Istri...
-Flint
Flint, the county town of Flintshire, North Wales, on the left side of the Dee's estuary, 13 miles NW. of Chester. In the vicinity are extensive alkali-works, besides copper-works, collieries, and lea...
-Florence
Florence (Lat. Florentia; Ital. Firense), a city of Italy, capital of the former duchy of Tuscany, 194 miles NW. of Rome, and 62 E. of Leghorn. Pop. (1881) of town, 132,039, of commune, 169,001; in 19...
-Florida
Flor'ida, called the 'Everglade State' and 'Peninsula State,' lies in the extreme SE. of the United States, between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, and bounded N. by Georgia and Alabama. The stat...
-Forfar
For'far, the county town of Forfarshire, at the E. end of Forfar Loch, 14 miles NNE. of Dundee. It was a royal residence as early as the reign of Malcolm Canmore, whose son, David I. (1124-53), made i...
-Formosa
Formosa (Chinese Taiwan), an island lying off the coast of China, from which it is separated by the Fu-chien Strait, 90 to 220 miles wide. It has a maximum length of 235 miles, a varying breadth of 70...
-Forth
Forth, a river and firth of Scotland. The river is formed by two head-streams, Duchray Water and the Avondhu, which, rising on and not far from Ben Lomond, at altitudes of 3000 and 1900 feet, run 14 a...
-France
France, occupying a most advantageous position between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, is a compact hexagonal mass, bounded N. by the Channel and the Strait of Dover, NE. by Belgium and Luxemburg,...
-Frankfort-on-the-Main
Frankfort-on-the-Main (Ger. Frankfurt-am-Main), a wealthy commercial city in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, long a free city, the place of election of the German emperors, and seat of the Diet...
-Friendly Islands
Friendly Islands, or Tonga Group, lie 250 miles ESE. of Fiji, number 32 inhabited and about 150 small islands, and consist of three sub-groups, with a collective area of only 385 sq. m. Tonga-tabu (13...
-GABLONZ
GABLONZ, a town of the north of Bohemia, 6 miles SE. of Reichenberg. Its glass manufactures employ some 12,000 men. Pop. 21,100. Gaboon and French Congo, a French colony on the west coast of Africa be...
-Galicia
Galicia, formerly a kingdom and afterwards a province in the north-west of Spain. With an area of 11,340 sq. m., it has been divided since 1833 into the minor provinces of Coruna, Lugo, Orense, and Po...
-Galilee
Galilee, Sea of, called also Lake of Gennesaret and Sea of Tiberias (in O. T. Sea of Chinnereth or Cinneroth), a lake in north Palestine, 13 miles long'.by 6 broad. Its surface lies 682 feet below sea...
-Galloway
Galloway, an extensive district of south-west Scotland, once somewhat larger, but now entirely comprised in the shire of Wigtown and stewartry of Kirkcudbright. It is 70 miles long by 40 at its utmost...
-Galway
Galway, a maritime county of Ireland, in the province of Connaught, and, after Cork, the largest of all the Irish counties. Area, 1,569,505 acres, of which a little more than one-half is arable. Pop. ...
-Ganges
Ganges, the great river of northern India, rises in Garhwal in 30 56' 4 N. lat. and 79 6' 40 E. long., issuing, under the name of the Bhagir-athi, from an ice-cave 8 miles above Gangotri a...
-Garonne
Garonne (anc. Garumna), the principal river of south-west France, rises within the Spanish frontier in the Val d'Aran, at the base of Mount Maladetta, in the Pyrenees, 6142 feet above sea-level. About...
-Gateshead
Gateshead, a town on the northern verge of the county of Durham, and on the south bank of the Tyne, opposite Newcastle. Governed for centuries by a chief bailiff appointed by the prince-bishop of the ...
-Geelong
Geelong (g soft), a city of Victoria, on the south side of Corio Bay, 45 miles SW. of Melbourne by rail. The river Barwon forms the southern boundary of the city, and 3 miles farther spreads into the ...
-Geneva
Geneva (Fr. Geneve, Ger. Genf, Ital. Ginevra), a canton in the south-west of Switzerland, bounded S., B., and W. by the territories of France. Area, 108 sq. m. ; pop. (1900) 131,674, about half being ...
-Genoa
Genoa (Ital. Genova, Fr. Genes, anc. Genua), a city of Italy, situated on the Mediterranean gulf of the same name, at the foot of the Apennines, is the capital of a province and the most important sea...
-Georgetown
Georgetown, a port of entry in the District of Columbia, on the Potomac, 2 miles above Washington, at the head of navigation. Here the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal crosses the Potomac by a great viaduct ...
-Georgia
Georgia, the most southerly of the original thirteen states of the American Union, is bounded by Tennessee, North and South Carolina, the Atlantic Ocean, Florida, and Alabama. It has an area of 59.475...
-Germany
Germany (from Lat. Germania) is the English name of the country which the natives call Deutschland, and the French L'Allemagne. The word is sometimes used to denote the whole area of the European cont...
-Ghent
Ghent (Flem. and Ger. Gent, Fr. Gand), a city of Belgium, capital of the province of East Flanders, is situated at the confluence of the Lys and the Scheldt, 34 miles by rail NW. of Brussels. It is di...
-Gibraltar
Gibraltar (Span. Gibraltar'), an isolated mass of rock, in the SW. of Spain, rising to an altitude of 1408 feet, 3 miles in length, and mile in average breadth, is situated at the extremity of a low...
-Glamorganshire
Glamorganshire (Welsh Gwlad Morgan), the most southerly county of Wales, bounded S. and SW. by the Bristol Channel. Area, 855 sq. m.; pop. (1801) 70,879 ; (1841) 171,188 ; (1881) 511,433 ; (1901) 860,...
-Glasgow
Glasgow, the industrial metropolis of Scotland and the most populous city in Great Britain next to London, is situated on the banks of the Clyde, in the county of Lanark, the portions heretofore in Re...
-Glastonbury
Glastonbury, an ancient municipal borough of Somerset, lies, engirt by the river Brue, amid orchards and level pastures - once fen-land - at the foot of the conical tower-crowned Tor (500 feet), 6 mil...
-Gloucester
Gloucester (Glos'ter), the capital of Gloucestershire, a parliamentary and county borough; is pleasantly situated on the left bank of the Severn, which here becomes tidal. It is 114 miles by rail (by ...
-Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire, a west midland county of England, lying around the lower course and the estuary of the Severn, and bounded by the counties of Monmouth, Hereford, Worcester, Warwick, Oxford, Berks, Wi...
-Goa
Goa, a Portuguese possession on the west coast of India, 250 miles SSE. of Bombay, with an area of 1469 sq. m., and a population of 475,500. A hilly country, bounded on the east by the Western Ghats, ...
-Gold Coast
Gold Coast, a British crown colony and protectorate on the Gulf of Guinea, with a coast-line of about 350 miles, is bounded east by German Togoland, west by the French Ivory Coast, and north by the Fr...
-Goodwin Sands
Goodwin Sands, famous sandbanks stretching 10 miles NE. and SW. at an average distance of 5 1/2 miles from the east coast of Kent. Large level patches of sand are left dry when the tide recedes, and a...
-Gothenburg
Gothenburg (usually pron. Gotenburg; Swed. Goteborg), next to Stockholm the most important town of Sweden, stands at the mouth of the Gota, 284 miles by rail SW. of Stockholm. Although originally foun...
-Gottingen {Got! ting-en)
Gottingen {Got! ting-en), a town in the former kingdom of Hanover, lies 538 feet above sea-level in the Leine's wide valley, encircled by gentle hills - the highest, the Hainberg (1246 feet). By rail ...
-Granada
Grana'da, an ancient Moorish kingdom of Spain, embracing the south-eastern portion of Andalusia, and now divided into the three modern provinces of Granada, Almeria, and Malaga. Area, over 11,000 sq. ...
-Grantham
Grantham (Gran'tham), a market-town on the Witham's left bank, 25 miles SSW. of Lincoln, and 105 NNW. of London. It lies on the ancient Ermine Street, and is an important junction on the Great Norther...
-Gravesend
Gravesend, a port and borough of Kent, on the right bank of the Thames, 24 miles ESE. of London. It consists of the old town, with narrow, irregular streets, and of the handsome new town on the high g...
-Great Britain
Great Britain, as distinguished from Britannia Minor, or Brittany, in France, was not officially so called till in 1604 James I. styled himself king of Great Britain. Lying between 49 57' 30 and...
-Great Salt Lake
Great Salt Lake, in Utah, stretches along the western base of the Wahsatch Mountains, about 4200 feet above the sea, forming a principal drainage centre of the vast plateau known as the Great Basin, 8...
-Greenland
Greenland, an extensive region, stretching from 59 45' to 83 1/2 N. lat. and from 17 to 73 W. long., now known to be an island engirt by smaller islands, but an island of almost co...
-Greenock
Greenock, an important seaport of Renfrewshire, the seventh largest town in Scotland, on the southern shore of the Firth of Clyde, 3| miles by water S. of Helensburgh, and 22 1/2 by rail WNW. of Glasg...
-Greenwich
Greenwich (Gren'itch; A.S. Green-wic, 'green creek or bay'), a parliamentary borough of Kent (now, officially, the county of London), 5 miles ESE. of London Bridge, on the south bank of the Thames, he...
-Gretna Green
Gretna Green, a Dumfriesshire village, near the head of the Solway Firth, 10 miles NNW. of Carlisle. After the abolition of Fleet marriages (1754), English persons wishing to marry clandestinely had t...
-Grimsby
Grimsby, or Great Grimsby, a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough and seaport of Lincolnshire, on the Humber's right bank, 20 miles ESE. of Hull and 41 NE. of Lincoln. The parish church, a goo...
-Grinstead
Grinstead, East, an old-fashioned town of Sussex, 36 miles S. by E. of London by rail, which till 1832 returned two members to parliament. Here is Sackville College, of which Dr J. M. Neale was warden...
-Gris-nez
Gris-nez (Gree-nay'), Cape, a headland (164 feet high) in the French dep. of Pas-de-Calais, opposite Dover, is the point of land nearest to England (barely 20 miles). A lighthouse surmounts it. Griso...
-Guatemala
Guatemala (Guatama'la), a republic of Central America, bounded by Mexico, Belize, the Gulf of Honduras, Honduras, San Salvador, and the Pacific. Area, 46,600 sq. m., much of it wholly unexplored. The ...
-Guiana
Guiana, or Guayana, in its widest signification is the region lying between the Orinoco and the Amazon in South America, with no definitive boundaries on the west. It consists of five divisions, known...
-Guildford
Guildford, the county town of Surrey, lies in a break of the chalk-ridge of the North Downs, on the navigable Wey, 30 miles SW. of London. In Cobbett's phrase a 'happy-looking' place, it wears an air ...
-Guinea
Guinea, the name of a large section of the west coast of Africa, which first came into general use in the 15th century, and is generally applied to the stretch of coast-lands extending from the mouth ...
-Gwalior
Gwalior, a native state of Central India, the dominions of the Mahratta Maharajah Sindia, consists of several detached districts. Area, 19,067 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 2,187,612, mainly Hindus. Lying partl...
-HAARLEM
HAARLEM, a town of Holland, 10 miles W. of Amsterdam, is intersected, like most Dutch towns, with canals and avenues of trees. Of its churches the principal is the Great or St Bavon's, built in the 15...
-Haddington
Haddington, the county town of Haddingtonshire, lies at the southern base of the Garleton Hills, on the Tyne, 17 miles E. of Edinburgh. Its Abbey Church, the Lucerna Laudoni or ' Lamp of Lothian...
-Haddingtonshire
Haddingtonshire, or East Lothian, a maritime county of Scotland, washed on the north for 32 miles by the German Ocean and the Firth of Forth. Its utmost length is 26 miles, its utmost breadth 19, and ...
-Hague
Hague, The (Dutch 's Gravenhage, ' the count's hedge'), the capital of the Netherlands, 2 miles from the North Sea and 15 NNW. of Rotterdam. It is intersected by canals and shady avenues of lime-trees...
-Halifax
Halifax, a thriving market-town, municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, is situated on the river Hebble, a feeder of the Calder, on the slope of an eminence, an...
-Halle
Halle (Hal-leh), a city of Prussian Saxony, on the right bank of the Saale and on several small islands of the river, 20 miles by rail NW. of Leipzig. As an important railway centre, Halle has of late...
-Hamburg
Hamburg, a state of the German empire, includes the free city of Hamburg, the towns Bergedorf and Cuxhaven, and several suburbs, with a total area of 158 sq. m. The free city of Hamburg is on the Elbe...
-Hamilton
Hamilton, a town of Lanarkshire, on the left bank of the Clyde, 10 miles SE. of Glasgow. The principal edifice is the burgh buildings (1863), with a clock-tower nearly 130 feet high; and there are als...
-Hampshire
Hampshire, Hants, or, officially, the County of Southampton, a maritime county in the south Of England, bounded by Dorset, Wilts, Berks, Surrey, Sussex, and the English Channel. Including the Isle of ...
-Hampton Court Palace
Hampton Court Palace, till George II.'s time a royal residence, and now partially occupied by persons of good family in reduced circumstances, stands about a mile from the village in the midst of grou...
-Hanover
Han'over (Ger. Hanno'ver), formerly a kingdom of northern Germany, but since 1866 incorporated with Prussia. Area, 14,833 sq. m., or nearly twice the size of Wales ; pop. (1871) 1,963,080; (1900) 2,59...
-Hartford
Hartford, the capital of Connecticut, on the right bank of the Connecticut River, 50 miles from its mouth, and 112 by rail NE. of New York. It is a handsome city, with streets not all too regular, and...
-Hartlepool
Hartlepool, a municipal borough and seaport in the county of Durham, is situated on a small peninsula north of the estuary of the Tees, 12 miles NNE. of Stockton, and 18 ESE. of Durham. Its ancient se...
-Hastings
Hastings (A.S. HAestingas), a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough and famous watering-place of Sussex, is picturesquely situated on the shore, and surrounded by high cliffs on all sides excep...
-Havana
Havana, or Havannah, capital of the Spanish island of Cuba, and the principal centre of commerce in the West Indies, is situated on the north side of the island. Access is obtained to its magnificent ...
-Havre
Havre, Le (a contraction of the original name, Le Havre de Notre Dame de Grace), a seaport of France, second only to Marseilles, in the dep. of Seine-Inferieure, on the north side of the Seine's estua...
-Hawaii
Hawaii, a small archipelago in the North Pacific, named Sandwich Islands by Captain Cook after Lord Sandwich, First Lord of the Admiralty. The islands, twelve in number, form a rich, beautiful, and in...
-Hawick
Hawick (Hau'ick), a manufacturing town of Roxburghshire, at the confluence of the Slitrig with the Teviot, 52 miles by rail SSE. of Edinburgh and 45 NNE. of Carlisle. Built in and round a hollow, with...
-Hayti
Hayti, or Haiti (' mountainous country,' otherwise Hispaniola - i.e. 'little Spain' - or Santo Domingo), is, after Cuba, the largest of the West Indian Islands, now divided into the independent states...
-Hebrides
Heb'rides, or Western Islands, the general name applied to all the islands on the west coast of Scotland. To the Outer Hebrides belong Lewis with Harris (Long Island), North Uist, Benbecula, South Uis...
-Heidelberg
Heidelberg, an ancient city of Baden, extends 3 miles along the left bank of the Neckar, in one of the most beautiful districts in the country, 13 miles by rail SE. of Mannheim and 54 S. of Frank-fort...
-Heligoland
Heligoland ('Holy Land;' Ger. Helgoland), a small island in the North Sea, belonging since 1890 to Germany, is situated 36 miles NW. of the mouth of the Elbe. It is 1 mile long from N. to S., 1/3 mile...
-Helsingfors
Helsingfors, a fortified seaport and naval station, capital of the grand-duchy of Finland, is situated on a peninsula, surrounded by islands and rocky cliffs, in the Gulf of Finland, 191 miles W. of S...
-Herat
Herat', capital of the most westerly of the three divisions of Afghanistan, stands on the Hari-Rud, 2500 feet above sea-level, and 390 miles W. of Kabul, in 34 50' N. lat., 62 30' E. long. S...
-Herculaneum
Herculaneum, an ancient city of Italy, so called from the local worship of Hercules, was situated at the north-western base of Mount Vesuvius, 5 miles E. of Naples. In 63 a.d. it was seriously injured...
-Hereford
Her'eford, the county town of Herefordshire, on the left bank of the Wye, 144 miles by rail WNW. of London, and 51 S. of Shrewsbury. Its noble cathedral was built between 1079 and 1535, and so exhibit...
-Herefordshire
Herefordshire, an inland county in the west of England, bounded by Shropshire, Worcester, Gloucester, Monmouth, and South Wales. In length it measures 38 miles, in breadth 35, and its area is 833 sq. ...
-Hertford
Hertford, the county town of Hertfordshire, 26 miles N. of London by rail, on the Lea, which is navigable for barges up to this point. It has a town or shire hall (1768), an infirmary, a corn exchange...
-Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire, or Herts, an inland county of England, bounded by Cambridge, Essex, Middlesex, and Bucks, is 35 miles long from NE. to SW., 20 miles in mean breadth, and 611 sq. m. in area, of which mo...
-Hesse
Hesse (Hes'seh; Ger. Hessen), or Hesse-Darmstadt, a German grand-duchy, divided by a strip of Hesse-Nassau into a northern part, Ober-hessen, completely enclosed by Prussia, and a southern part, compr...
-Himalaya
Himalaya (properly Himalaya; from two Sanskrit words meaning' snow-abode'), the southern escarpment of the great Central-Asian plateau in so far as it falls between the Indus and the Brahmaputra. Thus...
-Hindu Rush
Hindu Rush (Hindoo Koosh; anc.' Indian Caucasus '), the westward continuation of the Himalayan system, from which it is separated by the chasm through which the Indus breaks its way to the plains. It ...
-Hoang-ho
Hoang-ho ('Yellow River'), or simply Ho, one of the principal rivers of China, rises in the plain of Odontala, south of the Kuen-Lun Mountains, and winds more than 3000 miles. From the southernmost co...
-Hobart
Hobart (till 1881 known as Hobart Town), the capital of Tasmania, stands on the estuary of the Derwent, 12 miles from its mouth, in the south of the island. It forms nearly a square, built on several ...
-Holland
Holland, the popular name of a country officially described as 'Netherland,' or 'The Netherlands,' applies to a maritime kingdom bounded by the North Sea, Prussia, and Belgium. Its greatest length (N....
-Holy Island
Holy Island, or Lindisfarne, a small island of Northumberland, 9 1/2 miles SE. of Berwick-on-Tweed. It is 3 miles long by I 3/4 broad, and has an area of 2457 acres, and a pop. of 700. At low-water it...
-Honduras
Honduras, a republic of Central America, lies between Nicaragua and San Salvador and Guatemala, and is bounded on the N. and NE. by the Bay of Honduras and the Caribbean Sea, having here a coast-line ...
-Hong-kong
Hong-kong, or Hiang-kiang (' sweet waters'), a British island of southern China, on the east side of the Canton River, 90 miles S. by E. of Canton city. It consists principally of a rugged ridge of gr...
-Huddersfield
Huddersfield, a ' clothing town' in the West Riding of Yorkshire, a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough, 26 miles NE. of Manchester, 15 S. of Bradford, 17 SW. of Leeds, and 189 NNW. of London...
-Hudson
Hudson, a river in New York, and one of the most beautiful and important in America. It rises in the Adirondack Mountains, 4326 feet above sea-level. At Glen's Falls it has a fall of 50 feet, and then...
-Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay, a gulf, or rather inland sea, in the north-east of North America, is completely landlocked except on the north, where Southampton Island and Fox Channel lie between it and the Arctic Ocean...
-Hull
Hull, or Kingston-on-Hull, a river-port, a parliamentary and municipal borough, and (since 1897) a city and county of itself, is situated in the East Riding of Yorkshire, in a low, level plain on the ...
-Humber
Humber, the estuary of the rivers Ouse and Trent (and so of the Dove, Derwent, Wharfe, &c), runs 38 miles E. and SE., separating the counties of York and Lincoln, with a breadth varying from 1 to 7 mi...
-Hungary
Hungary (Hung. Magyarorszag, Ger. Ungarn, Lat. Hungaria) is the eastern and larger half of the Austro-Hungai'ian monarchy, with an area of 124,633 sq. m., and a pop. (1900) of 19,254,559. With Transyl...
-Huntingdonshire
Huntingdonshire, or Hunts, an inland county of England, 30 miles long and 23 broad, is bounded N. and W. by Northampton, Cambridge, and Bedford shires. Area, 359 sq. m, almost all arable or In pasture...
-Huron
Huron, the second largest of the five great lakes on the frontier between the United States and Canada, is connected at the north-west by St Mary's River with Lake Superior, and through the strait of ...
-Hyderabad
Hyderabad (Haidardbad), or the Nizam's Dominions, a feudatory state of India, occupies the greater part of the Deccan proper or central plateau of southern India, between the provinces of Madras and B...
-Hythe
Hythe, a parliamentary and municipal borough and market-town of Kent, 5 miles WSW. of Folkestone, and 67 SE. by E. of London by rail, is one of the Cinque Ports, although Lympne or Lymm (anc. Portus L...
-Iceland
Iceland, an island in the North Atlantic immediately south of the Polar Circle, which just touches its northernmost point. It lies between 63 23' and 66 33' N. lat., and between 13 22' ...
-Idaho
Idaho, till 1890 a territory, now a state of the American Union, lies between 42 and 49 N. lat., and mainly between 111 and 114 W. long. Its greatest length is 490 miles; the bread...
-Illinois
Illinois (Ill-i-noy'), seventeenth in area of the United States, but third in population, extends from Wisconsin and Lake Michigan on the N. and NE. to the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers ...
-India
India, the Indian empire of the British crown, is an extensive region of southern Asia, and next after China the most populous area in the world. The name India is a Greek word from the Persian Hind, ...
-Indiana
Indiana, the thirty-first state of the American Union in area, and the eighth in population, is centrally situated between Lake Michigan, Michigan state, Ohio, Kentucky (from which it is separated by ...
-Indianapolis
Indianap'olis, the capital of Indiana, on the west fork of White River, in a level plain, 195 miles SSE. of Chicago by rail. It is a regularly-built and beautiful city. Its streets, many of them 100 f...
-Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean, bounded W. by Africa, N. by Asia, E. by Australia and the Australasian Islands, according to modern geographers is limited to the S. by the 40th parallel of south latitude, in which regi...
-Indian Territory
Indian Territory, a portion of the region originally set apart by the United States government as a home for Indian tribes, is bounded by Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, and in 1906 was incorporate...
-Indore
Indore, a Mahratta principality of India, comprising the territories of the Holkar dynasty, and consisting of several detached tracts, covers an area of 8402 sq. m. The bulk of it lies between Sindhia...
-Indus
Indus (Sansk. Sindhu), a river of India, rising in an unexplored region in Tibet, near the sources of the Sutlej, in 32 N. lat. and 81 E. long., and at about 16,000 feet above sea-level. Its...
-Innsbruck
Innsbruck, the capital of Tyrol, 109 miles by rail S. of Munich, stands on the Inn at its junction with the Sill, 1880 feet above sea-level, surrounded and overhung by mountains 7500 to 8500 feet high...
-Inverness
Inverness', the county town of Inverness-shire, and capital of the northern Highlands, stands on the Ness, near its mouth in the Moray Firth and the north-east end of the Caledonian Canal, 108 miles b...
-Inverness-shire
Inverness-shire, a Highland county, the largest in Scotland, and larger than any in England but Yorkshire, stretches from sea to sea, and has a total area of 4323 sq. m., of which 1284 belong to the O...
-Iona
Iona, the most famous of the Hebrides, 1 1/4 mile W. of the south-western extremity of Mull. Its modern name is believed to have originated in a mistaken reading of n for u; the word in the oldest man...
-Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands, a group, or rather chain, of about forty islands, stretching along the west and south coasts of Greece. Corfu (Corcyra), Paxo, Santa Maura, Ithaca (Theaki), Cephalonia, Zante, and Ceri...
-Iowa
Io'wa, one of the United States of America, with an area of 56,025 sq. m., is bounded by Minnesota, the Mississippi River, the state of Missouri, and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers. The climate is ...
-Ipswich
Ipswich, the county town of Suffolk, a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough, 69 miles NE. of London by rail, is situated on the side of a hill on the left bank of the river Gipping, which, tak...
-Irawadi
Irawadi, or Irrawaddy, the principal river of Burma, long believed by many to have its origin in the Sanpo (q.v.), the great river of Tibet, which was shown in 1878-82 to be the upper waters of the Br...
-Ireland
Ireland, an island forming part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, is washed on the N., W., and S. by the Atlantic, and on the E. by the North Channel (13 miles wide), the Irish Sea (...
-Irkutsk
Irkutsk, a mountainous government of southern Siberia, to the NW. of Lake Baikal, occupies an area of 287,061 sq. m. The pop., 550,000 in 1905, consists of Buriats, Tunguses, and Russians (one-third e...
-Ispahan
Ispahan, properly Isfahan, a famous city of Persia, capital of the province of Irak-Ajemi, and in the 17th century of the entire country, is situated on the Zenderud, in an extensive and fertile plain...
-Italy
Italy, a kingdom occupying the central of the three great peninsulas of southern Europe together with Sicily, Sardinia, and some smaller islands. The peninsula, which at the Strait of Otranto approach...
-Jamaica
Jamaica, aboriginally Xaymaca ('Land of Springs'), by far the most important of the British West Indian Islands, is 90 miles S. of Cuba, and stretches between 17 43' - 18 32' N. lat., and 76...
-Japan
Japan, an island empire off the east coast of Asia, separated from Corea and Siberia by the Sea of Japan. Japan Proper comprises four large islands - Honshu (the Japanese mainland), Shikoku, Kyushu, a...
-Java
Java (Djawa), an island of the Dutch East Indies, the seat of the colonial government, separated from Borneo by the Sea of Java, and from Sumatra by the Straits of Sunda. It extends almost due west an...
-Jaxartes
Jaxartes, now called Sihun, or Syr-Daria (both syr and daria mean 'river'), a river of western Asia, which rises at an altitude of 12,000 feet, 30 miles S. of Lake Issik-kul, in the Tian-Shan Mountain...
-Jedburgh
Jedburgh, the county town of Roxburghshire, is beautifully situated on Jed Water, 56 miles by a branch-line (by road 49) SE. of Edinburgh. Of its magnificent Augustinian abbey, founded by David I. in ...
-Jena
Jena (Yay'na), a town of Saxe-Weimar, at the Leutra's influx to the Saale, 14 miles by rail SE. of Weimar, and 31 NNE. of Saalfeld. It lies 518 feet above sea-level, engirt by steep chalk-hills, of wh...
-Jersey
Jersey, the chief of the Channel Islands (q.v.), 14 miles from the Norman coast, 133 from Southampton, 95 from Weymouth. Measuring 11 miles by 5 1/2, it is 45 sq. m. in area, of which nearly two-third...
-Jersey City
Jersey City, the second city of New Jersey, and capital of Hudson county, on the west bank of the Hudson River, opposite New York, of which it is, in fact, though in another state, an extension, and w...
-Jerusalem
Jerusalem (in the form Urusalem on the Tel-el-Amarna tablets; Yerushalaim, in Hebrew 'dwelling of peace;' Moslem El-Kuds, 'the Holy'), regarded as a holy city alike by Jews, Christians, and Moslems, l...
-Johannesburg
Johannesburg, the chief town and mining centre of the Transvaal goldfields, is situated about 6000 feet above sea-level, 298 miles NE. of Kimberley, and 838 NE. of Capetown, being connected with both ...
-Juggernaut
Juggernaut, or Puri, a town on the coast of Orissa, at the southern end of the delta of the Mahanadi, celebrated as one of the chief holy places in India. With a resident pop. of 50,000, it owes its r...
-Jura
Jura (Scand. deor-oe, ' deer-isle'), an Argyllshire island, 1/2 mile NE. of Islay, and 2 1/2 miles W. of the nearest point of the mainland. It extends 28 miles north-eastward; varies in width from 3/4...
-Kabul
Kabul, or Cabul (Kau'bal; the Kabura of Ptolemy), the capital of Afghanistan, is charmingly situated at the foot of the Takht-i-Shah and Asmai hills, on a spur of which to the south is the fortress of...
-Kamchatka
Kamchatka (Kam-tchatka ; Ger. Kamtschatka), a peninsula of eastern Siberia, stretches S. into the Pacific between Behring Sea on the B. and the Sea of Okhotsk. Area, 465,590 sq. m. The peninsula is lo...
-Kandahar
Kandahar, or Candahar, the capital of central or southern Afghanistan, 200 miles SW. of Kabul. It stands in 32 37' N. lat. and 66 20' E. long., 3484 feet above sea-level. It is in the form o...
-Kansas
Kansas, the central state of the American Union, and the eighth in area, is bounded N. by Nebraska, E. by Missouri, S. by Indian Territory, and W. by Colorado. It is about 400 miles from east to west,...
-Kansas City
Kansas City, the second city of Missouri, and one of the great towns of the west, is situated on the south bank of the Missouri (here crossed by a fine railway bridge), where the river makes a sharp b...
-Kazan
Kazan, capital of the Russian government of Kazan, and in the 15th century capital of the Mongol kingdom of the Golden Horde, stands 3 miles from the Volga's north bank, and 200 miles E. by S. of Nijn...
-Kelso
Kelso, a pleasant market-town of Roxburghshire, 23 miles by rail WSW. of Berwick-on-Tweed and 52 (by road 42) SE. of Edinburgh. It stands on the north bank of the Tweed, here joined by the Teviot, and...
-Kenilworth
Kenilworth, a market-town of Warwickshire, on a small sub-affluent of the Avon, 5 miles N. of Warwick and 5 SSW. of Coventry. The castle, founded about 1120 by Geoffrey de Clinton, was defended for si...
-Kensington is
Kensington is, since 1899, a metropolitan borough of the county of London. Kensington Palace, built of red brick, was originally the seat of Heneage Finch, Earl of Nottingham and Lord Chancellor of En...
-Kent
Kent, an important maritime county in the SE. of England, is bounded by the estuary of the Thames, the Strait of Dover, Sussex, the English Channel, and Surrey. Its greatest length is 64 miles; its gr...
-Kentucky
Kentucky, a state of the American Union, in the Mississippi Valley; greatest length, E. to W., 400 miles; breadth, N. to S., 175 miles; area, 40,400 sq. m. The eastern and south-eastern parts of the s...
-Kerry
Kerry, a maritime county of SW. Ireland, in the province of Munster, is bounded N. by the Shannon estuary, and W. by the Atlantic. Area, 1853 sq. m. or 1,185,918 acres, of which less than one-tenth is...
-Khiva
Khiva, also called Kharasm, Khwarizm, or Urgenj (anc. Chorasmia), a khanate of Turkestan in central Asia, lies between 37 45' - 44 30' N. lat. and 50 15' - 63 E. long., and contain...
-Kieff
Kieff (Kee-yeff'), one of the oldest towns of Russia, stands on the Dnieper, by rail 586 miles SW. of Moscow and 381 N. of Odessa. From 882 to 1169 it was the capital of the Russian principality, and ...
-Kiel
Kiel (Keel), chief town of the Prussian province of Sleswick-Holstein, stands 66 miles N. by E. of Hamburg by rail, at the head of a deep inlet (11 miles long) of the Baltic, which admits large ships ...
-Kildare
Kildare', a county of Leinster, Ireland, bounded by Dublin, Wicklow, Queen's and King's counties, Meath, and Carlow. Its chief town is Naas, and other municipal towns are Kildare, Kilcullen, Maynooth,...
-Kilkenny
Kilkenny, an inland county of Leinster, bordering on Queen's County, Carlow, Wexford, Waterford, and Tipperary. Its area is 509,732 acres, or 796 sq. m. Vegetation is earlier here than in the rest of ...
-Killarney
Killarney, a Kerry market-town, 185 miles by rail SW. of Dublin, and 47 WNW. of Cork. The Roman Catholic cathedral, a very imposing structure, along with the Bishop's Palace, was designed by Pugin. Th...
-Kilmarnock
Kilmar'nock, the largest town in Ayrshire, on Irvine and Kilmarnock waters, 15 1/2 miles by rail NNE. of Ayr, and 24 SSW. of Glasgow. It received its name Kil-mo-Ernin-occ (Gael., 'church of my little...
-Kimberley
Kim'berley, (1) a town of Notts, 5 3/4 miles NW. of Nottingham. Pop. of ecclesiastical parish, 5130. - (2) A Norfolk parish, 3 1/3 miles NW. of Wymondham, with the seat of the Earl of Kimberley. - (3)...
-Kincardineshire
Kincar'dineshire, or The Mearns, a maritime county of Scotland, with Aberdeenshire and the Dee on the N., Forfarshire and the North Esk on the S. and W., and the North Sea on the E. Area, 383 sq. m., ...
-Kingston
Kingston, chief town of Frontenac county, Ontario, is situated at the head of Lake Ontario, and at the mouth of the Cataraqui Creek, 161 miles by rail ENE. of Toronto. It has handsome public buildings...
-Kingston-upon-Thames
Kingston-upon-Thames, a municipal borough of Surrey, 12 miles SW. of London, lies on the right bank of the Thames, here crossed by two bridges - one of stone completed 1828 and freed 1870, and the oth...
-Kingstown
Kingstown, a populous and important suburb of Dublin, 7 miles SSE. from the G.P.O. Previous to 1817, when the harbour-works were commenced, it was merely a fishing-village known as Dunleary. On the oc...
-Kirkcaldy
Kirkcaldy (Kir-caw'dy), a seaport of Fife, on the Firth of Forth, 15 miles N. of Edinburgh. Including Linktown and Newtown of Abbots-hall on the west, and Pathhead, Sinclairtown, and Gallatown on the ...
-Kirkcudbright
Kirkcudbright (Kir-koo'bry), Stewartry of, a county of south-west Scotland, washed on the south for 50 miles by the Solway Firth, and elsewhere bounded by Wigtown, Ayr, and Dumfries shires. Measuring ...
-Konigsberg
Konigsberg, (1) a town and fortress in East Prussia, on the river Pregel, 4 1/2 miles from the Frisches Haff and 366 by rail NE. of Berlin. The nucleus of the place was the block-house built in 1255 b...
-Kurdistan
Kurdistan' ('the Country of the Kurds'), an extensive geographical, though not political, region mainly to the NE. of Turkey in Asia, S. and W. of Erzerum, but including the part of Persia about Urumi...
-Kurrachee
Kurrachee (Karatchi), the capital of Sind and the chief port of entry for the Punjab, stands at the northern end of the great Indus delta, and close to the frontier of Beluchistan. It is 1169 miles by...
-Labrador
Lab'rador, the north-eastern peninsula of the North American continent, lying between Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St Lawrence. The coasts were probably visited by Norsemen about the year 1000; they wer...
-Lahore
Lahore, capital of the Punjab, stands near the left bunk of the Ravi, 1080 miles NW. of Calcutta by rail. Pop. (1868) 125,413 ; (1901) 202,964, of whom 85,000 are Mussulmans. A railway centre, Lahore ...
-Lake District
Lake District, the name applied to the picturesque and mountainous region comprised within the counties of Cumberland, Westmorland, and a small portion of Lancashire, within which are grouped as many ...
-Lanarkshire
Lanarkshire, or Clydesdale, a Scottish county, enclosed by Stirling, Dumbarton, Linlithgow, Edinburgh, Peebles, Dumfries, Ayr, and Renfrew shires. Its length is 50 miles, its greatest breadth 32 miles...
-Lancashire
Lan'cashire, a county palatine of England, ranking sixth in point of area, first in population, and first in return of revenue from all sources. It forms the north-western division of England, stretch...
-Lancaster
Lan'caster, the capital of Lancashire, is picturesquely situated on an eminence on the left bank of the Lune, 7 miles from its mouth, 51 1/2 NNW. of Manchester and 231 NW. of London by rail. The ancie...
-La Plata
La Plata (La Plah'ta), the capital of the Argentinian province of Buenos Ayres, was founded in 1884, after Buenos Ayres City, from which it is about 30 miles SE., had been made the federal capital. Th...
-Launceston
Launceston (Launs'ton or Lon'son), till 1838 the county town of Cornwall, on the Kensey, a tributary of the Tamar, 36 miles NW. of Plymouth and 50 W. of Exeter by branch-lines opened in 1865 and 1886....
-Lawrence
Lawrence, (1) capital of Douglas county, Kansas, on the Kansas River, 34 miles SSW. of Leavenworth by rail. It is the seat of the state university (1864), and has manufactures of flour, castings, furn...
-Leamington
Leamington (Lem'ing-tun), a watering-place of Warwickshire, is beautifully situated on the Leam, 2 miles NE. of Warwick. It is wholly of modern growth, having become important only since the rediscove...
-Lebanon
Leb'anon, a mountain-range in Syria, extending from Horns in the north to Mount Hermon in the south. The name is derived from a Semitic root meaning 'white,' and was probably given, not because the pe...
-Leeds
Leeds, the first town in Yorkshire, and fifth in England in point of population, is a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough, returning since 1885 five members to parliament. By rail it is 25 1/...
-Leghorn
Leghorn (Ital. Livorno), the third seaport of Italy, is situated on the west coast, 13 miles by rail SW. of Pisa, and 62 W. by S. of Florence. Its importance dates from the decline of Pisa; its growth...
-Leicester
Leicester (Lester), the county town of Leicestershire, a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, is situated on the Soar, a tributary of the Trent, 22 miles S. of Nottingham, 38 ENE. of Birmingh...
-Leicestershire
Leicestershire, a midland county of England, surrounded by Nottingham, Lincoln, Rutland. Northampton, Warwick, and Derby shires. It; has a maximum length and breadth of 44 miles by 40, and contains 80...
-Leipzig
Leipzig (Fr. Leipsic), the fifth city of Germany, is situated in a large and fertile plain in the kingdom of Saxony, 80 miles by rail WNW. of Dresden, and 101 SSW. of Berlin, within 6 1/2 miles of the...
-Leith
Leith, the sixth largest town in Scotland, an important seaport, and a municipal and parliamentary burgh, stands on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth, at the mouth of the Water of Leith, 2 mile...
-Leon
Leon, an ancient kingdom of Spain, equivalent generally to the modern provinces of Leon, Palencia, Valladolid, Zamora, and Salamanca. The modern province has an area of 6167 sq. m. and a population of...
-Lewes
Lewes, the county town of Sussex, 50 miles S. of London, is picturesquely situated on the eastern declivity of one of the South Downs, at the foot of which flows the navigable river Ouse on its way to...
-Lewis-with-Harris
Lewis-with-Harris, a Scottish island, the largest and most northerly of the Outer Hebrides, separated from the mainland by the Minch, and containing the town of Stornoway (q.v.), 43 miles NW. of Poole...
-Lexington
Lexington, (1) capital of Fayette county, Kentucky, stands in the fertile blue-grass region, 77 miles S. of Cincinnati. It is a handsome city, its principal edifices the court-house, state university,...
-Leyden
Leyden (Dutch pron. Ll-den), a town of Holland, on the Old Rhine, 5 miles from the North Sea, and by rail 9 miles N. by W. of The Hague and 31 W. of Utrecht. It is a typical Dutch town, spotlessly cle...
-Lhassa
Lhassa (' the Seat of the Gods'), the capital of Tibet, and a sacred city of the Buddhists, is situated in a fertile plain, 45 miles NE. of the junction of the Ki-chu with the Yaro San-po, 11,910 feet...
-Liberia
Liberia, a Negro republic on the Pepper Coast (Guinea) of West Africa, extending 500 miles NW. and NE. of Cape Palmas, and reaching 200 miles inland. The coast-region consists of mangrove swamps, lyin...
-Lichfield
Lichfield (Litch'field), a municipal (and till 1885 parliamentary) borough of Staffordshire, and the seat of a bishopric, is pleasantly situated in a valley watered by an affluent of the Trent, 15 mil...
-Liege
Liege (Lee-ayzh'; Ger. Luttich, Flemish Luik), a city of Belgium, at the confluence of the Ourthe with the Meuse, 62 miles by rail S. by E. of Brussels and 47 SW. of Aix-la-Chapelle. It consists of th...
-Lille
Lille (Flemish Ryssel), a manufacturing town and first-class fortress of France, chief town of the dep. of Nord, is situated on a sub-tributary of the Scheldt, 66 miles by rail SE. of Calais. Lille de...
-Lima
Lima (Leema), the capital of Peru, lies in a broad valley 6 miles E. of Callao, its port, with which it is connected by two railways (9 miles). The archiepiscopal cathedral (rebuilt 1746) is, after th...
-Limerick
Lim'erick, a county of Munster, separated by the Shannon on the N. from Clare, and bounded elsewhere by Tipperary, Cork, and Kerry. Its greatest length is 35 miles, its greatest breadth 54 miles, and ...
-Lincoln
Lincoln (Lin'con), the capital of Lincolnshire, and a parliamentary, county, and municipal borough, is situated on the Witham, 42 miles S. of Hull, 33 NE. of Nottingham, and 130 N. by W. of London. Bu...
-Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire, a maritime county of England, after Yorkshire the largest in the country, is bounded N. by the Humber, E. by the North Sea, the Wash, and Norfolk, and elsewhere by Cambridge, Northampton...
-Linlithgowshire
Linlithgowshire, or West Lothian, a Scottish county, washed on the north for 17 miles by the Firth of Forth, and elsewhere bounded by Edinburgh, Lanark, and Stirling shires. Its length south-westward ...
-Lisbon
Lisbon (Port. Lisboa), capital of Portugal, stands on the northern shore of a bottle-shaped expansion of the Tagus, 9 miles from its mouth ; it is 412 miles by rail WSW. of Madrid. The city extends fo...
-Lismore
Lismore, a town on the Blackwater, in the two counties of Cork and Waterford, and 43 miles SW. of Waterford city. The cathedral, the parish church since the see was united to Cashel, was rebuilt in 16...
-Liverpool
Liverpool (prob. from the Cymric Llyvrpwl, the expanse at the pool'), if we include Birkenhead, on the south or opposite side of the Mersey, disputes with Glasgow the rank of second largest town in th...
-Loire
Loire (Lwar; anc. Liger), the longest river in France, has its source in the Cevennes, in the dep. of Ardeche, at an elevation of 4511 feet, flows north and north-west through the centre of France as ...
-Lomza
Lomza, the capital of a Polish government (area, 4667 sq. m.; pop. 586,683), 80 miles NE. of Warsaw. Pop. 25,000. London is situated mainly on the north or left bank of the Thames, about 60 miles fro...
-London University
London University, founded by charter of 1836, was not a teaching but an examining body granting degrees in arts, science, medicine, law, and music. The Act of 1898, with the royal sanction of its sta...
-Londonderry
Londonderry, a maritime county of Ulster, 40 miles long by 34 broad, is bounded N. by the Atlantic, and elsewhere by Antrim, Lough Neagh, Tyrone, and Donegal. Area, 816 sq. m. Pop. (1841) 222,174; (19...
-Los Angeles
Los Angeles (Los An'je-les), a city of California, capital of Los Angeles county, 483 miles SB. of San Francisco by the Southern Pacific Railroad. It is one of the oldest towns in the western states, ...
-Louisiana
Louisiana (Looiziah'na), one of the Gulf states of the American Union, extends 200 miles from N. to S. and 290 from E. to W. Its land area, including the marshes bordering on the Gulf, is 40,790 sq. m...
-Louisville
Louisville (Loo'i-vil or Loo'is-vil), the largest city of Kentucky, a port of entry and capital of Jefferson county, is situated on the Ohio, 130 miles below Cincinnati. The river here forms a series ...
-Louvain
Louvain (Loo-vang; Ger. Lowen, Flemish Leu-veri), a city in the Belgian province of Brabant, 19 miles by rail E. of Brussels. In the 14th century it was rich, prosperous, and large (200,000 inhabitant...
-Lowestoft
Lowestoft (Loa'stoff), a municipal borough and seaport on the Suffolk coast, 118 miles NE. of London by rail and 49 NNE. of Ipswich, has of late years rapidly grown in favour as a watering-place, its ...
-Lubeck
Lubeck, a free city of Germany, the former head of the Hanseatic League, and now an important shipping town, stands on the river Trave, 12 miles from the Baltic, and 40 by rail NE. of Hamburg. This ci...
-Lucerne
Lucerne (usu. Loo-sern'; Ger. Luzern), the capital of a Swiss canton, 59 miles SE. of Basel, 147 SSE. of Strasburg, and 177 NNW. of Milan by the St Gothard railway. It is beautifully situated where th...
-Lucknow
Lucknow (Lakhnao), capital of the province of Oudh, and the fourth largest city in India, stands on the river Gumti, 42 miles by rail NE. of Cawnpore and 199 NW. of Benares. The appearance of magnific...
-Ludlow
Ludlow, a market-town and municipal borough of Shropshire, at the Corve's influx to the Teme, 28 miles S. of Shrewsbury. It is a very old and interesting place, with two noble monuments of antiquity. ...
-Luneburg
Luneburg (Lu'ne-boorg), a town of Hanover, on the river Ilmenau, 31 miles by rail SE. of Hamburg. The 15th-century church of St Michael contains the tombs of the Luneburg princes. The five-aisled chur...
-Luxemburg
Luxemburg (Fr. Luxembourg; old Ger. Lutzel-burg), since 1815 an independent grand-duchy, wedged in between France, Prussia, and Belgium. It consists of a plateau, furrowed with valleys, and connecting...
-Lynn
Lynn, or King's Lynn, a seaport, parliamentary and municipal borough of Norfolk, at the mouth of the Great Ouse, 48 miles WNW. of Norwich and 99 N. by E. of London. It still retains traces of the ramp...
-Lyons
Lyons (Fr. Lyon; anc. Lugdunum), the second city of France, stands at the confluence of the Rhone and the Saone, by rail 315 miles SSE. of Paris and 218 N. by W. of Marseilles. The commercial and fash...
-Macao
Macao (Ma-ka'o), a Portuguese settlement on the south coast of China, and on the west side of the Canton River estuary, Hong-kong being 40 miles distant on the opposite side. The settlement occupies a...
-Macclesfield
Macclesfield, an ancient municipal borough and important manufacturing town in the Macclesfield, parliamentary division of Cheshire, is situated on the river Bollin, and on the western declivity of a ...
-Madagascar
Madagascar, the third largest island in the world, is situated to the SE. of Africa, and is about four times as large as England and Wales. It is in 12 2' - 25o 35' S. lat. and 42 - 51 ...
-Madeira
Madeira (Maday'ra), the largest (38 miles by 15) of a small group of islands in the North Atlantic, 390 miles NW. of Morocco, 1164 SW. of the Lizard, and 535 SW. of Lisbon. Madeira (Portuguese, 'timbe...
-Madras City
Madras' City (native Chennapatnam) is situated on the Coromandel Coast of India in 13 4' N. lat. and 80 17' E. long., and is the capital of the presidency of the same name. The town, origina...
-Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency, one of the administrative divisions of India, occupies the southern part of the peninsula It extends from lat. 20 18' on the east coast and lat. 14 on the west coast to Cape C...
-Madrid
Madrid' (Span. pron. Madh-reedh'), the capital of Spain, is situated in the dep. of Madrid (part of the ancient province of New Castile), in 40o 24' N. lat. and 3 25' W. long., 880 miles by rail ...
-Maestricht
Maestricht (Mahs-trihht), the capital of the Dutch province of Limburg, 19 miles NNE. of Liege by rail, 19 WNW. of Aix-la-Chapelle, and 152 SSB. of Amsterdam. It lies on the left bank of the Meuse or ...
-Magdeburg
Magdeburg (Mag-de-boorg), the capital of Prussian Saxony, and one of the chief fortresses of the German empire, 90 miles by rail SW. of Berlin and 72 N. of Leipzig. It lies in a cheerless country, on ...
-Maidstone
Maidstone, the county town of Kent, on the right bank of the Medway, 34 miles ESE. of London by road (4l 1/2 by rail), and 25 W. of Canterbury. At its west entrance, overlooking the river, which is sp...
-Maine
Maine, an old French province (capital, Le Mans), with Normandy on the N., Brittany on the W., and Anjou on the S., corresponding to the modern deps. of Sarthe and Mayenne. Maine Maine, the north-ea...
-Mainz
Mainz (Ger. pron. Mintz; Fr. form Mayence; old-fashioned English form Mentz), an imperial fortress of the first rank, in the grand-duchy of Hesse, on the left bank of the Rhine, opposite the junction ...
-Majorca
Majorca (Ma-yor'ca), or Mallorca, the largest of the Balearic Isles (q.v.), lies about 100 miles from the Spanish coast, and 150 N. of Algiers. It is 60 miles long by 40 broad, and 1310 sq. m. in area...
-Malacca
Malac'ca, or Malay Peninsula, anciently the Golden Chersonese, the long strip of land extending from Indo-China S. and SE. towards Sumatra. The peninsula begins at the head of the Gulf of Siam, and th...
-Malaga
Malaga, a Spanish seaport on the Mediterranean, 65 miles NE. of Gibraltar. Sheltered on the north and east by mountains, and with a wonderfully dry, sunny, and equable climat6 (56 to 82 F.),...
-Malines
Malines (Ma-leen'), or Mechlin (Flem. Mech-elen), a city of Belgium, on the navigable Dyle, 14 miles SSE. of Antwerp. It has fine squares, noble buildings, and wide regular streets, but is devoid of a...
-Malmesbury
Malmesbury (Mamzbury), an old-world market-town of Wiltshire, on a bold eminence between two head-streams of the Avon, 26 miles by rail NNE. of Bath and 17 WNAV. of Swindon. It owes its name to Maildu...
-Malta
Malta (Ital. Mahl-ta; usually Maulta), a British Mediterranean island, 17 1/2 miles long by 8 1/3 broad, with an area of 95 sq. in. It stands on the submarine plateau which, stretching across from Sic...
-Man
Man, Isle of, is situated in the Irish Sea, 16 miles S. of Burrow Head in Wigtownshire, 27 miles SW. of St Bees Head, and 27 E. of Strangford Lough. Its length is 33 1/4 miles, breadth 12 1/2 miles, a...
-Manchester
Manchester (Sax. Mamcestre), a municipal, parliamentary, and (since 188S) county borough of Lancashire, is situated on the east bank of the Irwell, 31 miles E. of Liverpool and 187 NNW. of London. Sal...
-Manchuria
Manchuria, or the country of the Manchus, is the north-easternmost division of the Chinese empire, bounded by the river Amur, the Usuri, the Russian Maritime Province, Corea, the Yellow Sea, and Mongo...
-Manila
Manila (Manee'la; often spelt Manilla), chief town of the Philippine Islands, stands on a wide bay on the south-west coast of Luzon, 650 miles SE. of Hong-kong, with which city it has been connected b...
-Manitoba
Manitoba (originally Manit'oba; now usually Manito'ba), a province of Canada, bounded by Saskatchewan, Keewatin, Ontario, and on the S. by Minnesota and North Dakota in the United States. Area, 74,000...
-Mantua
Mantua (Ital. Man'tova), a strongly fortified city of northern Italy, formerly capital of a duchy, 38 miles by rail N. of Modena and 25 S. by W. of Verona. It occupies two islands formed by the Mincio...
-Marlborough
Marlborough (Mol'bro), an interesting market-town of Wiltshire, pleasantly situated in the valley of the Kennet, near Savernake Forest, 75 miles W. of London and 11 SSE. of Swindon. Its broad High Str...
-Marseilles
Marseilles (usu. Marsayles'; Fr. Marseille), the third city of France, and the chief town of the dep. Bouches-du-Rhone, is situated on the south coast, about 27 miles E. of the mouth of the Rhone, and...
-Martinique
Martinique (Martineek'; native Madiana), one of the Lesser Antilles, in the West India Islands. It is 43 miles long by 12 to 20 broad. Area, 380 sq. m. ; pop. (1889) 175,863; (1902) 185,000. The islan...
-Maryland
Maryland, one of the United States, on the Atlantic, separated from Pennsylvania and Delaware by ' Mason and Dixon's Line,' and from Virginia by the Potomac River. It contains 12,210 sq. m. - very nea...
-Mashonaland
Mashonaland, or Mashunaland, the region lying NE. of Matabeleland, between 16 30' - 19 10' S. lat. and 30 - 32 E. long. It embraces the plateau (4000-4600 feet) whose backbone is t...
-Massachusetts
Massachus'etts, one of the New England states of the American Union, is bounded E. by Massachusetts Bay, from which the state derives its familiar name of the Bay State. It is irregular in outline, it...
-Matabeleland
Matabe'leland, a country stretching northwards from the Transvaal towards the Zambesi, and having Khama's territory on the south-west, and Mashonaland (q.v.) to the north-east. It measures about 180 m...
-Mauritius
Mauritius, or Isle of France, an island in the Indian Ocean, belonging to Great Britain since 1810, and situated 550 miles E. of Madagascar. It is of volcanic origin and elliptical in shape. A girdle ...
-Maynooth
Maynooth', a village of County Kildare, Ireland, 15 miles NW. of Dublin by rail; pop. (1891) 948. It has the ruined castle of the Geraldines, and is the seat of the Roman Catholic college, established...
-Mayo
Mayo, a maritime county of the Irish province of Connaught, is bounded by the Atlantic, Sligo, Roscommon, and Galway. Area, 1,360,731 acres, of which nearly 26 per cent. is bog and 18 per cent. barren...
-Meaux
Meaux (Mo), a town in the French dep. of Seine-et-Marne, on a height above the river Marne, 28 miles NE. of Paris. In its noble Gothic cathedral (12-16th century, but still unfinished) is the grave of...
-Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg (u as oo), the name of two grand-duchies of Germany, distinguished respectively as Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and bounded by the Baltic, Pomerania, Brandenburg, Sleswic...
-Medina
Medina, El- (Medee'na; Arabic for 'The City;' more fully, Medinat en-Nebi, ' City of the Prophet,'), the second capital of the Hedjaz in western Arabia, is the holiest city of the Mohammedan world aft...
-Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea, so named from its lying between the continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa, is the largest enclosed sea in the world, and is connected with the open ocean only by the narrow Strait ...
-Melbourne
Melbourne (Mel'burn), the metropolis of the Australian colony of Victoria, and the most important city of Australasia, stands at the northern extremity of Port Phillip Bay, and is bisected by the rive...
-Melrose
Melrose, a pleasant little town of Roxburghshire, on the south bank of the Tweed, and at the north base of the triple Eildons (q.v.), 37 miles SSE. of Edinburgh by rail. At Old Melrose, 2 1/2 miles fa...
-Memphis
Memphis, a city and port of entry of Tennessee, stands on a high bluff on the east bank of the Mississippi River, 826 miles above New Orleans, and 230 miles by rail WSW. of Nashville. The river to thi...
-Merioneth
Merion'eth, a triangular county of North Wales, with a maximum length and breadth of 45 miles by 30, a seaboard on Cardigan Bay of 38 miles, and an area of 602 sq. m., or 385,219 acres, is bounded by ...
-Mersey
Mersey, an important river of England, separates, in its lower course, the counties of Chester and Lancaster, and has its origin in the junction of the Etherow and Goyt, on the borders of Derbyshire. ...
-Merthyr-Tydvil or Tydfil
Merthyr-Tydvil or Tydfil (so called from the martyrdom here of a Welsh princess of that name), a parliamentary borough and market-town of South Wales, on the confines of the counties of Glamorgan and ...
-Merv
Merv, an oasis of Turkestan, lying between Bokhara and the north-eastern corner of Persia, 512 miles by rail (18S6) from the Caspian and 118 from the Oxus. The oasis consists of a district 60 miles lo...
-Messina
Messina (Messee'na), the second city of Sicily, stands on the western shore of the Strait of Messina, 110 miles E. by N. of Palermo, and 195 SSE. of Naples. It occupies a narrow strip of coast between...
-Metz
Metz (Fr. pron. Mess), the strongest fortress of German Lorraine, was before 1871 the principal bulwark of the north-eastern frontier of France, and capital of the dep. of Moselle. It stands on the ri...
-Mouse
Mouse (Fr. pron. nearly Mehz; Dutch Maas), a river of France and Belgium, rises in the French dep. of Haute-Marne, and flows 500 miles N., then E., again N., and W. past Verdun, Sedan, Namur, Liege, a...
-Mexico
Mexico (or Mejico; Spanish pron. Meh'he-co, from a native word), a federal republic of North America, embracing twenty-seven states, a federal district, and two territories. It extends between the Uni...
-Michigan
Michigan (Mish'e-gan; Chippewa Mitchi Saw-gyegan, ' Great Lake'), the third in size of the live great fresh-water lakes of North America, and the only one lying wholly in the United States, between Mi...
-Middlesbrough
Middlesbrough, a great iron-manufacturing and shipping centre in the North Riding of Yorkshire, is a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, and capital of the district of Cleveland. It is on th...
-Middlesex
Middlesex, a small county in the south of England, bounded by Hertfordshire, Essex, Buckinghamshire, the Thames, and the county of London (as established in 1888). On the east the river Lea and on the...
-Milan
Milan (usu. Mil'an; Ital. spelling Milano), one Of the three chief Italian cities, stands in the great plain of Lombardy, 80 miles NE. of Turin, 155 W. of Venice, and 25 S. of Lake Como. The city, nea...
-Milwaukee
Milwau'kee, capital of Milwaukee county, Wisconsin, and the largest city in the state, is situated on the west shore of Lake Michigan, at the common mouth of three improved and navigable rivers, which...
-Minneapolis
Minneapolis, the largest city of Minnesota, stands on both sides of the Mississippi. The Falls of St Anthony, with a perpendicular descent of 16 feet, afford a water-power which has been a chief sourc...
-Minnesota
Minneso'ta (an Indian name, signifying 'sky-tinted water'), one of the north-central states of the American Union, the northernmost in the Mississippi valley. It is bounded by Manitoba, Ontario, Lake ...
-Miskolcz
Miskolcz, a town of Hungary, 113 miles by rail NE. of Pesth. Pop. 40,408. Mississippi, one of the Gulf States of the American Union, lies west of Alabama and south of western Tennessee, and is boun...
-Mississippi-Missouri
Mississippi-Missouri. The Mississippi River (Algonkin Missi Sipi, 'Great River'), the largest river of North America, is, with its tributaries, wholly within the boundaries of the United States. It dr...
-Missouri River
Missouri River ('Big Muddy'), the principal branch of the Mississippi River, is formed by the confluence of the Jefferson, Gallatin, and Madison rivers, at Gallatin City, Montana, 4132 feet above the ...
-Missouri
Missouri (Mis-soo'ree), one of the central states, and the fifth in order of population, of the American Union. It is 280 miles long from N. toS., and gradually increases southward in width from 208 m...
-Mobile
Mobile (Mobeel'), the principal city and only seaport of Alabama, is situated on the west side of Mobile River, and at the head of Mobile Bay, which opens into the Gulf of Mexico, and is defended by F...
-Modena
Mod'ena (anc. Mutlna), capital of a former duchy, stands on a broad plain in northern Italy, 23 miles by rail NW. of Bologna. Pop. 65,000. The ancient Via Aemilia divides it into the old and new city....
-Moluccas
Moluc'cas (also called Spice Islands), the easternmost division of the Malay Archipelago, comprising most of the islands between Celebes and New Guinea, belonging to the Dutch. The northern group comp...
-Mombasa
Mombas'a, a seaport of growing importance and capital of the British East Africa Protectorate, is situated on a small coralline island 3 miles long by 2 1/2 broad close to the coast, 150 miles N. of Z...
-Monaco
Mon'aco, a small principality on the Mediterranean, 149 miles BNE. of Marseilles, and 9 from Nice. Area, 8 sq. m.; pop. (1873) 5741; (1900) 15,180, of whom 3292 were in the town of Monaco, 6218 in Con...
-Monaghan
Monaghan (Mon'ahan), an inland county of Ulster, Ireland, between Tyrone on the N. and Meath (in Leinster) on the S. Its greatest length from north to south is 37 miles; the total area being 319,741 a...
-Monmouth
Monmouth (Mon'muth), the county town of Monmouthshire, stands, girt by wooded hills, at the influx of the Monnow to the Wye, 16 miles N. of Chepstow, 18 S. of Hereford, and 26 WSW. of Gloucester. Its ...
-Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire, a county in the west of England, bounded by Hereford, Gloucester, the estuary of the Severn, and South Wales. With a maximum length and breadth of 32 and 28 miles, it contains 578 sq. m...
-Montana
Montana (Montah'na), one of the north-western states of the American Union, bounded by the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, North and South Dakota, Wyoming, and Idaho. In area - 146,080...
-Montauban
Montauban (Mongtobong), the capital of the French dep. of Tarn-et-Garonne, on the river Tarn, 31 miles N. of Toulouse. A well-built, handsome place, it has a modernised brick bridge (1335), 224 yards ...
-Montenegro
Montene'gro (Italian translation of the native Czrnagora, ' Black Mountain'), an independent state in the Balkan Peninsula, between Herzegovina and Albania, about 80 miles long by 70 broad. Its area w...
-Montevideo
Montevideo (usu. Mon-tey-vid'e-o; Span. pron. Monteyveeday'o), the capital of the republic of Uruguay, is situated on the north shore of the La Plata estuary, 125 miles E. by S. of Buenos Ayres. It wa...
-Montgomeryshire
Montgomeryshire, an inland county of North Wales, 40 miles long and 35 broad, bounded NE. and NW. by the counties of Denbigh, Merioneth, Salop, Radnor, and Cardigan. Area, 773 sq. m., or 495,089 acres...
-Montpellier
Montpellier (Mongpel-yay'), the capital of the French dep. of Herault, on the Lez, 6 miles from the sea and 31 SW. of Nimes. Pop. (1872) 54,466; (1901)69,193. Lying near the centre of Langue-doc, on t...
-Montreal
Montreal (Montreawl'; Fr. pron. Mong-tray-ahl'), the largest city of the Dominion of Canada, is built on the south-east side of an island formed by the junction of the Ottawa River with the St Lawrenc...
-Montrose
Montrose, a seaport of Forfarshire, 76 miles NNE. of Edinburgh and 42 SSW. of Aberdeen. It stands on a level peninsula between Montrose Basin (a tidal loch, measuring 2 by 1 3/4 miles, but almost dry ...
-Moravia
Moravia (Ger. Mahren), a crown-land of the Austrian empire. Area, 8579 sq. m. ; pop. (1870) 2,017,274; (1900) 2,437,706. It is enclosed on all sides by mountains, being separated from Silesia by the S...
-Morocco
Moroc'co, or Marocco (Arab. Maghreb-el-Aksa, ' the farthest west'), is an empire or sultanate in that part of north-west Africa bounded on the E. by Algeria, and on the S. by Cape Nun and the Wad Draa...
-Moscow
Mos'cow, formerly the capital of Russia, and still venerated as such by the Russian peasantry, stands on the little river Moskwa, a sub-tributary of the Volga, 403 miles by rail SE. of St Petersburg, ...
-Mozambique
Mozambique (Mozambeek'), the collective name for the northern section of Portuguese East Africa, extending from the Rovuma to the Zambesi, and bordering on German East Africa, Lake Tanganyika, and Bri...
-Mulhausen
Mulhausen (Millhow'zen; Fr. Mulhouse), a town of Alsace-Lorraine, on the 111 and the Rhone and Rhine Canal, 68 miles by rail SSW. of Strasburg and 20 NW. of Basel. It is a place of first-rate industri...
-Mull
Mull, an Argyllshire island, the largest of the Hebrides after Lewis and Skye, is separated from the mainland by the Sound of Mull (19 miles long and l 1/2 to 3 1/4 miles wide), and is engirt by a num...
-Munich
Munich (Ger. Munchen), the capital of Bavaria, in a barren plain, 1700 feet above sea-level, chiefly on the west bank of the impetuous Isar, a tributary of the Danube. By rail it is 440 miles SSW. of ...
-Munster
Munster, the south-west and largest of the four provinces of Ireland. It contains the six counties of Clare, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, Tip-perary, and Waterford. Area, 6,064,579 statute acres. Pop. (1841...
-Mysore
Mysore, or Maisur, a native state of southern India, surrounded entirely by districts of the Madras Presidency. Area, 29,444 sq. m. ; pop (1881) 4,186,188, (1901) 5,539,399. Mysore is an extensive tab...
-Nairnshire
Nairnshire, the fourth smallest county of Scotland, is washed on the north for 10 miles by the Moray Firth, and elsewhere bounded by Elgin and Inverness shires. Till 1891 it consisted of a main body, ...
-Nancy
Nancy (Nongsee), a beautiful French town, capital of Meurthe-et-Moselle, lies on the river Meurthe, at the foot of vine-clad hills, 220 miles by rail E. of Paris and 94 W. of Strasburg. It owes much o...
-Nanking
Nanking, capital of the province of Kiangsu, formerly the capital of China, on the Yangtsze River, 130 miles from its mouth. Its name signifies the Southern Capital. Since the removal of the seat of g...
-Nantes
Nantes (Nongt), eighth largest city of France, capital of Loire-Inferieure, lies on the right bank of the tidal Loire, 35 miles from the sea, and 248 by rail SW. of Paris. The old town having been dem...
-Naples
Naples (Nay'pels; Gr. and Lat. Neapolis, Ital. Napoli), till 1860 the capital of the kingdom of Naples, is the largest of Italian cities, and, with the doubtful exception of Constantinople, the most b...
-Nashville
Nashville, capital and second largest city of Tennessee, on the Cumberland River, 200 miles above the Ohio, and 185 by rail SSW. of Louisville. The city, which is a great railway centre, is built main...
-Natal
Natal, a British colony on the SE. coast of Africa, formerly part of the Cape settlement, was erected into a separate colony in 1856. Zulu-land (10,461 sq. m.) was added in 1897, and after the Boer wa...
-Nebraska
Nebraska, a central state of the American Union, the eleventh in area, lies between South Dakota, Iowa (separated by the Missouri River), Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming. Area, 76,855 sq. m. The surface...
-Nepal
Nepal (Ne-pawl'), a native kingdom of India, on the southern slope of the Himalayas, between Tibet and Bengal. It is 512 miles in length, by 70 to 150 in breadth. Area, 54,000 sq. m. ; pop. estimated ...
-Neuchatel
Neuchatel, or Neufchatel (Nuh-sha-tel'; Ger. Neuenburg), a canton in the west of Switzerland; between Lake Neuchatel and the French frontier. Most of its streams flow into the Rhine ; several are feed...
-Nevada
Nevada (Nevah'da), one of the Pacific states of the American Union, is bounded by Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, and California. Its greatest length from north to south is a little less than 500 miles,...
-Newark
Newark, a ruined tower of Selkirkshire, on the right bank of Yarrow Water, 4 1/4 miles WNW. of Selkirk town. It figures in the Lay of the Last Minstrel. See also Port-Glasgow. Newark New'ark, (1) th...
-Newark-upon-Trent
Newark-upon-Trent, a town of Notts, on a navigable branch of the Trent, 18 miles by rail NE. of Nottingham, and 120 N. by W. of London. It is approached from the north by a causeway, 1 1/2 mile long, ...
-New Brunswick
New Brunswick, an eastern province of Canada, washed on the E. by the Gulf of St Lawrence, and on the S. by the Bay of Fundy. It has an area of 27,322 sq. m. - rather smaller than Scotland. Its coast-...
-Newbury
New'bury, a thriving market-town of Berkshire, on the 'swift' Kennet, 17 miles W. by S. of Reading and 55 from London. Its gray old church, restored in 1867 at a cost of 15,000, is a fine Perpendicul...
-New Caledonia
New Caledonia, a South Pacific island, belonging to France, and lying midway between the Fiji Islands and Queensland; on it the Loyalty Islands and Isle of Pines are dependent. Surrounded by coral-ree...
-Newcastle-upon-Tyne
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, a city and county, on the north bank of the Tyne, 275 miles from London, 117 from Edinburgh, and 10 from the German Ocean. It is the seat of a bishopric founded in 1882, and it re...
-New Forest
New Forest, a triangular district of south-west Hampshire, 9 miles SW. of Southampton, bounded by the river Avon, the Solent and English Channel, and Southampton Water. It measures 14 by 16 miles, and...
-Newfoundland
Newfoundland (New'fundland'), a British island colony in North America, not yet incorporated with the Dominion of Canada, lies at the mouth of the Gulf of St Lawrence, separated from Labrador on the n...
-New Guinea
New Guinea, the largest island next after the Australian continent, from which it is separated by the shallow island-studded Torres Strait, 80 to 90 miles wide at its narrowest part. The two regions a...
-New Hampshire
New Hampshire, the 'Granite State,' the most northerly of the thirteen original United States of North America, lies between the province of Quebec, Maine and (for 18 miles) the Atlantic Ocean, Massac...
-New Haven
New Haven, the chief city and seaport of Connecticut, and capital of New Haven county, at the head of New Haven Bay, 4 miles from Long Island Sound, and 73 miles by rail ENE. of New York. Its broad st...
-New Hebrides
New Heb'rides, a chain of islands in the Western Pacific, extending NNW. to SSB., and lying W. of Fiji and NE. of New Caledonia. There are in all some thirty islands (area, 5110 sq. m.), of which twen...
-New Jersey
New Jersey, one of the thirteen original states of the American Union, is bounded by New York, the Hudson River, Staten Island Sound, Raritan Bay, the Atlantic, Delaware Bay, and the Delaware River. I...
-Newmarket
Newmarket, the 'racing capital of England,' lies on the border of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, 14 miles ENE. of Cambridge and 69 NNE. of London. Twice almost destroyed by fire, in 1683 and 1700, it chi...
-New Mexico
New Mexico, a territory in the SW. of the United States, is bounded by Colorado, Oklahoma, Texas, Mexico, and Arizona. The area is 122,580 sq. m. - larger than that of Great Britain and Ireland - and ...
-New Orleans
New Orleans (Or'lee-anz; but often Or-leens'), the chief city of Louisiana, and a great port and mart, is situated on both sides of the Mississippi River - the greater portion on the east bank - 107 m...
-Newport
Newport, (1) the capital of the Isle of Wight, on the navigable Medina, near the centre of the island, 4 1/2 miles S. of Cowes and 10 SW. of Ryde. The church, rebuilt in 1854-56 on the site of one nea...
-New South Wales
New South Wales, the oldest colony of Australasia, now a state of the Australian Commonwealth. The name formerly applied to the whole of the eastern part of Australia; but since the delimitation of th...
-New York
New York, the ' empire state' of the American Union, is the twenty-fifth in area and the first in population. It has a very irregular outline; two-thirds along the shores of Lake Erie, the Niagara Riv...
-New York City
New York City, the largest and most important city on the American continent, the third wealthiest on the globe, and, next to London, the most populous In the world. It is situated at the mouth of the...
-New Zealand
New Zealand, a British colony in the South Pacific Ocean, comprises three main islands - North Island, South or Middle Island, and Stewart Island, the last being much the smallest - besides a number o...
-Niagara
Niagara (Niag'ara - originally Neeagah'ra; 'Thunder of Waters'), a river of North America, which forms part of the boundary between New York state and the province of Ontario. It flows from Lake Erie ...
-Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Nikarah'giva), an independent state of Central America, stretching right across the isthmus from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific, between Costa Rica and Honduras, with an area of 47,S37 sq...
-Nice
Nice, or NicAea, a city of ancient Bithynia, in Asia Minor, situated on the eastern shore of Lake Ascania. The First and Seventh Ecumenical Councils were held here in 325 and 787 a.d. Nice Nice (Nee...
-Niger
Niger, a river of West Equatorial Africa, whose name first appears in Ptolemy, and may be derived from a native root gir or jur. The problem as to its course remained almost till the 19th century one ...
-Nigeria
Nigeria, since 1900 a British protectorate in West Equatorial Africa, includes all the territories administered till that date by the Royal Niger Company, and the Niger Coast Protectorate. On the east...
-Nile
Nile, the longest river of Africa, of the greatest interest historically and geographically, and to the ancient Egyptians pre-eminently the sacred river, draws its largest supplies of water from the V...
-Nimes
Nimes (Neem), the capital of the French dep. of Gard, lies in a fertile plain, engirt by the vine-clad Cevennes, 31 miles by rail NE. of Mont-pellier and 30 SW. of Avignon. The old town, with narrow c...
-Norfolk
Norfolk (Nor'fok), an eastern county of England, bounded by the North Sea, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and the Wash. With an extreme length and breadth of 66 miles by 42, it has an area of ...
-Normandy
Nor'mandy, formerly a province of France, lying along the seaboard of the English Channel, between Brittany and French Flanders. In area it corresponded approximately to the modern deps. of Seine-Infe...
-Northampton
Northampton, the capital of Northamptonshire, and a county, parliamentary, and municipal borough, is seated on rising ground on the Nen's left bank, 66 miles NW. by N. of London and 50 SE. of Birmingh...
-Northamptonshire
Northamp'tonshire, or Northants, a midland county of England, 67 miles long, and 25 where broadest, is surrounded by the counties of Rutland, Lincoln, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Bedford, Buckingham, Oxfor...
-North Carolina
North Carolina, one of the thirteen original United States, is situated on the Atlantic seaboard, S. of Virginia. Its extreme length is 500, its breadth 186 miles. Area, 52,250 sq. m., or larger than ...
-North Dakota
North Dakota, a state of the American Union, bounded by Canada(Saskatche\van and Manitoba), Minnesota, South Dakota, and Montana; area, 70,795 sq. m. - a fifth larger than England and Wales ; pop. (19...
-North Sea
North Sea, or German Ocean, a southern extension of the Arctic Ocean. Its northern boundary would be represented by a line drawn from the Shetland Islands to the opposite coast of Norway, and its sout...
-Northumberland
Northum'berland, the most northern county of England, separated from Scotland by the Tweed, and from Durham by the Tyne and Der-went. The German Ocean bounds it on the E., and Cumberland, with a part ...
-Norway
Norway (Norweg. Norge), the western division of the Scandinavian peninsula, extends from lat. 57 59' N. in the south-west to 71 11'in the north-east, overlapping Sweden and Lapland on the N....
-Norwich
Norwich (Nor'ridge), a cathedral city, the capital of Norfolk, and a parliamentary, county, and municipal borough (the first returning two members), is situated on the Wensum, immediately above its co...
-Nottingham
Nottingham, capital of Nottinghamshire, a parliamentary (three members) and municipal city (1897), county borough, and suffragan see under Lincoln, is seated on the Trent, 126 miles NNW. of London, 15...
-Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia, a province of Canada, consists of a long, narrow peninsula, and the island of Cape Breton, which is separated from the mainland by the Strait of Canso. It is bounded N. by Northumberland ...
-Noyon
Noyon (Nwa-yong'), a town in the French dep. of Oise, 67 miles NNE. of Paris by rail. It has a fine cathedral in the Transition style of the 12th century, an hotel-de-ville (1485-1523), and a former e...
-Nuremberg
Nuremberg (Ger. Nurnberg), a city in the Bavarian province of Middle Franconia, in a sandy but well-cultivated district, on the little Pegnitz (a sub-affluent of the Main), 95 miles N. by W. of Munich...
-Nyassa
Nyassa, or Nyasa (Nee-ah'sa), the southernmost of the equatorial great lakes of East Africa, is situated about 260 miles SE. of Tanganyika and 400 inland from the east coast. It lies at an altitude of...
-Odessa
Odessa, the fourth city of Russia, on the Black Sea, midway between the estuaries of the Dniester and Dnieper, by rail 967 miles SSW. of Moscow and 381 S. of Kieff. It is built facing the sea on low c...
-Ohio
Ohi'o, next to the Missouri the largest affluent of the Mississippi, is formed by the union of the Alleghany and Monongahela at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and flows west-south-west 975 miles, with a br...
-Oklahoma
Oklaho'ma, between Texas and Kansas, was organised in 1890 as a territory, and in 1906, absorbing the Indian Territory, became a state. In 1890 it consisted of two detached sections separated by the C...
-Oldenburg
Oldenburg (Ol-den-boorg), a grand-duchy of northern Germany, consisting of three distinct territories - Oldenburg Proper, the principality of Lubeck, and Birkenfeld. Total area, 2508 sq. m. (less than...
-Oldham
Oldham, a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough of Lancashire, on the Medlock, 7 miles NE. of Manchester, 5 SSE. of Rochdale, and 38 ENE. of Liverpool. It has grown since 1760 from a small vill...
-Ontario
Onta'rio, the easternmost and smallest (7240 sq. m.) of the five great lakes of North America, receives at its south-west corner the waters of the upper lakes by the Niagara River, and at its north-ea...
-Oporto
Oporto (Port. 0 porto, ' the port'), the second city of Portugal, stands high on the steep, rocky, right bank of the Douro, which reaches the sea 3 miles W. One of the crags overlooking the river is c...
-Orange
Orange, or Gariep (Gareep'), the largest river of South Africa, rises in the Kathlamba Mountains, in the east of Basutoland, and winds 1000 miles W. by N. to the Atlantic. It separates Cape Colony, on...
-Orange River Colony
Orange River Colony, a British crown colony in South Africa, lying between the Vaal and Orange rivers, and surrounded by Cape Colony, the Transvaal Colony, Natal, and Basutoland. This region is a plat...
-Oregon
Or'egon, one of the Pacific states of the American Union, bounded by Washington, Idaho, California, and Nevada. Area, 96,030 sq. m., or almost twice that of England. Oregon on the west is literally ro...
-Orinoco
Orino'co, one of the great rivers of South America, has its origin on the slopes of the Sierra Parima, in the extreme south-east of Venezuela. Flowing at first W. by N., a mountain-stream, it divides,...
-Orkney Islands
Orkney Islands, a group of ninety Scotch islands, islets, and skerries, of which only twenty-nine are inhabited, and which have an aggregate area of 376 sq. m., the largest being Pomona or Mainland (2...
-Orleans
Orleans (Or'leens or Or'le-anz; Fr. pron. Or-lay-ong'), a city of France, the capital now of the dep. of Loiret, and formerly of the old province of Orleannais, which comprised most of the present dep...
-Ostend
Ostend', a fashionable watering-place in the Belgian province of West Flanders, on the German Ocean, 77 miles by rail WNW. of Brussels. Its Digue, or sea-wall, 3 miles long, 40 feet high, and 35 yards...
-Ottawa
Ott'awa, one of the largest rivers of British North America, rises nearly 300 miles due north of Ottawa City, flows 300 miles west to Lake Temiscamingue, and thence 400 miles south-east, and falls int...
-Oudh
Oudh (Owd), or Awadh, a great plain sloping southward to the Ganges and watered by the Gumti, Gogra, and Rapti rivers, was made a British commissionership in 1858, and from 1877 was administered by th...
-Oxford
Oxford, the capital of the county, the home of the university, and the seat of the bishopric of the same name, stands about the confluence of the rivers Cherwell and Thames, 52 miles (63 by rail) WNW....
-Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire, an inland county of England, in shape very irregular, and with an extreme length and breadth of 48 miles by 26; is bounded by Warwickshire, Northants, Bucks, Berkshire, and Gloucestershir...
-Oxus
Oxus, the ancient name of the Amu or Amu-Daria, a river in western Asia, called by Arab writers the Jihun. It rises in the elevated tablelands between the Tian-Shan Mountains and the Hindu-Kush, and f...
-Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean, the largest of the great divisions of the ocean, occupying about one-half of the water-surface of the globe and more than one-third of the area of the world. It is almost landlocked tow...
-Padua
Pad'ua (Ital. Pad'ova), a city of north Italy, 23 miles by rail W. by S. of Venice and 18 SE. of Vicenza, is still surrounded with walls. The municipal palace (1172-1219) is a huge structure resting o...
-Paisley
Paisley, a busy manufacturing town of Renfrewshire, stands, backed by the Braes of Glen-iffer (749 feet), on the White Cart, 3 miles above its influx to the Clyde, 7 WSW. of Glasgow and 16 ESE. of Gre...
-Palermo
Paler'mo, formerly the capital of Sicily, now in point of population the fifth city of Italy, an archbishopric, and a seaport. It stands on a bay in the north-west corner of the island, at the mouth o...
-Palestine
Pal'estine, Canaan, the Land of Israel, or the Holy Land, scene of most of the great events of sacred story, is a country in the SW. of Syria. Palestine proper (i.e. without the territory beyond Jorda...
-Pamir
Pamir (Pameer'; 'roof of the world;' often called the Pamirs), the nucleus of the Central Asian highland system, is a lofty plateau-region, with a mean elevation of 13,000 feet, uniting the western te...
-Panama
Panama, Isthmus of, formerly called the Isthmus of Darien (q.v.), embraces the narrowest part (35 miles) of Central America, connecting Costa Rica on the W. with Colombia on the E. Formerly a departme...
-Panama Canal
Panama Canal. - The idea of connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans by a canal across the Central American isthmus is as old as the 16th century; but no steps were taken to carry out any plan until...
-Paraguay
Paraguay (Paragway' or Paragwi), an important river of South America, an affluent of the Parana (q.v.), rises in the Brazilian state of Matto Grosso, pursues a generally southward course of about 1800...
-Parana
Parana, (1) a river of South America, rises as the Rio Grande in the Brazilian state of Minas Geraes, and is known as Parana after its junction with the Paranahyba (not the Parnahyba, q.v.). Thence it...
-Paris
Paris (Fr. pron. Par-ee'), capital of France, and the largest city in Europe after London, is situated in 48 50' N. lat. and 2 20' E. long., on the river Seine, about 110 miles from its mout...
-Parma
Parma, a town of Italy, from 1545 to 1860 the capital of the duchy of Parma, is situated on the ancient Via Emilia, and on the river Parma, 12 1/2 miles S. from the Po, and by rail 56 miles NW. of Bol...
-Patagonia
Patagonia (from patagones, the large 'footsteps ' seen by early Spanish voyagers; or from the Indian patacuna, 'terraces'), the most southern region of the South American continent, extending from S. ...
-Patna
Patna, an Ayrshire village, on the Doon, 10 miles SB. of Ayr. Pop. 486. Patna Patna, called also Azimabad, a city of Bengal, 140 miles E. of Benares by rail, extends 9 miles along the Ganges and 2 m...
-Pavia
Pavia (Ital. Pavee'a), a city of northern Italy and a bishop's see, on the left bank of the Ticino, 2 miles above its confluence with the Po, and 21 miles by rail S. of Milan, is still partly surround...
-Peeblesshire
Peeblesshire, or Tweeddale, a southern county of Scotland, bounded by Edinburgh, Selkirk, Dumfries, and Lanark shires. Irregular in outline, it has a maximum length and breadth of 29 and 21 miles, and...
-Peking
Peking, or Pei-Ching ('Northern Capital'), the capital of the Chinese empire, is in 39 54' 36 N. lat. and 116 27' E. long. It is situated in a sandy plain, and is surrounded by walls with s...
-Pembroke
Pembroke, the county town of Pembrokeshire, on a navigable creek of Milford Haven, 9 miles W. of Tenby and 80 W. by N. of Cardiff. On the extremity of the ridge on which the town is built stands Pembr...
-Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire, a maritime county of South Wales, the westernmost of the Principality. Measuring 30 by 25 miles, it has an area of 611 sq. m., or 391,181 acres, of which three-fourths is arable. The co...
-Penang
Penang (Pulo Pin'ang, ' Betel-nut Island'), officially Prince of Wales Island, one of the British Straits Settlements (q.v.), lies at the northern extremity of the Strait of Malacca, 2 to 10 miles fro...
-Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania, since 1830 the second in population of the United States, is a parallelogram lying between New York and Maryland, Ohio and New Jersey. The Delaware is the boundary on the E.; and in the ...
-Penzance
Penzance' (Corn., 'holy headland'), a town of Cornwall, the most westerly in England, at the head of Mount's Bay, 10 miles ENE. of Land's End, 80 W. by S. of Plymouth, and 328 (by road 281) WSW. of Lo...
-Perigueux
Perigueux (Payr-ee-guh'), a town of France, formerly capital of Perigord, now in the dep. of Dordogne, and situated on the right bank of the Isle, a tributary of the Dordogne, 95 miles by rail NE. of ...
-Pernambuco
Pernambu'co, or Recife (Re-see'feh), the busiest seaport of North Brazil, stands at the easternmost point of the coast. It consists of three portions, connected by bridges - Recife ('the reef) proper,...
-Persepolis
Persep'olis (' Persian City'), the Greek name for the capital of ancient Persia, was situated to the east of the river Medus (Murghab), 14 miles above its confluence with the Araxes (Bendemir), 35 mil...
-Persia
Persia, called by the natives Iran, the most important native kingdom of western Asia, is bounded by Russian Caucasia, the Caspian Sea, the Russian Transcaspian provinces, Afghanistan, Beluchistan, th...
-Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf, an arm of the Indian Ocean which penetrates 650 miles north-westward between Arabia and Persia. Its breadth varies from 55 miles at the mouth to 250 miles, and the area is estimated at 7...
-Perth
Perth, the county town of Perthshire, on the right bank of the tidal Tay, 43 miles NNW. of Edinburgh, 22 WSW. of Dundee, and 62 NE. of Glasgow. The beauty of its surroundings - the noble river; the tw...
-Perthshire
Perthshire, the fourth largest county of Scotland, bounded by Inverness, Aberdeen, Forfar, Fife, Kinross, Clackmannan, Stirling, Dumbarton, and Argyll shires. Its greatest length, from east to west, i...
-Peru
Peru (Per-oo'), a republic of South America, extending from near 2 to 17 20' S. lat. Previous to the annexations by Chili, the Peruvian territory stretched southward to 22 10', with a l...
-Perugia
Perugia (Per-oo'ja), a city of Italy, stands (1600 feet above sea-level) on the Tiber's right bank, 11 miles E. of the Lake of Perugia (anc. Lacus Trasimenus) and 127 miles by rail N. of Rome. It is s...
-Pesth
Pesth (Pest), or more correctly Budapest, because since 1873 it has been united with Buda (Ger. Ofen) into one municipality, is the capital of Hungary, and next after Vienna the second city of the Aus...
-Peterborough
Peterborough, a city partly in Huntingdonshire, but chiefly in Northamptonshire, the latter portion being on the left or north bank of the river Nen, at the edge of the fen-country, 76 miles N. of Lon...
-Peterhead
Peterhead', a seaport and burgh of barony of Buchan, Aberdeenshire, on a peninsula, 32 miles by road, but 44 by a branch-line (1862), NNE. of Aberdeen. Founded in 1593, it is somewhat irregular in pla...
-Philadelphia
Philadelphia. See Ala-shehr. Philadelphia Philadelphia, the chief city of Pennsylvania and the third city of the United States, is situated on the Delaware River, about 100 miles by ship-channel (vi...
-Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands, a large insular group forming a northern section of the Eastern Archipelago, from which it is separated by the two profound abysses of the Sulu (Mindoro) and Celebes Seas, 2000 to ...
-Phoenicia
Phoenicia (Gr. Phnike) was a comparatively narrow strip of country lying to the north of Palestine, along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, bounded by that sea westwards, and eastwards extendi...
-Piacenza
Piacenza (P'yachentz'a), a city of northern Italy, on the right bank of the Po, a little below its confluence with the Trebbia, 43 miles by rail SE. of Milan, and 35 NW. of Parma. It is defended with ...
-Pisa
Pisa (Pee-za), one of the oldest cities of Italy, the rival of Venice and Genoa, is situated on the Arno, 6 miles from its mouth, by rail 49 miles W. of Florence, and 13 NE. of Leghorn. It was formerl...
-Pitcairn Island
Pitcairn Island, a solitary island in the Pacific Ocean, between Australia and South America, in 25 3' S. lat. and 130 8' W. long., measures 2 1/2 miles by 1 mile. When discovered by Cartere...
-Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh (Pitts'burg), the second city of Pennsylvania, is built on a narrow strip of land where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers meet to form the Ohio: it extends 7 or 8 miles up the rivers, an...
-Plymouth
Plymouth (Plim'muth), one of the most famous of English seaports, an ancient parliamentary, municipal, and county borough, lies in the extreme SW. corner of Devonshire, 246 miles by rail (216 by road)...
-Plymouth Sound is a deep inlet
Plymouth Sound is a deep inlet, 2 1/2 to 3 miles wide, and 3 deep, into which the river Tamar falls from the west, and the river Plym from the east. It is sheltered by a great breakwater, constructed ...
-Poitiers
Poitiers (Fr. pron. Pwahteeay'), the capital of the French dep. of Vienne, occupies the summit and slopes of a little eminence, round whose base flow the Clain and the Boivre, 61 miles SSW. of Tours. ...
-Pola
Pola, the chief naval station of Austria-Hungary, near the south end of the peninsula of Istria, 105 miles by rail S. of Trieste, with a sheltered, deep, and spacious harbour. The town is protected by...
-Poland
Poland (called by the natives Polslca, a word of the same root as Pole, 'a plain '), a former kingdom of Europe, was, immediately previous to its dismemberment, bounded N. by the Baltic Sea from Danzi...
-Polynesia
Polynesia (Gr. polys, 'many,' nesos, 'island'), a term applied collectively by some writers to all the Pacific islands of strictly oceanic character - i.e. either of volcanic or coralline origin; by o...
-Pompeii
Pompeii (Pompee'i; Ital. pron. Pompay'yee), once a seaport at the mouth of the Sarnus, on the Neapolitan Riviera, founded about 600 b.c. by the Oscans, and, after them, occupied by the Tyr-rheno-Pelas...
-Pontefract
Pontefract, or Pomfret, a pleasant market-town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, on an eminence near the influx of the Calder to the Aire, 13 miles SE. of Leeds, 8 E. by N. of Wakefield, and 14 NNW. of...
-Poole
Poole, a Dorset seaport, 5 miles W. of Bournemouth and 30 E. of Dorchester. It stands on the north side of Poole Harbour (7 by 4 1/4 miles), an irregular inlet, formed by the projection of the 'isle' ...
-Portland
Portland, (1) the largest city and chief seaport of Maine, and capital of Cumberland county, on Casco Bay, 108 miles by rail NE. of Boston. It is situated on a narrow peninsula, 2 1/2 sq. m. in area, ...
-Portsmouth
Portsmouth (Ports'muth), the chief naval arsenal of Great Britain, and an important seaport, market-town, and municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, in the south of Hampshire, stands on the sou...
-Portugal
Por'tugal (named from Portus Cale, the Roman name of Oporto, q.v.), a kingdom of Europe, lying between Spain and the Atlantic, on the west side of the Iberian Peninsula, stretches 350 miles between 36...
-Posen
Posen (Polish Poznan), a Prussian province, bounded N. by West Prussia, E. by Poland, S. by Silesia, and W. by Brandenburg. Area, 11,178 sq. m. The navigable Warthe traverses it from E. to W.; the Vis...
-Potsdam
Potsdam, chief town of the Prussian province of Brandenburg, and second residence town of the monarch, is situated on an island formed by the lake-like river Havel, a canal, and other waterways, 18 mi...
-Pozzuoli
Pozzuoli (Potz-oo-ol'ee) a city of Italy, on the Bay of Naples, 7 miles W. of Naples by tramway, is interesting from its classic memorials - the cathedral (once the Temple of Augustus), the Serapeum, ...
-Prague
Prague (Ger. Prag; Czech Praha), the capital of Bohemia, is situated at the base and on the slope of the hills which skirt both sides of the isleted Moldau, 217 miles by rail NNW. of Vienna and 118 SS...
-Preston
Preston, an important manufacturing town of Lancashire, a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, at the head of the estuary of the Ribble, 14 miles from the Irish Sea, 28 NNE. of Liverpool, 31 ...
-Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island, since 1873 a province of Canada, is situated in the Gulf of St Lawrence, and is separated from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia by Northumberland Strait. Its greatest length is 130 ...
-Providence
Providence, seaport and, since 1900, sole capital of the state of Rhode Island, is situated at the head of navigation, on an arm of Narragansett Bay known as Providence River, 35 miles from the ocean ...
-Prussia
Prussia (Ger. Preussen), by far the most important state in the German empire, is a kingdom embracing nearly the whole of northern Germany, and owning also Hohenzollern (q.v.) and thirteen other detac...
-Punjab
Punjab, or Panjab (panj-ab, 'five rivers;' the Pentapotamia of the Greeks), a province in the NW. of India, bordering on Cashmere, is watered by the Indus and its five great affluents - the Jhelum, Ch...
-Pyramids
Pyramids, monumental structures of stone or brick over the sepulchral chambers of Egyptian kings, built in the well-known pyramidal shape. The most famous are those of Gizeh, on the other side of the ...
-Quebec
Quebec (Kwe-bek'; Fr. Quebec, pron. Kay-bek'), a province of Canada, between Ontario and New Brunswick. Area (with additions up to 1900), 347,350 sq. miles. The surface comprises great rivers and lake...
-Queensland
Queensland, youngest and second largest of the colonies included, after 1901, in the Australian Commonwealth, comprises an area of 668,497 sq. m. It was little known until 1823, when Oxley discovered ...
-Quito
Quito (Kee'to), the capital of Ecuador, and of the province of Pichincha, lies in 0 14' S. lat., on the east side of the great plateau of Quito, at the foot of the volcano of Pichincha (q.v.), 93...
-Radnorshire
Radnorshire, a border county of South Wales, bounded by the counties of Montgomery, Salop, Hereford, Brecon, and Cardigan. Measuring 36 miles by 30, and 432 sq. m. in area, it is the tenth in size and...
-Ragusa
Ragu'sa (u as oo; Slav. Dubrovnik), a decayed city of Dalmatia, stands on the east shore of the Adriatic, 100 miles SE. of Spalato. Greek first and then Roman, Ragusa afterwards became an independent ...
-Ramsgate
Ramsgate, a watering-place of Kent, in the south-east of the Isle of Thanet, 72 miles E. by S. of London, 4 SSE. of Margate, and 15 ENE. of Canterbury. From a small fishing-village it began to increas...
-Rangoon
Rangoon', the capital of Burma, stands on the Hlaing or Rangoon River, 20 miles from its entrance into the Gulf of Martaban. The existing city is almost entirely modern, built since the British took p...
-Ratisbon
Rat'isbon (Ger. Regensburg), a town of Bavaria, on the Danube's right bank, 82 miles by rail NNE. of Munich. Formerly a free city of the empire and seat of the Diet, Ratisbon presents a mediaeval char...
-Ravenna
Ravenna, a walled city of Italy, 43 miles E. of Bologna, once close to, but now some 5 miles from the Adriatic, with which it is connected by the Corsini Canal. It has been the seat of an archbishop s...
-Reading
Reading (Red'ding), a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, capital of Berkshire, on the Kennet, near its influx to the Thames, 36 miles by rail W. of London (by road 39, by river 74). Its cas...
-Red Sea
Red Sea, an arm of the Indian Ocean, running NNW. from the Gulf of Aden, with which it communicates by the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, 13 1/2 miles across. Its length is about 1200 miles, and its greates...
-Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire, a Scottish county, bounded N. by the river and firth of Clyde, and elsewhere by Lanarkshire and Ayrshire. It is 31 miles long by 13 broad, and contains 254 sq. m. or 162,428 acres, of wh...
-Reunion
Reunion (Fr. pron. nearly Ray-een-yong'), a French island in the Indian Ocean, 115 miles SW. of Mauritius and 350 E. of Madagascar. An ellipse in shape, it has an area of 970 sq. m., being 38 miles lo...
-Rheims
Rheims (Reems; Fr. pron. Rangss), or Reims, a city in the French dep. of Marne, situated on the Vesle (a tributary of the Aisne), 100 miles ENE. of Paris by rail. Strongly fortified with detached fort...
-Rhenish Prussia
Rhenish Prussia (Ger. Rheinland, or Rhein-preussen), the most western and most thickly peopled of the provinces of Prussia, lies on the Rhine and Lower Moselle, and is bounded W. by Luxemburg, Belgium...
-Rhine
Rhine (Ger. Rhein, Fr. Rhin, Dutch Rhijn, Lat. Rhenus), one of the most important rivers of Europe. A large number of rivulets, issuing from Swiss glaciers, unite to form the young Rhine; but two are ...
-Rhode Island
Rhode Island, the smallest of the United States, and one of the original thirteen states of the Union, is not itself an island, but takes its name from the island of Rhode Island (perhaps a corruption...
-Rhodes
Rhodes, once a wealthy state of ancient Greece, now Turkish, lies 12 miles off the SW. coast of Asia Minor. It is 49 miles long by 21 broad, and 563 sq. m. in area, and is traversed by a chain of moun...
-Rhodesia
Rhodesia, named from Cecil Rhodes, founder of the British South Africa Company, is a vast region extending from the frontiers of the Transvaal and the 22d degree of south latitude to the southern limi...
-Rhone
Rhone (Lat. Rhodanus), the only important French river which falls into the Mediterranean, takes its rise in the Swiss Alps, on the western side of Mount St Gothard, at an altitude of 5752 feet, and n...
-Richmond
Richmond, an ancient municipal borough in the North Riding of Yorkshire, on the left bank of the deep-channelled Swale, 49 miles by a branch-line NW. of York. Its Norman castle (1072-1146), now utilis...
-Riga
Riga (Ree'ga), capital of Livonia, and next after St Petersburg and Odessa the third seaport of Russia, lies on the Dwina, 7 miles from its mouth, and 350 by rail SW. of St Petersburg. The old town ha...
-Rimini
Rimini (Rim'i-nee), a walled city of Italy, stands on the Adriatic, 69 miles by rail SE. of Bologna. The cathedral, a beautiful Renaissance structure, dates from 1446-50; the church of St Giuliano is ...
-Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro (Ree'o deh Zha-nay'e-ro), the capital of Brazil, stands on the west side of one of the most magnificent natural harbours in the world. An inlet of the Atlantic, the bay of Rio de Janeir...
-Ripon
Rip'on, a city in the West Riding of Yorkshire, on the Ure, 23 miles NW. of York, 28 N. of Leeds, and 11 N. of Harrogate. A monastery, founded here in 660 by St Cuthbert and other monks of Melrose, wa...
-Riviera
Riviera (Ree-vee-ay'ra; 'seashore'), a term applied to the narrow strip of coast-land bordering the Gulf of Genoa, strictly from Nice to Spezzia, but generally understood to include the whole coast of...
-Rochdale
Rochdale (Rotch-dale), a manufacturing town of Lancashire, a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, on the Roche, 11 miles N. by E. of Manchester and 202 NNW. of London. St Chad's parish church...
-Rochelle
Rochelle, La (Ro-shell'), a French fortified seaport, capital of the dep. of Charente-Inferieure, on an inlet of the Bay of Biscay, formed by the islands Re and Oleron, 91 miles WSW. of Poitiers and 2...
-Rochester
Rochester (Rotch'es-ter), a city of Kent, 29 miles ESE. of London, lies chiefly on the right bank of the tidal Medway, continuous with Chatham, and joined to Strood by an iron swing bridge, constructe...
-Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains, the eastern ranges of the great Cordilleran system in North America, which attains its greatest breadth within the United States (over 1000 miles between 38 and 42 N.). The ...
-Rome
Rome, the capital of the modern kingdom of Italy, stands on the Tiber, about 15 miles from its mouth (from 35 to 44 hours' journey from Paris by rail). Roman legend ascribed its foundation to Romulus ...
-Roscommon
Roscommon, an inland county of Connaught, Ireland, bounded E. by the Shannon, is 62 miles long from N. to S., by 35 from E. to W. Area, 607, 691 acres, of which barely one-fifth is under crops; more t...
-Roslin
Roslin, a Midlothian village, near the wooded glen of the North Esk, 6 1/2 miles S. of Edinburgh. Its castle, dating from the 14th century, was the seat of the St Clairs, Earls of Orkney from 1379 to ...
-Ross and Cromarty
Ross and Cromarty, a Highland county, the third largest in Scotland, extends from the German Ocean to the Atlantic, and is bounded N. by Sutherland, S. by Inverness-shire. In 1890-91 it was finally fo...
-Rotherham
Rotherham (Roth'er-am; th as in this), a busy manufacturing town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, on the right bank of the Don, here joined by the Rother, 5 miles ENE. of Sheffield by a railway opened...
-Rothesay
Rothesay (Roth'say; th as in thick), a favourite Scottish watering-place, the capital of Buteshire, is beautifully situated on the north-east shore of the island of Bute, 40 miles by water W. of Glasg...
-Rotterdam
Rotterdam, the busiest port of Holland, stands on both sides of the Maas, 19 miles from its mouth, 16 by rail SE. of the Hague, and 45 SW. of Amsterdam. Its trade grew at an extraordinarily rapid rate...
-Rouen
Rouen (Roo-ong'; Lat. Rotomagus), formerly capital of Normandy, and now chief town of Seine-Inferieure, and a great manufacturing city, is situated on the Seine's right bank, 87 miles NW. of Paris. Th...
-Roumania
Rouma'nia, a kingdom in SE. Europe, lying mainly between the Carpathians, the Pruth, and the Danube (the Dobrudja being south of the Danube), and bordering on Hungary, Russia, Bulgaria, and Servia. It...
-Roxburghshire
Roxburghshire, a Scottish Border county, bounded by Berwickshire, Northumberland and Cumberland, Dumfriesshire, Selkirkshire, and Midlothian. Its greatest length is 42 miles; its greatest breadth 30 m...
-Rugby
Rugby, a town of Warwickshire, at the Swift's influx to the Avon, 83 miles NW. of London and 30 ESE. of Birmingham. It is an important railway junction, a great hunting centre, and the seat of a publi...
-Russia
Russia, an empire extending over eastern Europe, the whole of northern Asia, and a part of central Asia. Its limits are 38 30' and 78 N. lat, and 17 19' and 190 E. long. This area,...
-Rutland
Rutland, the smallest county in England, bounded by Leicester, Lincoln, and Northampton shires. It measures 18 by 15 miles, and has an area of 150 sq. m. or 95,805 acres. The Guash or Wash, flowing to...
-Ryde
Ryde, a flourishing and fashionable watering-place on the north-east coast of the Isle of Wight. 4 1/2 miles SSW. of Portsmouth, from which it is separated by the roadstead of Spithead. It consists of...
-Sacramento
Sacramento, the largest river of California, rises in the NE. part of the state, its head-stream, Pitt River, draining Goose Lake, and flows 500 miles SW., S., and SSW. to Suisun Bay, through which it...
-Sahara
Sahara (usually Sa-hay'ra, properly Sah'a-ra; Arab. Sah'ra), the vast desert region of North Africa, stretching from the Atlantic to the Nile, and from the southern confines of Morocco, Algeria, Tunis...
-St Albans
St Albans, a city of Hertfordshire, 20 miles NNW. of London, on the top and northern slope of an eminence washed by the Ver, one of the chief feeders of the Colne, across which stood Verulamium. That ...
-St Andrews
St Andrews, a city of Fife, stands on a rocky plateau at the edge of St Andrews Bay, 42 miles NNE. of Edinburgh. The monkish legend, long discredited, assigned its ecclesiastical origin to St Regulus ...
-St Davids
St Davids, a 'city' of Pembrokeshire, South Wales, in the westernmost corner of the principality, on the rivulet Alan, within l 1/2 mile of St Brides Bay and 16 miles WNW. of Haverfordwest station. Th...
-St Denis
St Denis (Sang De-nee'), a town in the French dep. of Seine, 4 miles N. of Paris, within the line of forts forming the outer defences of the city. It manufactures calicoes, flour, chemicals, machinery...
-St Etienne
St Etienne (Sangt Ay-te-enn'), one of the most important industrial towns in France, stands (dep. Loire) on a tributary of the Loire, 36 miles by rail SW. of Lyons and 312 SSE. of Paris. Built in the ...
-St Gall
St Gall, a Swiss canton, with the Lake of Constance on the N. It is for the most part mountainous, rising to 10,660 feet in Ringelspitz, and to 8216 in Santis. The Rhine flows along the eastern border...
-St Helena
St Helena (generally called St Helena, not St Helena), a lonely island in the Atlantic, 1200 miles from the west coast of Africa, 1695 from Capetown, and 4477 from Southampton, measures 10 miles by 8,...
-St Ives
St Ives, (1) a fishing-town of Cornwall, beautifully situated on the west shore of St Ives Bay, 8 miles NNE. of Penzance. It has a branch-line (1865); a harbour, with a pier by Smeaton (1770) and a br...
-St John
St John, the largest river of New Brunswick, rises in Maine, flows 450 miles NE. and SE. (the last 225 within British territory), and falls into the Bay of Fundy by an estuary 5 miles wide. Part of it...
-St Kilda
St Kilda, a lonely island in the Atlantic, belonging to Harris in Inverness-shire, and 40 miles W. of North Uist. With an extreme length and breadth of 3 1/4 and 1 1/4 miles, it is only 1.9 sq. m. in ...
-St Lawrence
St Lawrence, a great river of North America, which, issuing from Lake Ontario, flows northeast 750 miles - part of the way forming the boundary between Canada and the United States - and falls into th...
-St Louis
St Louis, fourth city of the United States in size, commercial metropolis of the Mississippi valley, and principal city of the Missouri state, is on the west bank of the Mississippi River, 21 miles S...
-St Malo
St Malo (Sang Ma-lo'), a seaport of Brittany, dep. Ille-et-Vilaine, on the Rance estuary, 51 miles NNW. of Rennes. The old town clusters all over a rocky islet that is surrounded with walls and connec...
-St Michaels Mount
St Michael's Mount, a conical and isolated granite rock in Mount's Bay, Cornwall, 3 miles E. of Penzance. It communicates with the shore by a causeway 560 yards long, which, however, is covered with w...
-St Michel
St Michel (Mong Sang Mee-shell'), Mont, an extraordinary rocky islet of the Norman dep. of Manche, in the Bay of St Michel, 18 miles WSW. of Avranches. It is a solitary cone of granite, a thousand yar...
-St Paul
St Paul, the capital of the state of Minnesota, on the Mississippi, near the mouth of the Minnesota River. It is the outgrowth of a hamlet of voyageurs, chiefly Canadian, employed in the fur trade, an...
-St Petersburg
St Petersburg, capital of the Russian empire, stands at the head of the Gulf of Finland, and at the mouth of the Neva, in 59 56' N. lat. and 39 19' E. long. The flat and low marshy ground up...
-St Thomas
St Thomas, a volcanic island of Africa belonging to Portugal, lies in the Gulf of Guinea 170 miles W. of the mouth of the river Gaboon. Its southern extremity almost touches the equator. Measuring 32 ...
-Salamanca
Salamanca, a city of Spain, stands on and between four low hills beside the river Tonnes, 110 miles NW. of Madrid. Its university, founded in 1243, was till the close of the 17th c. one of the most ce...
-Salem
Salem, a town of S. India, 120 miles by rail SW. of Madras, with cotton manufactures. Pop. 70,650. Salem Salem, (1) a city and port of entry on a peninsula in Massachusetts Bay, 16 miles by rail N. ...
-Salisbury is a cathedral city
Salisbury is a cathedral city, the capital of Wiltshire, and a parliamentary and municipal borough, which stands in a valley near the confluence of the rivers Avon, Bourne, Wily, and Nadder, 84 miles ...
-Salonica
Saloni'ca, or Saloniki (Turk. Selanik), the second commercial city of European Turkey, stands at the head of the Gulf of Salonica, 820 miles SSE. of Vienna by rail (1889), via Belgrade, Uskub, and Nis...
-Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City, the chief town and ecclesiastical capital of the state of Utah, is on the river Jordan, 11 miles from Great Salt Lake (q.v.), and 4265 feet above the level of the sea. By rail it is 36...
-Salvador
Salvador', the smallest but by far the most thickly populated of the Central American Republics, consists of a strip of territory stretching between Honduras and the Pacific. It is 140 miles in length...
-Salzburg
Salzburg (Sahltz'boorg), a crown-land of Austria, bounded W. by Bavaria and the Tyrol, S. by Carinthia, and E. by Styria. Area, 2762 sq. m.; pop. (1880) 163,570; (1900) 192,762. It lies on the norther...
-Samarcand
Samarcand', a city of western Turkestan, on the Transcaspian railway, 4 miles S. of the Zeraf-shan river, and amongst the western spurs of the Tian-Shan Mountains, 130 miles E. by S. of Bokhara and 15...
-Samaria
Samaria, the capital of the northern kingdom of Israel, after Israel (the Ten Tribes) and Judah became two independent states. It was founded by Omri, on the long flat summit of an isolated hill (1450...
-Samoa
Samo'a. The Samoa or Navigators' Islands are a group of islands in the Western Pacific, crossed by 170 W. and 14 S., between 400 and 500 miles NE. of Fiji. The group consists of nine islands...
-Samos
Samos, an island in the Aegean, close to the coast of Asia Minor, 45 miles SSW. of Smyrna; length is 30 miles, mean breadth 8, area 180 sq. m. The highest peak, Mount Kerki (anc. Cerceteus), reaches 4...
-Sandwich {Sandwitch or -wij)
Sandwich {Sand'witch or -wij), a decayed seaport of Kent, on the right bank of the Stour, 12 miles E. of Canterbury and 68 (by rail 84) ESE. of London. It now stands 2 miles from the sea, or 4 if one ...
-San Francisco
San Francisco, the largest city of the Pacific coast, and commercial emporium of California, is situated in 37 47' 22 N. lat. and 122 25' 40.76 W. long., 2434 miles W. of St Louis by rail,...
-San Jose
San Jose, capital of Santa Clara county, California, on the Guadalupe River, 8 miles from the Bay and 50 by rail SE. of the city of San Francisco. Besides a fine court-house and a city hall, it contai...
-Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz (Krooz), also called Sainte Croix, one of the Virgin Islands, with an area of 74 sq. m. and a pop. (1890) of 21,000. Sugar, rum, and cotton are produced; the capital is Christianstadt (pop....
-Santiago
Santiago. See Cape Verd Islands. Santiago Santiago (San-tee-ah'go), the capital of Chili, stands near the western base of the Andes, 1700 feet above sea-level, and 115 miles by rail ESE. of Valparai...
-Saragossa
Saragossa (Span. Saragoza), a city of Spain, formerly the capital of Aragon, by rail 212 miles NE. of Madrid and 227 W. by N. of Barcelona, stands on the Ebro, which is crossed by a noble stone bridge...
-Sarajevo
Sarajevo (Sari-yay'vo; Turkish Bosna-Serai), capital of Bosnia, stands on the hill-slopes that overlook the Bosna River (3 miles distant), 166 miles SW. by rail of Bosna-Brod, on the Danube, and 100 E...
-Sarawak
Sarawak (Sar-ah'wak), a state in the northwest of Borneo, since 1888 a British protectorate. The Chinese Sea washes its north-west side; on the north-east is the protected state of Brunei; and on ever...
-Sardinia
Sardinia, an island of Italy, after Sicily the largest in the Mediterranean, lies 135 miles W. of the Tiber mouth, and immediately south of Corsica, being separated from it by the Strait of Bonifacio,...
-Savannah
Savan'nah, a river which forms the boundary between Georgia and South Carolina, rises near the North Carolina frontier, and flows 450 miles SSE. to the Atlantic. It is navigable from November to June ...
-Saxon Duchies
Saxon Duchies, a group of Central German states lying between Prussian Saxony, the kingdom of Saxony, Bavaria, and Hesse-Nassau. State. Area in sq. m. Pop. in 1900. Saxe-Alte...
-Saxony
Sax'ony, a kingdom of Germany, fifth in area, but third in population, amongst the states of the empire; it is surrounded by Bohemia, Silesia, Prussian Saxony, and the minor Saxon states. It measures ...
-Scilly Islands
Scilly Islands (Silly), a Cornish group, lie about 27 miles WSW. of Land's End. They occupy, as a group, about 30 sq. m. of sea-room, and consist of six large islands - St Mary's (1528 acres; pop. 129...
-Scotland
Scotland, the northern part of Great Britain, is washed on the W. and N. by the Atlantic, on the E. by the North Sea, and on the S. is parted from England by the Solway Firth and the (largely artifici...
-Sebastopol
Sebas'topol (Russian pron. Se-vas-top'ol), a Russian seaport and fortress, is situated on the site of an old Tartar village near the south-west extremity of the Crimea, on the southern side of one of ...
-Seine
Seine (Sayn or Sehn), one of the four chief rivers of France, rises on the slope of the plateau of Langres, north-west of Dijon, and winds 482 miles NW., past Troyes, Fontainebleau, Melun, Paris, St D...
-Selkirkshire
Selkirkshire, an inland county in the south of Scotland, bounded by Peebles, Edinburgh, Roxburgh, and Dumfries shires. Measuring 28 miles by 17, it has an area of 260 sq. m. or 166,524 acres, of which...
-Senegambia
Senegambia, a territory subject to France, on the west coast of Africa and embracing the colony of Senegal proper, a territory on both banks of the river Senegal (pop. 135,500), and various protected ...
-Servia
Servia, a kingdom of the Balkan Peninsula, south of the Danube, and bordering on Bosnia, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, and Turkey, with an area of 18,750 sq. m. The surface is mountainous; the highest ...
-Severn
Severn (Lat. Sabrina), after the Thames, the largest of the rivers of England, rises, 1500 feet above sea-level, from a chalybeate spring on the eastern side of Plinlimmon, 12 miles west of Llanidloes...
-Seville
Seville (Span. Sevilla; pron. Seveel'ya), one of the most famous of Spanish cities, stands on the left bank of the navigable Guadalquivir, 62 miles (95 by rail) N. by E. of Cadiz, and is connected wit...
-Seychelles
Seychelles (Say-shell'), a group of British islands, dependent on Mauritius, are situated near the middle of the Indian Ocean, 600 miles NE. of Madagascar and 934 N. of Mauritius. There are thirty lar...
-Shanghai
Shanghai (Shang-hi'), the most important seaport for central China, stands on an affluent of the Yang-tsze-kiang, 12 miles from its mouth and 160 SE. of Nanking. The Chinese city, with narrow, filthy ...
-Shannon
Shannon, the largest river of Ireland, rises in the Cuilcagh Mountains, County Cavan, and falls after a course of 254 miles into the Atlantic Ocean between Loop Head and Kerry Head. It flows SW. to Lo...
-Sheffield
Sheffield, a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, in a hilly country, at the confluence of the Sheaf with the Don, 46 miles SSW. of York, 41 E. of Manchester, ...
-Sherborne
Sherborne (A.S., ' clear brook'), a pleasant old-fashioned town of Dorsetshire, in the Vale of Blackmore, on a gentle southern hill-slope above the Yeo, 17 miles N. by W. of Dorchester and 5 E. of Yeo...
-Shetland
Shetland, or Zetland (Scand. Hjaltland, ' high land'), a group of more than a hundred islands, islets, and skerries, forming the northernmost Scottish county, whose capital, Lerwick, is 116 miles NE. ...
-Shields
Shields (Sheeldz), North, a seaport of Northumberland, on the Tyne's north bank, near its mouth, 8 miles ENE. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. In the 13th c. the germ of the present town was a collection of fi...
-Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury (Shrowzbury), the county town of Shropshire, on the Severn, 36 miles SSW. of Crewe, 42 W. by N. of Birmingham, and 163 NW. of London. The river here makes a serpentine curve round a hilly p...
-Shropshire
Shropshire, or Salop, a West Midland county of England, on the Welsh border, bounded by the counties of Cheshire, Stafford, Worcester, Hereford, Radnor, Montgomery, and Denbigh. It measures 50 miles ...
-Siam
Siam' (native name Muang Thai, 'the Land of the Free') occupies the central portion of the Indo-China Peninsula, stretching from 4 in the Malay Peninsula to Chiengsen (20 22' N.), on the riv...
-Siberia
Sibe'ria (Sibir) was originally heard of as a Tartar stronghold on the Irtish, captured by the Russians in 1580; and gradually widening in scope, the name is now applied to the vast territory belongin...
-Sicily
Sicily, the largest, most fertile, and most populous island in the Mediterranean, is separated from the mainland of Italy by the deep, but narrow, Strait of Messina (q.v.). Its shape resembles a trian...
-Sienna
Sienna (Ital. Siena; anc. Sna Julia), a walled city of Italy, 60 miles by rail S. of Florence. The streets are narrow, winding, and steep, with many mediaeval features. The archiepiscopal cathed...
-Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone (See-er'ra Le-o'nay, ' Lion Mountain'; usu. Le-oann'), a British colony on the west coast of Africa, stretching 180 miles along the coast, from the French colony of Rivieres du Sud in the...
-Sierra Nevada
Sierra Nevada (See-er'ra Ne-vah'da, 'snowy Range'), a mountain-range of southern Spain, stretches east through the province of Granada to the frontiers of Almeria, is 60 miles in length, 20 to 30 in b...
-Silesia
Sile'sia, a province of SE. Prussia, having Brandenburg and Posen on the N., the Polish provinces of Russia and Austria on the E., and Austrian Silesia, Bohemia, and Saxony on the S. Area, 15,557 sq. ...
-Sinai
Sinai (usu. Si'nay; properly See'ni), the sacred mountain on which Moses received the tables of the Ten Commandments, is an individual peak in a vast rocky mass that almost fills the peninsula of Sina...
-Sind
Sind, or Sindh (also Sinde and Scinde), a province of Bombay Presidency, bounded by Beluchistan, the Punjab, Bajputana, the Indian Ocean, and the Runn of Cutch. Area, 47,066 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 3,210,...
-Singapore
Singapore, a British dependency in Asia, the most important of the Straits Settlements (q.v.), consists of the island of Singapore (27 miles long, 14 broad; area, 206 sq. m.), separated from the south...
-Skye
Skye, an island of Inverness-shire, the second largest of the Hebrides, is separated from the mainland by Kyle Rhea, a channel 1/3 mile wide at the narrowest. Its length is 49 miles, its breadth varie...
-Sleaford
Sleaford, a town of Lincolnshire, on the right bank of the Slea, a branch of the Witham, 17 miles SSE. of Lincoln. It has a fine church (1271), a grammar-school (1624), and a monumental cross (1850). ...
-Sligo
Sligo, a maritime county of Con naught, is bounded by the Atlantic, the Bay of Donegal, Leitrim, Roscommon, and Mayo. It is 41 miles E. to W., and 38 N. to S.; area, 442,205 acres. Pop. (1841) 180,886...
-Smyrna
Smyrna, the most important seaport of Asia Minor, stands at the head of the Gulf of Smyrna, which penetrates 46 miles inland from the Aegean Sea. The city climbs up the slopes and nestles at the foot ...
-Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands, an archipelago in the western Pacific, since 1899 all British except Bougainville and a few smaller islands, which are German. The islands lie 500 miles E. of New Guinea, and stretch ...
-Solovetsk
Solovetsk, a great monastery on an island of the White Sea, bombarded by the British in 1854. Solway Firth - in its upper part best regarded as the estuary of the river Esk, in its lower as an inlet ...
-Somali-land
Somali-land (Somah-lee), an eastern projection of Africa, between the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. The Juba, its southern frontier, is the chief river. The country is an undulating plateau, in v...
-Somersetshire
Somersetshire, an important maritime county in the south-west of England, is bounded NW. by the Bristol Channel, and elsewhere by Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Dorset, and Devon. In form oblong, with a ...
-Soudan
Soudan, or Sudan (Soo-dan'; Arabic Beled es-Sudan, ' Land of the Blacks'), a term, which in its widest sense embraces the vast region stretching from the Atlantic to the Red Sea and the Abyssinian hig...
-Southampton
Southamp'ton, a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough and seaport in the south of Hampshire (which is sometimes called South-amptonshire), 12 1/2 miles SSW. of Winchester, 23 1/2 NW. of Portsmo...
-South Australia
South Australia, inclusive of its Northern Territory, crosses the continent between 129 and 141 E., being 1850 miles in length. The present area is 903,690 sq. m. (of which the Northern Terr...
-South Carolina
South Caroli'na, one of the original states of the American Union, with an area of 30,570 sq. m., including 400 sq. m. of water-surface, is nearly triangular in outline, and is bounded by North Caroli...
-South Dakota
South Dakota, a north central state of the American Union, surrounded by North Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana. The area, 77,650 sq. m., is one and a half times that of England...
-Southport
Southport, a watering-place of Lancashire, at the mouth of the Ribble estuary, 18 miles N. of Liverpool, 37 WNW. of Manchester, and 19 S. by W. of Preston. The first house was a wooden inn built from ...
-Southwell
Southwell (locally Suth'l; soft th), a city of Nottinghamshire, on the ancient Ermine Street, 7 miles W. by S. of Newark and 12 NE. of Nottingham. A church was founded here by Paulinus about 630; but ...
-Spain
Spain (Span. Espana), occupying the larger part of the south-western peninsula of Europe, lies in 43 45' - 36 1' N. lat., and 3 20' E. - 9 32' W. long., and is bounded by the Bay o...
-Spalato
Spa'lato (less correctly Spalatro; Slav. Split), the busiest town of Dalmatia, stands on a promontory on the east side of the Adriatic, 160 miles SE. of Fiume, and with a branch-line to the Bosnian ra...
-Spezzia
Spezzia (Ital. Spezia; pron. Spet'sia), the principal naval port of Italy, stands near the head of a deep and commodious bay, 56 miles SE. of Genoa by rail. A breakwater (1860), 2400 feet long, covers...
-Spires
Spires (Ger. Speier), the capital of the Bavarian Palatinate, stands on the left bank of the Rhine, 19 miles S. of Mannheim. The red sandstone Romanesque cathedral was begun by Conrad II. in 1030 and ...
-Spitzbergen
Spitzbergen (g hard), a group of Arctic islands, lying 400 miles N. of Norway, and consisting of West Spitzbergen (15,260 sq. m.), North-east Land (4040 sq. m.), Stans Foreland (2210 sq. m.), the thre...
-Springfield
Springfield. See Gretna. Springfield Springfield, (1) the capital of Illinois, 185 miles by rail SW. of Chicago, at the meeting-point of seven railways. It possesses a handsome federal building, a s...
-Stafford
Stafford, the county town of Staffordshire, on the left bank of the Sow, 3 miles above its junction with the Trent, and 25 miles SSE. of Crewe, 29 NNW. of Birmingham, and 133 NW. of London. St Mary's ...
-Staffordshire
Staffordshire, a west midland county of England, bounded by the counties of Cheshire, Derby, Leicester, Warwick, Worcester, and Salop. Measuring 54 by 35 miles, it has an area of 1169 sq. m. or 748,43...
-Stamford
Stamford, a municipal borough chiefly in Lincolnshire, but partly also in Northamptonshire, on the Welland, 12 miles WNW. of Peterborough. Hengist is said to have here defeated the Picts and Scots in ...
-Stirling
Stirling, the county town of Stirlingshire, stands on the south bank of the winding Forth, 36 miles NW. of Edinburgh and 29 NNE. of Glasgow. Like Edinburgh, to which in its main features it bears a st...
-Stirlingshire
Stirlingshire, a midland county of Scotland, forming the border-land between Highlands and Lowlands, is bounded by Perth, Clackmannan, Linlithgow, Lanark, and Dumbarton shires. With a maximum length a...
-Stockholm
Stockholm (l pronounced), the capital of Sweden, stands on several islands and the adjacent mainland, between a bay of the Baltic and Lake Malar, in a situation that is accounted one of the most pictu...
-Stockport
Stockport, a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough of East Cheshire, 6 miles SSE. of Manchester and 37 E. of Liverpool. It is built on the slopes of a narrow gorge, where the Tame and the Goyt ...
-Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees, an important municipal and parliamentary borough and seaport in Durham, situate on the north side of the Tees, 4 miles from its mouth and 11 ENE. of Darlington, 4 WSW. of Middlesboro...
-Stoke-upon-Trent
Stoke-upon-Trent, a manufacturing town of Staffordshire, the capital of the ' Potteries,' on the Trent and the Trent-and-Mersey Canal, 15 miles SB. of Crewe, 2 E. of Newcastle-under-Lyme, and 16 N. of...
-Stcnehenge
Stcnehenge (Saxon Stanhengist, 'the hanging stones'), in Wiltshire, on Salisbury Plain, 9 miles N, of Salisbury and 2 W. of Amesbury, is a circular group of gigantic standing stones, situated in the m...
-Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements, a British colony in the East Indies, consists (since 1867) of settlements on the Straits of Malacca, or rather on the Malay Peninsula - viz. Singapore, Malacca, Penang, Keeling Is...
-Strasburg
Strasburg (Ger. Strassburg, Fr. Strasbourg), the capital formerly of the French dep. of Bas-Rhin, but since 1871 of the German imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine, stands on the river I11 and the ca...
-Stratford-on-Avon
Stratford-on-Avon, Shakespeare's birthplace, is a pleasant town of Warwickshire, 8 miles SW. of Warwick, 22 SSE. of Birmingham, and 110 NW. of London. It stands on the right bank of the quiet Avon, wh...
-Stuttgart
Stuttgart (Shtoot'gart), the capital of Wurtem-berg, stands in a natural basin (817 feet above sea-level) surrounded by hills, which are studded with villas, vineyards, and gardens, and crowned with w...
-Suez
Suez (Soo'ez), a town of Egypt, is situated at the southern extremity of the Suez Canal and on the Gulf of Suez, a northern arm of the Red Sea. Close beside the town the Peninsular and Oriental Steams...
-Sumatra
Sumatra (Soo'matra, usu. Syoo-may'tra; named from the ancient town of Samudera in the north) is after Borneo the largest island of the East Indian Archipelago or Indonesia, having an area not much les...
-Sunderland
Sunderland, a seaport, municipal, county, and parliamentary borough of Durham, at the mouth of the Wear, 13 miles NE. of the city of Durham and 12 SE. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The township of Sunderlan...
-Superior
Superior, capital of Douglas county, Wisconsin, at the W. end of Lake Superior, and the mouth of the Nemadji River, 8 miles by rail SE. of Duluth. Grown up since 1880, it has a good harbour and steam ...
-Surat
Surat', a city of India, on the S. bank of the Tapti (crossed by a five-girder bridge), 14 miles from its mouth, and 160 by rail N. of Bombay. It stretches in a semicircle for more than a mile along t...
-Surrey
Surrey, an inland county in the south of England, separated on the N. by the Thames from Middlesex, and bounded elsewhere by Kent, Sussex, Hants, and Berks. Its maximum length from E. to W. is 39 mile...
-Sussex
Sussex, a maritime county in the south of England, washed on the SE. and S. for 91 miles by the English Channel, and elsewhere bounded by Hampshire, Surrey, and Kent. It has an extreme length from E. ...
-Sutherland
Sutherland, a maritime county in the extreme north of Scotland, is bounded W. and N. by the Atlantic, E. by Caithness, SE. by the North Sea, and S. by the Dornoch Firth and by Ross and Cromarty. Measu...
-Swansea
Swansea (Welsh Abertawe), a seaport of Glamorganshire, on the banks and at the mouth of the river Tawe, 45 miles WNW. of Cardiff and 216 W. of London. A municipal, parliamentary, and also (since 1888)...
-Sweden
Sweden (Swedish Sverige), a kingdom of northern Europe, occupying the eastern side of the Scandinavian peninsula, with which, from 1814 till the amicable but definitive separation in 1905, Norway (q.v...
-Switzerland
Switzerland, a confederation or republic of twenty-two cantons, three being divided into half-cantons, situated in the centre of Europe between France, Germany, Austria, and Italy. The greatest length...
-Sydenham
Sydenham (Sid'nam), a district in Lewisham parish, 8 miles S. of London. It has become of world-wide celebrity in connection with the Crystal Palace, which, however, is really in the adjoining parish ...
-Sydney
Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, and the oldest city in Australia, is situated on the southern shores of Port Jackson, and was named after Thomas Townshend, first Viscount Sydney (1733-1800), t...
-Syracuse
Syracuse (Sir'a-kyooz), anciently a famous city of Sicily, on the E. coast, 80 miles SSW. of Messina, was founded by Corinthian settlers about 733 b.c. The colonists seem to have occupied the little i...
-Syria
Syria (Sirria), a country of western Asia, forming part of Turkey in Asia, and embracing the regions that lie between the Levant and the Euphrates from Mount Taurus in the north to the southern border...
-Tahiti
Tahiti (Tahee'tee; formerly spelt Otaheite), an island giving name to a small archipelago, also called Society Islands, in the mid Pacific, more than 2000 miles NE. of New Zealand and some 3400 SSW. o...
-Tamworth
Tamworth, a town on the border of Stafford and Warwick shires, at the confluence of the Tame and Anker, 17 1/2 miles NNE. of Birmingham, and 110 NW. of London. Burned by the Danes in 911, and rebuilt ...
-Tanganyika
Tanganyika (Tang-gan-yee'ka), a lake of Eastern Africa, between 3 and 9 S. lat., and on 30 E. long.; length, 420 miles (nearly a fifth longer than Lake Michigan); breadth, 15 to 80 mile...
-Tasmania
Tasmania, an island-state of the Commonwealth of Australia (1901), is bounded N. by Bass Strait, its other coasts being swept by the great Southern Ocean. Area, 26,215 sq. m. Although it possesses wid...
-There are a few half-castes
There are a few half-castes, the descendants of European sealers by native jins; but the aboriginal Tasmanian has died out - the last male in 1869, the last female in 1876. Probably there were never m...
-Taunton
Taunton (Tahn-ton), a pleasant, well-built town of Somersetshire, in the fair and fertile valley of the Tone (' Taunton Deane') 45 miles SW. of Bristol. Here about 710 Ine, the West Saxon king, built ...
-Tavistock
Tavistock, a pleasant market-town of Devon, 11 miles N. of Plymouth and 31 (by rail 40) SW. of Exeter, lies in a trough of the hills on the Tavy's left bank, with Dartmoor stretching away from it to t...
-Tay
Tay, a river of Scotland, draining nearly the whole of Perthshire, and pouring into the German Ocean a greater bulk of water than any other British river, rises on Benloy, on the Argyllshire border, a...
-Teheran
Teheran', or Tehran, capital of Persia, 70 miles S. of the Caspian Sea. It stands on a wide plain, with Mount Demavend (q.v.) to the N. The old wall and ditch (4 miles long) were levelled in 1868, and...
-Teneriffe
Teneriffe, Peak of (usu. Ten-er-iff'; Span. Tenerife, pron. Tay-nay-ree'fay), a famous dormant volcano, the highest summit (12,200 feet) in the Canary Islands (q.v.), stands in the south-west of the i...
-Tennessee
Ten'nessee, one of the central southern states of the American Union, is surrounded by Kentucky, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, and separated by the Mississippi River fro...
-Tewkesbury
Tewkesbury, a quaint old market-town of Gloucestershire, on the Avon at its confluence with the Severn, 9 miles NNW. of Cheltenham, 10 NNE. of Gloucester, and 15 S. by E. of Worcester. On the site of ...
-There is every variety of soil
There is every variety of soil, from the fertile lands of the river-bottoms and prairies to the sterile sand of the southern desert. In the S. and SE. the rainfall is ample, in the W. and NW. insuffic...
-Thames
Thames (Temz), the most important river of Great Britain, flows ESE. across the S. portion of the country. Its four head-streams - the Thames or Isis, Churn, Coln, and Leach - rise on the south-east s...
-Thebes
Thebes (Theebz), a celebrated Egyptian city, formerly capital of Upper Egypt; called by the Egyptians Tuabu, by the Hebrews No-Amon, by the Greeks ThebAe. It lies in the broadest section of the Nile v...
-Thetford
Thetford, a market-town on the border of Norfolk and Suffolk, at the Thet's confluence with the Little Ouse, 31 miles SW. of Norwich and 12 N. of Bury St Edmunds. Doubtfully identified with the Roman ...
-Tibet
Tibet', or Thibet, a country in central Asia, called by the natives Bod or Bodyul, lying between China and India, and enclosed between the Kuen-Lun, Altyn Tagh, and Nanshan Mountains on the N., and th...
-Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego (Tee-er'ra del Foo-ay'go; 'Land of Fire,' so named by Magellan who saw fires on the shore, when he discovered them in 1520), a group of several large and many small islands named from...
-Timbuctoo
Timbuctoo' (native Tumbutu, Arab. Tinbukhtu), a famous city of the Soudan, on the southern edge of the Sahara (q.v.), 8 miles N. of the main stream of the Upper Niger. It is 3 miles in circumference. ...
-Tipperary
Tipperary, an inland county of Munster, touching Galway on the north and King's County, Queen's County, and Kilkenny on the east. Area, 1659 sq. m., or 1,061,731 acres, of which 843,837 are arable. Th...
-Tiverton
Tiv'erton, a municipal borough of Devonshire, 14 1/2 miles N. by E. of Exeter, stands pleasantly on an eminence between the confluent Exe and Loman, and got the name Twy-ford-ton from two fords upon t...
-Tokyo
Tokyo, or Tokei ('Eastern Capital'), is the chief city of the Japanese empire. Until 1868, when the emperor removed his court thither from Kyoto, it was known as Yedo (' Estuary Gate'). Its position a...
-Toledo
Toledo (Tolay'do), a famous city of Spain, capital of a province, and long the capital of the whole country, stands on the north bank of the Tagus, 40 miles SSW. of Madrid by rail. It is situated on a...
-Toronto
Toron'to, the second city of Canada, lies on the N. shore of Lake Ontario, between the Don and the Humber, 310 miles WSW. of Montreal. As the latter is the metropolis of the east, so Toronto aims to b...
-Torquay
Torquay (Tor-kee'), a watering-place of South Devon, occupying a cove on the north side of Tor Bay, 23 miles S. of Exeter and 220 WSW. of London. Tor Abbey was founded here for Pre-monstratensian monk...
-Totnes
Tot'nes, a municipal borough of Devon, pleasantly situated on the slope of a steep hill on the Dart's right bank, 29 miles SSW. of Exeter and 24 ENE. of Plymouth. The Dart is navigable for vessels of ...
-Toulon
Toulon (Toolong'), a seaport and naval arsenal of France, in the dep. of Var, on the Mediter-ranean, 42 miles ESE. of Marseilles and 564 SSE. of Paris. It lies at the head of a deep double bay, and ri...
-Toulouse
Toulouse (Toolooce'), a southern French city, anciently capital of Languedoc, and now of the dep. Haute-Garonne, 160 miles SE. of Bordeaux and 466 S. by W. of Paris. With the Canal du Midi on the E. a...
-Tours
Tours (Toore), capital of the dep. Indre-et-Loire, as it formerly was of the province of Touraine, stands in the fertile valley of the Loire just above the Cher's influx, 147 miles SW. of Paris by rai...
-Transvaal
Transvaal (long an independent state, and from 1884 till 1900 officially called the 'south African Republic'), a British crown colony in the highlands of South-east Africa, bounded on the N. by Rhodes...
-Transylvania
Transylva'nia, formerly an Austrian principality, since 1868 an integral part of Hungary, is fenced by the Carpathians from Galicia and Roumania. The interior, a plateau crossed by mountain-chains, is...
-Trent
Trent, a river of central England, the third in length, rising on Biddulph Moor, NW. Staffordshire, and flowing 150 miles SE. and NE. through the counties of Stafford, Derby, Leicester, Nottingham, an...
-Trenton
Trenton, (1) the capital of New Jersey, is on the Delaware River, at the head of tide-water and of steam-navigation, 57 miles by rail SW. of New York. The city, divided into Trenton and South Trenton ...
-Treves
Treves (Treevz; Fr. Treves; Ger. Trier), a city of Rhenish Prussia, on the Moselle's right bank, between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone, 69 miles by rail SW. of Coblenz and 111 SSW. of Colo...
-Trieste
Trieste (Tree-est-ay or Tree-est'; Slav. Terst), the most important seaport of Austro-Hungary, and the chief trading town on the Adriatic, stands at the head of the Gulf of Trieste, an arm of the Gulf...
-Tring
Tring, a market-town of Hertfordshire, on a spur of the Chilterns, 2 miles W. of Tring station, and 31 NW. of London. Situated near the Icknield Way and the Grand Junction Canal, it has a good church,...
-Tripoli
Trip'oli (Tarabulus), a province of the Ottoman empire, and the easternmost of the Barbary States of North Africa, stretching along the greater and lesser Syrtes (the gulfs of Cabes and Sidra), is bou...
-Tristan Da Cunha
Tristan Da Cunha (Coon'ya; wrongly spelt Tristan d'Acunha), an island in the South Atlantic, with two smaller ones adjoining, lies midway between South America and the Cape of Good Hope, in 37 6'...
-Trondhjem
Trondhjem (Trond'yem; Ger. Drontheim), the third town of Norway, on the south side of the long and narrow Trondhjem Fjord, 250 miles N. of Christiania by rail. It is built on undulating slopes, and ha...
-Troy
Troy, the city of Priam, whose ten years' siege by the Greeks forms the theme of Homer's Iliad, has through Dr Schliemann's excavations (1870-82) been successfully identified with the mound of Hissarl...
-Tunis
Tu'nis, a French protectorate of North Africa, extending 550 miles along the Mediterranean, between Algeria and Tripoli. Area, 45,000 sq. m.: pop., mostly Bedouin Arabs and Kabyles, 1,900,000, includi...
-Turin
Turin' (anc. Augusta Taurinorum; Ital. Torino), a city of Northern Italy, formerly capital of Piedmont, and for a time of the kingdom of Italy, is situated in a beautiful plain bounded by mountains, n...
-Turkestan
Turkestan' (properly Toor-ke-stahn'; ' the country of the Turks'), a great region of central Asia, stretching E. from the Caspian to beyond Lob-nor (110 E. long.), and S. from Siberia and Dzungar...
-Turkey
Turkey, or the Ottoman Empire, comprises the wide but heterogeneous territories really or nominally subject to the Osmanli sultan, in Europe, Asia, and Africa. These territories, which once extended f...
-Turkey in Europe
Turkey in Europe, generally undulating, is traversed by a mountain-system which has its origin in the Alps, enters Turkey at the northwest corner, and runs nearly parallel to the coast, under the name...
-Tweed
Tweed, the noblest of Scottish rivers, rises far up in Peeblesshire at Tweed's Well, 1500 feet above sea-level, and flows 97 miles NE., E., and again NE. through or along the boundaries of Peeblesshir...
-Tyne
Tyne, a northern English river, formed by the confluence of the North and South Tynes, a mile NW. of Hexham, and flowing 30 miles E. to the sea between Tynemouth and South Shields. The North Tyne, som...
-Tynemouth
Tynemouth (Tin'muth), the chief watering-place of Northumberland, 9 miles E. of Newcastle, occupies the angle formed by the line of the coast and the Tyne. The municipal and parliamentary borough comp...
-Tyre
Tyre (Phn. Stir or Sor, 'rock'), a city of ancient Phoenicia, situated in 33 12' N. lat. There were two towns - one on the mainland, the other on the island opposite. Tyre was a city on an ...
-Tyrol
Tyrol (Tee-roll'; in England usually called the Tyrol'; Ger. Tirol), a crown-land of the Austrian empire, lying between Bavaria, Switzerland, Italy, Salzburg, and Carinthia, and embracing an area of 1...
-Tyrone
Tyrone (Ti-roan'; Tir-Eogain, 'Owen's country'), an inland county of Ulster, 48 miles long, with an average breadth of 28. Area, including part of Lough Neagh, 1260 sq. m. or 806,658 acres, of which 1...
-Uganda
Uganda (Oogan'da), a British protectorate in East Africa extending along the north-west shore of the Victoria Nyanza, first visited (1862) by Speke and Grant, and by Stanley called the 'Pearl of Afric...
-Ulm
Ulm (Oolm), the second city of Wurtemberg, 58 miles SE. of Stuttgart and 91 WNW. of Munich, on the left bank of the Danube, which here receives the Blau and the Iller and becomes navigable. On the Bav...
-Ulster
Ulster, the most northern of the four provinces of Ireland, is divided into nine counties - Antrim, Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan, and Tyrone. The north-eastern portio...
-United States of America
United States of America, the largest (next to Brazil) and most important republic of the world, embracing nearly one-half of the habitable area of the North American continent, and about seven-eighth...
-Upsala
Upsala (Oopsah'la), the historic centre of ancient Sweden, stands on a little stream that runs down to Lake Malar, 41 miles by rail N. by W. of Stockholm. Its existing importance is due to its being t...
-Uruguay
Uruguay (Ooroogwi'; formerly known as the Banda Oriental or 'Eastern Bank' - i.e. of the Uruguay) is the smallest of the South American republics, although its area - 72,110 sq. m. - is three-fifths t...
-Utah
Utah (Yoota), since 1894 a state of the American Union, in the Rocky Mountain region, 350 miles from N. to S., and 280 from E. to W., with an area of 84,970 sq. m. Idaho and Wyoming bound it N.; Color...
-Utrecht
Utrecht (Dutch pron. nearly Ee'trehht; Oude trecht, 'old ford;' Lat. Trajectum ad Rhenum), the capital of a province of the Netherlands, on the 'Old' Rhine (q.v.), 23 miles SSE. of Am-sterdam and 38 E...
-Valencia
Valencia (Span. pron. c as th), a seaport of Spain, on the Mediterranean, 200 miles SW. of Barcelona by rail. The picturesque walls, erected by Pedro IV. in 1356, were removed in 1871; and the recent ...
-Valetta
Valetta, since 1570 the chief town of Malta, on the NE. side of the island. It occupies a rocky tongue of land over 3000 yards long, on either side of which are two noble harbours, and is defended by ...
-Valladolid
Valladolid (Span. pron. Val-ya-do-leeth'), a fortified city of Spain, sometime capital of the whole country, and still capital of a province of Old Castile, stands on the Pisuerga's left bank, 150 mil...
-Valparaiso
Valparaiso (ai as i; 'Vale of Paradise'), the second city of Chili, and next to San Francisco the principal American port on the Pacific, is situated on the bay of the same name, 115 miles by rail WNW...
-Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island, belonging to British Columbia, and separated from the mainland by Queen Charlotte Sound, Johnstone Strait, and Strait of Georgia, is 278 miles long, and 50 to 65 miles broad. Area, 1...
-Venezuela
Venezuela, United States of (Span. pron. Venaythooay'la), a northern tropical republic of South America, on the Caribbean Sea. The total area is slightly over 417,000 sq. m.; the official returns (ext...
-Venice
Ven'ice (Ital. Venezia - Ven-etz'ya), the 'Pearl' or 'Queen' of the Adriatic. In the 5th c. the Veneti, expelled from the mainland by Lombards and Goths, found refuge in the islands of the lagoons. Tr...
-Vermont
Vermont, the only entirely inland state of New England, lies west of New Hampshire, with Canada on the N., and Lake Champlain on the W. Its length from north to south is 140 miles, its width 40 to 90 ...
-Verona
Vero'na, a city of Italy, on the Adige, at the base of the foot-hills of the Alps, 72 miles W. of Venice by rail, is a fortress of the first class, a member of the famous Quadrilateral. Its strength n...
-Versailles
Versailles (French pron. nearly Ver-si'), a city of France, capital of the dep. Seine-et-Oise, 11 miles SW. of Paris by rail. A city more of pleasure than of industry, it covers a large area in propor...
-Victoria
Victoria, the smallest state, after Tasmania, in the Australian Commonwealth. It was sighted by Captain Cook in 1770, and the harbour of Port Phillip was discovered in 1801; but it was not permanently...
-Vienna
Vien'na (Ger. Wien; pron. Veen), the capital of the Austrian empire, is situated in Lower Austria, on the Danube Canal, a south branch of the Danube, here joined by the small river Wien. Vienna proper...
-Vienne
Vienne, a dep. of W. France, formed mainly out of Poitou. Area, 2691 sq. m.; pop. (1881) 340,295; (1901) 333,896. The Vienne, an affluent of the Loire, is the chief river. The arrondisse-ments are Poi...
-Virginia
Virginia, a middle Atlantic state of the American Union, separated from Maryland by the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay, and bounded S. by North Carolina and Tennessee, W. and NW. by Kentucky and Wes...
-Volga
Volga (Slav 'river'), the greatest river in Russia and the longest in Europe, having a course of over 900 miles as the crow flies, or, following its principal sinuosities, of 2400 from its source amon...
-Wakefield
Wakefield, the capital of the West Riding of Yorkshire, stands on the Calder at a convergence of railways, 9 miles SSE. of Leeds, 27 SSW. of York, and 19 NW. of Doncaster. In 1888 it was constituted t...
-Wales
Wales, a great peninsula in the west of the island of Britain, bounded by the Irish Sea, St George's Channel, and the Bristol Channel, and touching the (now English) counties of Cheshire, Shropshire, ...
-Walsall
Walsall (Waul'saul), a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough of Staffordshire, is situated on an eminence above a small feeder of the Tame, 8 miles NNW. of Birmingham, 6 E. of Wolverhampton, an...
-Waltham
Wal'tham, a market-town of Essex, on the Lea, 13 miles N. by E. of London. Called also Waltham Abbey and Waltham Holy Cross, it retains the nave of a stately Norman church, which, rebuilt by Harold in...
-Warrington
Warrington (a as o), a municipal and parliamentary borough and manufacturing town of Lancashire, on the Mersey's right bank, 18 miles E. of Liverpool, 16 WSW. of Manchester, and 182 NW. of London. Tho...
-Warsaw
Warsaw (Polish Warszawa), long the capital of Poland and now capital of a government of Russian Poland, stands on the Vistula's left bank, 330 miles E. of Berlin by rail and 700 SW. of St Petersburg. ...
-Warwick
Warwick (Wor'rick), the county town of Warwickshire, on the Avon, 21 miles SE. of Birmingham, 45 NNW. of Oxford, and 107 NW. of London. In spite of a great fire in 1694, it has preserved much of its m...
-Warwickshire
Warwickshire, a west midland county of England, bounded by the counties of Stafford, Derby, Leicester, Northampton, Oxford, Gloucester, and Worcester. It has an extreme length from N. to S. of 52 mile...
-Washington
Washington, the most north-western state of the American Union, is bounded by British Columbia, Idaho, Oregon, and the Pacific. It is 350 miles long (E. to W.), 200 miles wide, and 69,180 sq. m. in ar...
-Washington City
Washington City, the capital of the United States, in the District of Columbia (q.v.), on the Potomac River, in 38 53' lat., 77 2' long., 226 miles SSW. of New York, 136 of Philadelphia, and...
-Waterford
Waterford, an Irish county of Munster, E. of Cork. Its greatest length from E. to W. is 52 miles; its breadth 28; and its area 721 sq. m., or 461,552 acres. The surface is mountainous, the chief range...
-Wednesbury
Wed'nesbury (locally Wedgebury), a town of S. Staffordshire, 8 miles NW. of Birmingham. Crowning a hill at the north end of the town is the cruciform Perpendicular church of St Bartholomew, supposed t...
-Wellington
Wellington, (1) a market-town of Shropshire, 2 miles NE. of the conspicuous Wrekin (1320 feet) and 10 E. of Shrewsbury. It stood near the ancient Watling Street, hence its name 'Watling Town.' Situate...
-Wells
Wells, the city of Somerset, pleasantly situated at the foot of the Mendip Hills, 20 miles SW. of Bath and 20 (30 by rail) S. of Bristol. Here, near St Andrew's Well, from which and other springs the ...
-West Bromwich
West Brom'wich, a Staffordshire town, one of the most important in the 'Black Country,' 5 1/2 miles NW. of Birmingham, 90 SSE. of Liverpool, 93 NNE. of Bristol, and 113 NW. of London. The Bromwic of D...
-Westerly
Westerly, a village of Rhode Island, 44 miles SSW. of Providence. Pop. 7550. Western Australia embraces the western third of Australia, to the W. of South Australia and its Northern Territory. It ext...
-West Indies
West Indies, the great archipelago which extends in a vast curve from Florida in North America to the north coast of South America, separating the Atlantic Ocean from the Mexican Gulf and the Caribbea...
-Westmeath
Westmeath, an inland county of Leinster, Ireland, between Meath and Roscommon. Greatest length NE. and SW., 45 miles; greatest breadth, 25 miles; area, 453,468 acres. The surface is for the most part ...
-Westmorland
West'morland, a northern county of England, bounded by Cumberland, Durham, Yorkshire, and Lancashire. With a very irregular outline, it has an extreme length from N. to S. of 32 miles, an extreme brea...
-Westphalia
Westphalia, a former duchy and kingdom, a Prussian province, named from the Westfalen, a western tribe of Saxons, as distinguished from the Ostfalen, nearer the Elbe. About 1180 it came under the Arch...
-West Troy
West Troy. See Troy, U.S. West Virginia is the most irregular in form of all the states of the American Union; nearly all the boundary lines follow the courses of rivers or the crests of mountain-ran...
-Wexford
Wexford, a maritime county of Leinster, bordering on Wicklow, Carlow, Kilkenny, and Waterford. Greatest length, 55 miles; greatest breadth, 30 miles; area, 573,200 acres. The coast-line is irregular a...
-Weymouth
Weymouth, a fashionable watering-place of Dorset, 7 1/2 miles S. of Dorchester, 77 S. of Bristol, and 145 WSW. of London (128 by road). It lies at the mouth of the little Wey, on a beautiful bay, boun...
-Whitby
Whitby, a seaport and watering-place in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 54 1/2 miles by rail (by road 45) NNE. of York and 22 NNW. of Scarborough. It stands, looking northward over the German Ocean, at...
-Wicklow
Wicklow, a maritime county of Leinster, borders on Dublin, Carlow, Kildare, and Wexford. Its greatest length is 40 miles, and greatest breadth 33; the area being 781 sq. m., or 500,178 acres, of which...
-Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden (Vees-bah'den), chief town of a Prussian district in the province of Hesse-Nassau, was formerly capital of the independent duchy of Nassau. One of the oldest and most famous of the German wa...
-Wigan
Wig'an, a town of Lancashire, on the Douglas (a feeder of the Ribble's estuary), 15 1/2 miles S. by E. of Preston, 18 1/2 NE. of Liverpool, and 18 WNW. of Manchester. Situated in the heart of a rich c...
-Wight
Wight, The Isle of, is separated from Hampshire by the Solent (q.v.) and Spithead (q.v.). Its extreme length, E. to W., is 23 miles, and its extreme breadth, 13 miles. The area is 145 sq. m., or 92,93...
-Wigtown
Wigtown, a county forming the SW. corner of Scotland, the western half of Galloway, bounded by the Irish Channel, Ayrshire, the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, the Solway Firth, and the Irish Sea. Its len...
-Wiltshire
Wiltshire, an English county, bounded by Gloucestershire, Berks, Hants, Dorset, and Somerset. Its greatest length, N. to S., is 54 miles; its greatest breadth, 37; and the area, 1354 sq. m., or 866,67...
-Winchester
Win'chester, the city of Hampshire, on the Itchen, 60 miles WSW. of London. It originated in a tribal settlement on the summit of a hill. As the settlers became more numerous they descended the slope ...
-Windsor
Windsor, a town of Berkshire, on the right bank of the Thames, opposite Eton, 21 1/4 miles W. by S. of London by rail, 43 by river. The kings before the Conquest appear to have had a hunting-lodge her...
-Wisbech
Wis'bech, a market-town of Cambridgeshire, in the Isle of Ely, on the Nene, 21 miles ENE. of Peterborough, 13 SW. of Lynn, and 40 N. of Cambridge. The parish church, Norman to Perpendicular in style, ...
-Wisconsin
Wiscon'sin, one of the United States, lies between Lakes Michigan and Superior and the Mississippi River, with its tributary the St Croix; the surrounding states are Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, and Ill...
-Wittenberg
Wittenberg (w as v), in Prussian Saxony, capital of the old electorate of Saxony, and cradle of the Reformation, on the Elbe, 59 miles SW. of Berlin. The famous university (1502), where Luther was pro...
-Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton (Wol- as Wool'-), a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, the ' metropolis of the Black Country,' stands on a gentle eminence amid a network of railways and canals, 13 miles NW. ...
-Woolwich
Woolwich (Wool'litch), a parish in Kent (county of London), and part of Eltham royal manor, on the Thames, 9 miles below London Bridge, was in 1885 constituted a parliamentary borough returning one me...
-Worcester
Worcester (Woos'ter), the county town of Worcestershire, 27 1/2 miles by rail SW. of Birmingham, 65 1/2 NNE. of Bristol, and 121 (by road 111) WNW. of London. It stands on the left bank of the Severn,...
-Worcestershire
Worcestershire (Woo'stershir), an inland English county of very irregular outline, bounded by the counties of Salop, Stafford, Warwick, Oxford, Gloucester, and Hereford. Its extreme length N. to S. is...
-Worksop
Work'sop, a town of Nottinghamshire, on the river Ryton and the Chesterfield Canal, 16 miles ESE. of Sheffield and 23 N. of Nottingham. It lies near the northern extremity of Sherwood Forest (q.v.), i...
-Worms
Worms (Wurmz; Ger. pron. Forms), an ancient and interesting town of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Rhine's left bank, 25 miles SW. of Darmstadt. The massive Romanesque cathedral, with two cupolas and four to...
-Wurtemberg
Wurtemberg (nearly Veer'temlerg), a German kingdom, lying between Baden and Bavaria, and touching Switzerland (Lake of Constance) on the south. It entirely surrounds Hohenzollern, in which state, as w...
-Wurzburg
Wurzburg (Veertz'boorg), capital of the Bavarian province of Lower Franconia, on the Main, 70 miles SE. of Frankfort by rail. Among the public buildings are the Episcopal Palace (1720-44), one of the ...
-Wycombe
Wycombe (Wick'om), a town of Buckinghamshire, stands, surrounded by beech-clad hills, on the Wye, a small feeder of the Thames, 25 miles ESE. of Oxford and 29 (by rail 34 1/2) WNW. of London. Called v...
-Wyoming
Wyo'ming, a NW. state of the American Union, lies mainly on the E. slope of the Rocky Mountains, and is bounded by Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Montana. The length, E. t...
-Yanbu
Yanbu', or Yembo. See Medina. Yandun, a town of Thongwa, Burma, in the delta of the Irawadi. Pop. 20,235, Yang-tsze-kiang (better simply Kiang or Chiang), the longest and most important of Chinese riv...
-Yarmouth
Yarmouth (Yar'muth), a municipal, parliamentary, and county borough, seaport, watering-place, and fishing-town of Norfolk, 20 1/2 miles E. of Norwich and 122 NNE. of London. It stands 2 1/2 miles from...
-Yellowstone
Yellowstone, the largest affluent of the Missouri, rises high up in the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming, flows 25 miles NW. to the mountain-girt Yellowstone Lake (22 miles long, 7788 feet above sea-level),...
-Yokohama
Yokoha'ma (a as ah), the chief port of entry in Japan. Until the opening of the country in 1854 it was an insignificant fishing-village, contiguous to the important town of Kanagawa, originally grante...
-York
York, the county town of Yorkshire, is situated at the confluence of the river Foss with the Ouse, 188 miles N. of London by rail. It is the seat of an archbishopric, the centre of the northern milita...
-Yorkshire
Yorkshire, by far the largest of the English counties, is divided for administrative purposes into three Ridings (thridings, or 'thirds'), each of which has its own lord-lieutenant, magistracy, and co...
-Yosemite Valley
Yosemite Valley (Yo-sem'i-tey) is a cleft in the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, about the middle of California, and 140 miles B. of San Francisco. The name Yosemite is an Indian word which signifies...
-Yunnan
Yunnan (Yoon-nan), a province of SW. China, bounded on the S. by Annam, Siam, and Burma, with an area estimated at 122,000 sq. m., and a pop. estimated at 11,500,000, having sunk from 15,000,000 throu...
-Zambesl
Zambe'sl, Vasco da Gama's ' River of Good Signs,' ranking with the Congo and the Nile as a means of communication with the interior of Africa, is between 1550 and 1600 miles long, and drains more than...
-Zanzibar
Zanzibar', since 1890 a British protectorate, consisting of the islands of Zanzibar (625 sq. m.; pop. 150,000) and Pemba (360 sq. m.; pop. 50,000). Some 500 Englishmen, as many Germans, and a few othe...
-Zuider Zee
Zuider Zee (Zoi'der Zay; 'southern Sea,' as opposed to the North Sea), a large gulf penetrating 60 miles into the Netherlands, and 210 miles in circu?nference. The islands Texel, Vlieland, Terschellin...
-Zurich
Zurich (Zoo'rik; Ger. Zurich, pron. nearly Tsee'rihh), a northern Swiss canton, drained by the Rhine, and traversed from NW. to SE. by lofty hills, between which lie the three valleys of the Toss, Gla...
-AA - Abbeville
AA AA. (pron. Ah), the name of several European rivers - in Westphalia, Switzerland, and North France - all small. Aachen Aachen (Ah'hen), the German name of Aix-la-Chapelle. Aalborg (Awl-borg; '...
-Abbey Craig - Abergavenny
Abbey Craig Abbey Craig, an abrupt eminence (362 feet), 1 1/2 mile ENE. of Stirling. It is crowned by the Wallace monument (1869), a baronial tower 220 feet high. Abbeydorney Abbeydorney, a Kerry...
-Abergeldie Castle - Aboyne
Abergeldie Castle Abergeldie Castle, the Aberdeenshire seat of the Prince of Wales, on the Dee's right bank, 6 miles W. of Ballater, and 2 ENE. of Balmoral. Abergele Abergele, a Denbighshire mark...
-Abraham - Accrington
Abraham Abraham, Plains or Heights of, close to the city of Quebec, the scene of Wolfe's victory, 13th September 1759. They were so called from a pilot, Abraham Martin. Abrantes Abrantes (A-bran'...
-Acerra - Adamawa
Acerra Acerra (A-ser'ra), a city of southern Italy, 9 miles NE. of Naples by rail. Pop. 14,121. Achaia Achaia, a small Greek district lying along the north coast of the Peloponnesus. Achalganj...
-Adams - Adiahene
Adams Adams, a township of Massachusetts, adjoining North Adams, with busy manufactories, and embracing Mount Greylock (3505 feet), the highest point in the state. Pop. 12,000. Adams Bridge Adam'...
-Adige - Adramyti
Adige Adige (Ad'ijay; Ger. Etsch; anc. Athesis), a river of Italy, rising in the Rhsetian Alps, and formed by various streamlets which descend from these mountains and unite at Glarus. Thence it flow...
-Adrar - Agadir
Adrar Adrar, a region of 30,000 sq. m. in the west of the Sahara, bordering on the Spanish territory of Rio de Oro, but now recognised as - wholly or mostly - French. Adria Adria, a town of North...
-Agar - Agulhas
Agar Agar, a town of India, in the state of Gwalior, 41 miles NE. of Ujain. It stands in an open plain, 1598 feet above the sea. Pop. 30,000. Agde Agde (anc. Agatha Narbonensis), a town in the Fr...
-Ahmednagar - Airdrie
Ahmednagar Ahmednagar (Ahmadnagar), a town of the province of Bombay, 122 miles E. of Bombay, is the third city of the Deccan. It was Jounded in 1494 by Ahmed Nizam Shah. In 1797 it fell into the han...
-Airds Moss - Ajaccio
Airds Moss Airds Moss, a moorish tract in Ayrshire to the NE. of Auchinleck, the scene of a Covenanting skirmish (1680). Aire Aire, a river in the West Riding of Yorkshire, flowing 70 miles to th...
-Ajaigarh - Ak-su
Ajaigarh Ajaigarh, a hill-fort of India, in the United Provinces, about 130 miles WSW. of Allahabad. Within its walls are two great masses of ruined Jain temples. Ajalon Ajalon, the modern Yalo, ...
-Akyab - Ala-shehr
Akyab Akyab, a town of Burma, the chief seaport of Arakan, is situated on the eastern side of the island of Akyab, at the mouth of the Kuladan River, 190 miles SE. of Calcutta. In 1826, being then a ...
-Ala-tau - Alberta
Ala-tau Ala-tau ('mottled'), a range of lofty mountains forming the boundary between Turkestan and Mongolia, and the northern limit of the great tableland of Central Asia. It is made up of five sierr...
-Albert Lea - Alcala de Henares
Albert Lea Albert Lea, a post-village in Freeborn county, Minnesota, on a lake of the same name, 100 miles S. of St Paul. It contains flour-mills, grain elevators, and machine-shops. Three railways c...
-Alcala la Real - Aldershot Camp
Alcala la Real Alcala' la Re'al ('the royal castle'), a city of Andalusia, Spain, in the province of Jaen, 26 miles NW. of Granada. Its strong fortress was taken in 1340 from the Moors by Alfonso XI....
-Aldwinkle All Saints - Aleutian Islands
Aldwinkle All Saints Aldwinkle All Saints, a Northamptonshire parish, on the Nen, 3 miles NNE. of Thrapston. Dryden was a native, as was Fuller of the adjoining parish of Aldwinkle St Peter. Aldwo...
-Alexandra Park - Algeciras
Alexandra Park Alexandra Park, a place of public recreation for northern London, 6 miles N. of Charing Cross. It was opened in 1863, and its present 'palace' dates from 1873, its predecessor having b...
-Alghero - Alleghanies
Alghero Alghero (Algai'ro), a seaport on the west coast of the island of Sardinia, 15 miles SW. of Sassari. It has a cathedral. Pop. 8995. Algoa Bay Algoa Bay, a broad inlet at the eastern extrem...
-Alleghany - Alloa
Alleghany Alleghany, a river, which, rising in the north part of Pennsylvania, unites with the Mononga-hela at Pittsburgh to form the Ohio. It is navigable for nearly 200 miles above Pittsburgh. A...
-Alloway - Almeria
Alloway Alloway, Bums's birthplace, and the scene of his Tarn o' Shanter, lies on the right bank of the 'bonny Doon,' 2 miles S. of the town of Ayr. The 'auld clay biggin,' in which the poet was born...
-Almodovar del Campo - Alpes
Almodovar del Campo Almodo'var del Campo, a town of New Castile, Spain, 22 miles SW. of Ciudad Real; pop. 12,279, chiefly employed in agriculture and silver-mining. Almond Almond, in Scotland, tr...
-Alpes Maritimes - Alton
Alpes Maritimes Alpes Maritimes, a dep. in the extreme SB. of France, on the shores of the Mediterranean and confines of Italy, was formed in 1860. It is made up. of the ancient county of Nice, then ...
-Altona - Alvarado
Altona Al'tona, the largest and richest city in the Prussian province of Sleswick-Holstein, is situated on the steep right bank of the Elbe, just below Hamburg, so that the two cities are divided onl...
-Alwar - Ambleside
Alwar Alwar, or Ulwar, a Rajput state of India, in Rajpntana, with an area of 3024 sq. m. and a pop. of 750,000. The capital, Alwar, is a town of 56,750 inhabitants, 94 miles WNW. of Agra. Alyth ...
-Amboise - Amirante Islands
Amboise Amboise, a French town in the dep. of Indre-et-Loire, on the Loire, 15 miles by rail E. of Tours. The town is memorable for the Huguenot conspiracy (1560), which cost the lives of 1200 Protes...
-Amlwch - Amurnath
Amlwch Am'lwch (pron. w as oo), a small seaport of Anglesey, North Wales, on the north coast of the island, 21 1/2 miles NNW. of the Menai Bridge by rail (1867). It is a busy but rather dirty town, w...
-Anadyr - Andijan
Anadyr Anadyr, a gulf of North-east Siberia, into which flows the Anadyr River after a course of 500 miles from the Stanovoi Mountains. Anagni Anagni, a town of Italy, on a hill, 40 miles ESE. of...
-Andkhui - Angermunde
Andkhui Andkhui, capital of a khanate in Afghan Turkestan, between the northern spurs of the Paropamisus and the Amu-Daria (Oxus). Andorra Andorra, a valley republic of the Eastern Pyrenees, betw...
-Angers - Angri
Angers Angers (Ongzhayr; anc. Andegavum), formerly the capital of the duchy of Anjou, and now of the French dep. of Maine-et-Loire, on the navigable Maine, not far from its junction with the Loire, 2...
-Anguilla - Annandale
Anguilla Anguilla, or Little Snake, an English West India Island, one of the Lesser Antilles, 160 miles E. of the eastern extremity of Porto Rico. Area, 35 sq. m.; pop. 4500. Angus Angus. See For...
-Annapolis - Ansonia
Annapolis Annap'olis, a seaport of Nova Scotia, on an arm of the Bay of Fundy, 95 miles W. of Halifax by rail. Established in 1604 by the French as the capital of their province of Acadia, under the ...
-Anspach - Antigua
Anspach Anspach. See Ansbach. Anstruther Anstruther, Easter and Wester, two contiguous royal burghs on the coast of Fife, 9 miles S. of St Andrews. Fishing and fish-curing are the staple industri...
-Anti-Lebanon - Appalachicola
Anti-Lebanon Anti-Lebanon. See Lebanon. Antilles Antilles, a term applied to the whole of the West India Islands (q.v.) except the Bahamas. The Greater Antilles are Cuba, Jamaica, Hayti, and Port...
-Appenzell - Aquila
Appenzell Appenzell' (from Abbatis Cello), a double . canton in the NE. of Switzerland. It is divided into two divisions - Innerroden and Ausserroden; the former of which is peopled by Roman Catholic...
-Aquileia - Aral
Aquileia Aquilei'a (also Aglar), a decayed town of Austria, at the head of the Adriatic, 22 miles NW. of Trieste; pop. 1000. Aquitania Aquita'nia, the Latin name of a part of Gaul, originally inc...
-Aran - Arbroath
Aran Aran, South Isles of, Ireland, are three small islands lying NE. and SW. across the entrance to Galway Bay. Total area, 11,287 acres. They rise to a height of from 200 to 354 feet on the west si...
-Arbuthnott - Ardennes
Arbuthnott Arbuthnott, a Kincardineshire parish, 2 1/2 miles WNW. of Bervie. Dr Arbuthnott was a native. Arcachon Arcachon (Ar'ca-shong), a bathing-place dating from 1854, in the French dep. of G...
-Ardglass - Argaum
Ardglass Ardglass, a coast-town of County Down, 6 miles SSE. of Downpatrick. Pop. 504. Ardlamont Point Ardlam'ont Point, Argyllshire, at the W. entrance to the Kyles of Bute. Ardlamont House, the...
-Argenta - Arklow
Argenta Argenta (Ar-jen'ta), a town of Central Italy, 21 miles SE. of Ferrara by rail; pop. 3000. Argentan Argentan (Ar-zhongtang), a Norman town in the French dep. of Orne, on the river Orne, 42...
-Arkona - Arnold
Arkona Arko'na, the NE. promontory of the island of Rugen, in the Baltic. Its chalk cliffs, rising 177 feet, are topped with a lighthouse (1827), itself 78 feet high. Here stood a famous fortificatio...
-Arnsberg - Arta
Arnsberg Arnsberg, a town of Westphalia, on the Ruhr 36 miles E. of Hagen by rail. Here were held the famous Vehmgerichte. Pop. 9131. Arnstadt Arnstadt, the chief town in the principality of Schw...
-Arthurs Seat - Aschaffenburg
Arthurs Seat Arthur's Seat, a lion-shaped hill, immediately east of Edinburgh, rising 822 feet. The ascent is easy, and the prospect from the top unrivalled. Arthur's Seat is supposed to derive its n...
-Aschersleben - Ashingdon
Aschersleben Aschersleben (Asherslay'ben), a town of Prussian Saxony, on the Eine, 32 m. SW. of Magdeburg. Population, 28,500, largely occupied in manufactures of woollens, linens, sugar, etc. Asc...
-Ashland - Aspe
Ashland Ashland (1), a post-borough of Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, 119 miles NW. of Philadelphia by rail. It depends principally upon its rich mines of anthracite coal; but it has also foundries...
-Aspern - Assisi
Aspern Aspern, a small village of Austria, on the Danube's left bank, nearly opposite Vienna. Here on May 21-22, 1S09, Napoleon was defeated by the Austrians under Archduke Charles. Aspinwall Asp...
-Assiut - Atacama
Assiut Assiut. See Siout. Assmannshausen Assmannshau'sen, a village on the Rhine, 3 miles below Rudesheim, famous for its red and white wine. Assos Assos, a ruined town on the Gulf of Edremid...
-Atbara - Athlone
Atbara At'bara, a tributary of the Nile, rises in Abyssinia near Lake Tzana, flows mainly northwest, and after receiving the larger Takazze, joins the Nile below Berber - being its only tributary bel...
-Athole - Atrato
Athole Ath'ole, a district in the north of Perthshire, occupying a great part of the southern slopes of the Grampians. Athy Athy', the chief town of County Kildare, on the Barrow, here joined by ...
-Atrauli - Auburn
Atrauli Atrauli (Atrowli), a town of British India, in the United Provinces, 16 miles NE. of Aligarh. Pop. 18,000. Atrek Atrek, a river of Persia, rising in Khorasan, and flowing nearly 350 miles...
-Aubusson - Aughnacloy
Aubusson Aubusson (O-bus-song), a town in the French dep. of Creuse, in the rocky gorge of the river Creuse, 47 miles ENE. of Limoges. Pop. 6248. Auch Auch (Oash), capital of the French dep. of G...
-Aughrim - Austin
Aughrim Aughrim. See Aghrim. Augustenburg Augustenburg, a village of 600 inhabitants on a bay of the island of Alsen (q.v.). Its castle (1776) was formerly the residence of the Dukes of Holstein-...
-Auteuil - Avebury
Auteuil Auteuil (O-tuh'yee1), formerly a country village at the entrance of the Bois de Boulogne, now enclosed within the fortifications of Paris. It was the residence of Boileau and Moliere. Autu...
-Aveiro - Avola
Aveiro Aveiro, a town of Portugal, a bishop's see, 40 miles S. of Oporto by rail, on a salt lake or lagoon joined to the sea by a canal. Pop. 9167. Avellino Avelli'no (anc. Abellinum), chief town...
-Avondale - Aylesbury
Avondale Avondale, the Wicklow seat of the late Mr C. S. Parnell, on the Avonmore, 1 mile S. of Rathdrum. Avonmouth Avonmouth, in Gloucestershire, at the mouth of the Avon, 6 miles NW. of Bristol...
-Aylesford - Bacharach
Aylesford Aylesford, a village near the centre of Kent, on the right bank of the Medway, 3 1/2 miles NW. of Maidstone. Remarkable ancient remains are found here, including the cromlech called Kits Co...
-Backergunge - Baden bei Wien
Backergunge Backergunge. See Bakerganj. Bacolor Bacolor, a town of the island of Luzon, Philippines, 10 miles NW. from Manila. Pop. 9737. Bactria Bactria, a province of the ancient Persian em...
-Badenoch - Bagirmi
Badenoch Ba'denoch, a Highland district in the southeast part of Inverness-shire, 45 miles long by 19 broad, bounded by Lochaber, Athole, Braemar, and Moray, and traversed by the Spey. Badenweiler...
-Bagnacavallo - Bahia Honda
Bagnacavallo Bagnacavallo (Ban-ya-ca-val'lo), a cathedral city of Italy, 11 miles W. of Ravenna. Pop. 3843. Bagnara Bagnara (Ban-yh'ra), an Italian coast-town, 16 miles NE. of Reggio. Pop. 9749....
-Bahr - Baitul
Bahr Bahr, an Arabic word signifying a large body of water, is applied both to lakes and rivers. - Bahr-el-Abiad (the White River), and Bahr-el-Azrak (the Blue River), are the chief branches of the N...
-Baja - Balaklava
Baja Baja (Bah'ya), a market-town of Hungary, on the Danube, 90 m. S. of Pesth, with a fine castle, several convents, and brisk trade. Pop. 19,941. Bajmok Bajmok (Bye-mok), a village of Hungary, ...
-Balasinor - Bali
Balasinor Balasinor, a tributary state of India, in the province of Guzerat, Bombay. Area about 150 sq. m.; pop. 42,000. - The chief town, Balasinor, is 51 miles N. of Baroda. Pop. 9000. Balasor ...
-Balize - Ballater
Balize Balize. See Belize, Honduras. Balkh Balkh (anc. Bactria), a district of Afghan Turkestan, the most northerly province of Afghanistan. Offsets of the Hindu-Kush traverse it in a NW. directi...
-Ballenstedt - Ballymena
Ballenstedt Ballenstedt, a town of Anhalt, in the Harz Mountains, 7 miles SE. of Quedlinburg by rail. Its castle was a monastery 940-1525, and from 1765 till 1863 the residence of the dukes of Anhalt...
-Ballymoney - Baluchistan
Ballymoney Ballymoney, a market-town of County Antrim, 53 miles NNW. of Belfast by rail. Pop. 2955. Ballymote Ballymote, a town in the county, and 14 miles S. of the town of Sligo. Pop. 997. B...
-Balwearie - Bamian
Balwearie Balwearie, 2 miles W. by S. of Kirkcaldy, the ruined tower of the 'wizard' Sir Michael Scott. Bambarra Bambarra, one of the Soudan states of Western Africa, lying (where 5 W. long,...
-Bammako - Bandon
Bammako Bam'mako, a trading town of Bambarra, on the Upper Niger, fortified by the French in 1883. Pop. 10,000. Banagher Banagher, a town of King's county, on the Shannon, 18 miles SE. of Ballina...
-Bandong - Bannockbum
Bandong Bandong, a flourishing commercial town in the western end of Java, near the volcano Gunong Guntour. Since 1864 it has been the capital of a province, the Preanger Regencies. Bangalore Ban...
-Banswara - Barbizon
Banswara Banswara, a hilly, well-wooded state in the south-west of Rajputana. It has an area of 1500 sq. m., and is peopled by wild and turbulent Bheels. In 1818 it passed voluntarily under British p...
-Barbuda - Barfleur
Barbuda Barbu'da, a fertile, densely wooded coral island, one of the Lesser Antilles, 30 miles N. of Antigua, of which it is a dependency. It is 10 miles long, 8 broad, and 75 sq. m. in area. Pop. 65...
-Barfrush - Barnaul
Barfrush Barfrush. See Balfrush. Barga Pass Barga Pass, a Himalaya hill-pass (15,000 feet) in the north of Bashahr State, Punjab. Barge Barge, a town of Piedmont, 30 miles SW. of Turin. Pop. ...
-Barnes - Barra
Barnes Barnes, a Surrey parish, on the Thames, 7 miles WSW. of Waterloo station. It has memories of Cowley, Fielding, Handel, Hoare, and the 'Kitcat Club.' Barnet Barnet, a town of Hertfordshire,...
-Barrackpur - Bashahr
Barrackpur Barrackpur, a town of Bengal, on the E. bank of the Hooghly, 15 miles up the stream from Calcutta. It is a favourite retreat for Europeans from Calcutta; and to the south is the suburban r...
-Bashan - Bassenthwaite
Bashan Bashan, a country of North-eastern Palestine, situated to the east of the Jordan. A volcanic plateau rising in the Jebel-ed-Druz to 6000 feet, it extends 60 miles north and south, and about 40...
-Basse-terre - Bathgate
Basse-terre Basse-terre (Fr., 'lowland'), three places in the West Indies. - (1) The capital of St Christopher's or St Kitt's, on the west coast; pop. 9000. - (2) Capital of the French island of Guad...
-Batignolles - Battle
Batignolles Batignolles, a northern suburb of Paris. Batjan Batjan. See Moluccas. Batley Batley, a manufacturing town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 8 miles SW. of Leeds; since 1868 a munic...
-Battle Creek - Bayeux
Battle Creek Battle Creek, a thriving town of Michigan, on the Kalamazoo River, 45 miles SW. of Lansing. It has flour-mills, iron-foundries, machine-shops, etc. Pop. (1880) 7063; (1900) 18,563. Ba...
-Bay Islands - Beaminster
Bay Islands Bay Islands, a small group in the Bay of Honduras, 150 miles SE. of Balize. The cluster was proclaimed a British colony in 1852, but in 1859 was ceded to Honduras. The chief of the six is...
-Bearhaven - Beaujolais
Bearhaven Bearhaven. See Castletown Bearhaven. Bear Island Bear Island, County Cork, in Bantry Bay, measures 6 1/2 by 1 1/2 miles. Bear Lake Bear Lake, Great, in the north-west of Canada, in ...
-Beaulieu - Becskerek
Beaulieu Beaulieu (Bewley), a village of Hampshire, at the head of a creek, on the verge of the New Forest, 6 miles NE. of Lymington. King John here founded a Cistercian abbey in 1204. Beauly Bea...
-Bedarieux - Beilan
Bedarieux Bedarieux (Bay-dar-yuh'), a town in the French dep. of Herault, on the Orb, 27 miles NNW. of Beziers by rail. Pop. 6046. Beddgelert Beddgelert, a Carnarvonshire village, a great tourist...
-Beira - Belgaum
Beira Beira (Bay'ee-ra), a Portuguese province; area about 9222 sq. m., and a pop. of 1,517,432. The surface is mountainous; the rivers are the Douro and Tagus. It is divided into the districts of Av...
-Belgiojoso - Bellot Strait
Belgiojoso Belgiojoso (Bel-ji-o-yo'zo), a town of Lombardy, North Italy, 9 miles E. of Pavia. Pop. 3168. Belgorod Belgorod' (Russian Bjelgorod, 'white town'), a town in the Russian government of ...
-Bell Rock - Bencoolen
Bell Rock Bell Rock, or Inchcape, a reef of old red sandstone rocks in the German Ocean, 12 miles SE. of Arbroath, and nearly opposite the mouth of the Tay. It is 2000 feet long; at high water of spr...
-Bender - Benicia
Bender Bender, a strongly fortified town, in the Russian province of Bessarabia, on the Dniester, 82 miles NW. of Odessa by rail. The principal industries are the manufacture of bricks, stoneware, pa...
-Beni-Hassan - Benue
Beni-Hassan Beni-Hassan, a village of Upper Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile, remarkable for its catacombs. Benin Benin', a country of Western Africa, lying between the lower Niger and Dahomey...
-Ben Venue - Berezov
Ben Venue Ben Venue (Venoo), a Perthshire mountain (2393 feet) flanking Loch Katrine. Ben Wyvis Ben Wyvis (Wee'vis or Wi'vis), a lumpish mountain (3429 feet) of Ross-shire, 8 m. NW. of Dingwall. ...
-Berezovsk - Berkeley
Berezovsk Berezovsk, a village in the Russian province of Perm, near Ekaterinburg, gives name to a famous gold-field, wrought since 1744. Berg Berg, a former German duchy on the Rhine's right ba...
-Berkeley Sound - Besancon
Berkeley Sound Berkeley Sound, an inlet of the East Falkland Island, near its north-eastern extremity. Berkhamstead Berkhamstead, a market-town of Hertfordshire, on the Bulburn, 28 miles NW. of L...
-Besika Bay - Bethsaida
Besika Bay Besika Bay (Be-zee'ka), a bay on the northwest coast of Asia Minor, to the south of the entrance of the Dardanelles. The English fleet was stationed here during crises in the Eastern Quest...
-Bethuno - Bex
Bethuno Bethuno (Bay-tun'), a town in the dep. of Pas-de-Calais, on a rock overlooking the river Brette, 16 miles NNW. of Arras, with old fortifications by Vauban. It has bleaching-works and manufact...
-Bexar - Bhuj
Bexar Bexar. See San Antonio. Bexhill-on-Sea Bexhill-on-Sea, a Sussex watering-place and municipal borough (1902), 5 miles WSW. of Hastings. Pop. 12,500. Bexley Bexley, a town of Kent, on the...
-Biafra - Biebrich
Biafra Bia'fra, Bight of, a large bay on the west coast of Africa, at the head of the Gulf of Guinea, between Capes Formosa and Lopez. The principal rivers flowing into it are the Niger (q.v.), the N...
-Biel - Big Sandy River
Biel Biel (Beal), a beautiful Haddingtonshire seat, 4 miles SW. of Dunbar. Biel Biel. See Bienne. Bielefeld Bielefeld (Bee'leh-felt), a town in the Prussian province of Westphalia, picturesquel...
-Bihacz - Billom
Bihacz Bihacz (Bihatch), a strong fortress-town of North-west Bosnia, on the Una, near the Croatian frontier. Pop. 4506. Bihar Bihar. See Behar. Bihe Bihe, a fruitful district of South Africa...
-Bill Quay - Birket-el-Hadji
Bill Quay Bill Quay, on the Tyne, in Durham, 3 miles E. of Gateshead, the seat of shipbuilding yards, bottle-works, etc. Bilma Bilma, a town of the Sahara, Central Africa, situated in 18o 40' N. ...
-Birmah - Bisham Abbey
Birmah Birmah. See Burma. Birmingham Birmingham, the capital of Jefferson county, Alabama, and the most important seat of the iron industry of the southern states, is situated at the junction of ...
-Bishop-Auckland - Bitche
Bishop-Auckland Bishop-Auckland, a town in the county, and 9 1/2 miles SW. of the city, of Durham, stands on an eminence 140 feet above the confluent Wear and Gaunless. Its abbey-like palace of the b...
-Bithur - Blackpool
Bithur Bithur', a town in India on the Ganges, 12 miles NW. of Cawnpore. Pop. 6685. Bithynia Bithynia, an ancient division of Asia Minor, separated from Europe by the Propontis (Sea of Marmora) a...
-Blackrod - Blankenberghe
Blackrod Blackrod, a Lancashire town, with cotton-mills and collieries, 5 miles SSE. of Chorley. Pop. 3875. Blackstairs Blackstairs, a range (2610 feet) between Car-low and Wexford counties. B...
-Blankenburg - Blida
Blankenburg Blankenburg, (1) a town, 37 miles SSE. of Brunswick, on the borders of the Harz Mountains. Pop. 10,300. - (2) A watering-place in the Rudolstadt division of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, 25 mil...
-Block Island - Bochnia
Block Island Block Island, formerly called Manisees, is situated in the Atlantic, 9 miles S. from Rhode Island, United States, to which it belongs. It is 8 miles long, and contains the township of Ne...
-Bocholt - Bolan Pass
Bocholt Bocholt (Boh'holt), a town of Prussia, on the Aa, 13 miles N. of Wesel by rail, with manufactures of cotton and machinery. Pop. 20,576. Bochum Bochum (Boh'hoom), a Prussian town, 35 m. NE...
-Bolbec - Bona
Bolbec Bolbec, a busy town in the French dep. of Seine-Inferieure, 19 miles ENE. of Havre by rail. It manufactures woollens, linen, cotton, and chemicals. Pop. 12,000. Bolchov Bolchov. See Bolkho...
-Bonaire - Boodroom
Bonaire Bonaire. See Buen-Ayre. Bonar Bonar, a Sutherland village, at the head of Dornoch Firth, 14 miles WNW. of Tain. Pop. 366. Telford's bridge (1812) here was destroyed in 1892, but has been ...
-Boom - Borissov
Boom Boom, a town of Belgium, 10 miles S. of Antwerp, with great brick and tile works, breweries, tanneries, rope-walks, sailcloth manufactures, salt-works, etc Pop. 16,239. Boondee Boondee. See ...
-Borkum - Boscobel
Borkum Borkum, an East Frisian island, at the mouth of the Ems, 25 miles NW. of Emden. Pop. 684, increased in summer by over 2000 visitors. Bormio Bormio, an Italian village with eight hot sulphu...
-Bosco Reale - Bouches-du-Rhone
Bosco Reale Bosco Reale (Re-ah'leh), an Italian village, 10 miles ESE. of Naples. Pop. 8190. Bosna-Serai Bosna-Serai. See Sarajevo. Bostan Bostan' (El), 'the Garden,'a town of Asiatic Turkey,...
-Boufarik - Bourges
Boufarik Boufarik, a town of Algeria, 23 miles S. of Algiers by rail. Pop. 5275. Bougie Bougie, a port of Algeria, on the Bay of Bougie, 120 miles E. of Algiers. The Sald of the Romans, and...
-Bourget - Box Tunnel
Bourget Bourget, Le (Boorzhay'), a village 6 1/4 miles NE. of Paris, during the siege in 1870 the scene of a series of bloody struggles disastrous to the French. - The Lac du Bourget, the largest who...
-Boyaca - Bradford-on-Avon
Boyaca Boyaca, a dep. of Colombia, touching Venezuela. Area, 33,351 sq. m.; pop. 650,000. Capital, Tunja, 6000 inhabitants. Boyle Boyle, a town in County Roscommon, on the river Boyle, above its ...
-Brading - Brampton
Brading Brading, a small but ancient town, once a parliamentary borough, in the Isle of Wight, 4 miles S. of Ryde by rail. In its churchyard is buried the 'Dairyman's Daughter;' and in 1880 the remai...
-Bran - Bray
Bran Bran, a feeder of the Tay, with fine falls, near Dunkeld. Branco Branco, RIO, a river of Northern Brazil, rising in the Parima Mountains, and flowing 400 miles southward to the Rio Negro, of...
-Bray is a district of Normandy - Bredfield
Bray is a district of Normandy Bray is a district of Normandy, now the southeastern part of Seine-Inferieure, famous for its cattle and dairy produce. Brazos Brazos, a river of Texas, U.S., risin...
-Breede - Brentford
Breede Breede (Bray'deh), a river in Cape Colony, flowing SE. to the Indian Ocean at St Sebastian's Bay, 60 miles NE. of Cape Agulhas. It is navigable for vessels drawing not more than 10 feet of wat...
-Brentwood - Briare
Brentwood Brentwood, a market-town in Essex, 10 miles SW. of Chelmsford by rail. It has a richly endowed grammar-school (1567). Population, 4932. Brescia Brescia (Bresh'ya; anc. Brixia), a city o...
-Bridgend - Bridlington
Bridgend Bridgend, a market-town of Glamorganshire, 17 miles W. of Cardiff, with ironworks and collieries. Pop. 6062. Bridgenorth Bridgenorth. See Bridgnorth. Bridge of Allan Bridge of Allan,...
-Bridport - Brihuega
Bridport Bridport, a municipal borough of Dorsetshire, at the confluence of the Asker and the Brit, 2 miles from the English Channel, and 16 1/2 W. of Dorchester by rail. It stands on an eminence sur...
-Brindaban - Brixham
Brindaban Brindaban, or Bindraban, a town of the North-west Provinces, on the Jumna, 6 miles N. of Muttra. It is one of the holiest cities of the Hindus; and through the munificence of wealthy devote...
-Broach - Bromberg
Broach Broach, Baroach, or Bharuch, a town of Guzerat, Bombay Presidency, on the north bank of the Nerbudda, 228 miles N. of Bombay by rail. Anciently one of the chief ports of Western India, and in ...
-Bromley - Brownhills
Bromley Bromley, a market-town of Kent, on the Ravensbourne, 10 miles SE. of London. Long the residence of the bishops of Rochester, it has a church, with the grave of Dr Johnson's wife. Pop. 30,000....
-Brownsville - Brunn
Brownsville Brownsville, a port of entry, Texas, on the north bank of the Rio Grande, opposite Mata-moros, 35 miles from the river's mouth in the Gulf of Mexico. In May 1846 the town was occupied by ...
-Brunnen - Buckingham
Brunnen Brunnen (Broon'nen), the port of the Swiss canton of Schwyz, on the Lake of Lucerne, 17 miles by water, but 28 1/2 by rail ESE. of Lucerne. Here in 1315, after the battle of Morgarten, the de...
-Bucklyvie - Buitenzorg
Bucklyvie Bucklyvie, a Stirlingshire village, 15 1/2 miles W. of Stirling. Pop. 383. Buck of Oabrach Buck of Oabrach, an Aberdeenshire mountain (2368 feet), 13 miles SW. of Huntly. Buczacz Bu...
-Bujalance - Bundoran
Bujalance Bujalance (Boo-ha-lan'thay), a city of Andalusia, Spain, 25 miles E. of Cordova. Pop. 11,250. Bukkur Bukkur, a fortified island of the Indus, in Bind, between the towns of Rohri and Suk...
-Bunker Hill - Burgundy
Bunker Hill Bunker Hill, an elevation (112 feet) on the peninsula of Charlestown, now part of Boston, Massachusetts, connected by a ridge, 700 yards long, with Breed's Hill (75 feet). The two heights...
-Burhanpur - Burrard Inlet
Burhanpur Burhanpur, a town of the Central Provinces, India, on the Tapti, 280 miles NE. of Bombay. The remains of buildings show that the town extended over an area of 5 sq. m. when under the Moguls...
-Burray - Busto-Arsizio
Burray Burray, an Orkney island, between Pomona and South Ronaldshay. Area, 4 sq. m.; pop. 671. Burriana Burriana, a Spanish town, 34 miles N. of Valencia. Pop. 10,179. Burrow Head Burrow Hea...
-Buteshire - Byland Abbey
Buteshire Buteshire, a county comprising the isles of Bute, Arran, the Cumbraes, Holy Isle, Pladda, Inchmarnock, and other smaller islands. The area of the whole is 225 sq. m., or 143,977 statute acr...
-Bytown - Caerleon
Bytown Bytown, till 1854 the name of Ottawa (q.v.). Byzantium Byzantium. See Constantinople. CABATUAN CABATUAN, a town in the island of Panay in the Philippines, province Iloilo. Pop. 18,00...
-Caermarthen - Caivano
Caermarthen Caermarthen, Caernarvon. See Carmarthen, Carnarvon. Caerphilly Caerphilly, a town of Glamorganshire, 7 1/2 miles N. by W. of Cardiff. It has a fine ruined castle, ironworks, and colli...
-Cajabamba - Cali
Cajabamba Cajabamba (Kahabam'ba), cap. of the prov. of Chimborazo, in Ecuador, 102 miles S. of Quito, on the arid plateau of Topi, at an elevation of 9480 feet. Pop. 18,000. The former town of Riobam...
-Calicut - Caltanisetta
Calicut Cal'icut, a seaport of Malabar, Madras presidency, 6 miles N. of Beypur terminus, and 506 SSE. of Bombay. It was the first spot in India visited overland by Covilham (1486) and round the Cape...
-Calton Hill - Cambrai
Calton Hill Calton Hill. See Edinburgh. Calumet Calumet, a mining locality of Houghton county, Michigan, on a peninsula of Lake Superior, 42 m. N. of L'Anse by rail. The Calumet and Hecla copper-...
-Cambuskenneth - Campbelltown
Cambuskenneth Cambuskenneth, a ruined abbey (1147), on the Forth, near Stirling. James III. and his queen are buried here. Cambuslang Cambuslang, a mining town of Lanarkshire, 4 miles SE. of Glas...
-Campbeltown - Cana
Campbeltown Campbeltown, a royal burgh and seaport of Argyllshire, on the E. coast of the Kintyre peninsula, 83 miles SW. of Glasgow by water. It curves round the head of a sea-loch (2 3/4 x 3/4 mile...
-Canaan - Canosa
Canaan Canaan ('low-land'), the name originally applied to the low coast-land of Palestine on the Mediterranean, inhabited by the Canaanites (strictly so called), as opposed to the mountain-land. Lat...
-Canossa - Cape of Good Hope
Canossa Canossa, a ruined castle of Italy, 12 miles SW. of Reggio. Here the Emperor Henry IV. in 1077 made submission to Pope Gregory VII. Canso Canso, Cape, the eastern extremity of Nova Scotia,...
-Cape River - Capua
Cape River Cape River, or RIO de Segovia, a river of Nicaragua, flowing nearly 300 miles north-eastward to the Caribbean Sea, and forming part of the boundary with Honduras. Capernaum Capernaum (...
-Carabobo - Carchemish
Carabobo Carabo'bo, a state of Venezuela, between the Caribbean Sea and the state of Zamora. Area, 3000 sq. m.; pop. about 200,000. The capital is Valencia; and the chief port, Puerto Cabello. Car...
-Cardenas - Carisbrooke
Cardenas Car'denas, a seaport of Cuba, on the north coast, 75 miles E. of Havana, with which it is connected by rail. Pop. 22,000. Cardigan Cardigan (anc. Aberteifi; then Ceredigion - pron. Ker-e...
-Carlaverock - Carluke
Carlaverock Carlaverock. See Caerlaverock. Carlingford Carlingford, a seaport of County Louth, 69 miles N. of Dublin. Close by rises Carlingford Mountain (1935 feet). Carlingford Lough is 10 mile...
-Carmagnola - Carnlough
Carmagnola Carmagnola, a town of North Italy, 18 miles S. of Turin by rail. Pop. 3730. Carmania Carmania, the old name of Kerman (q.v.). Carmarthen Carmarthen (Welsh Caer Fyrddyn, the Mari-du...
-Carnoustie - Carrickfergus
Carnoustie Carnoustie (Karnoos'tie), a coast-town of Forfarshire, 11 miles ENE. of Dundee. It has fine golf-links. Pop. 5204. Carolina Carolina. See North and South Carolina. Carouge Carouge ...
-Carrickmacross - Casale
Carrickmacross Carrickmacross, a Monaghan market-town, 51 miles NW. of Dublin. Pop. 1879. Carrick-on-Shannon Carrick-on-Shannon, the capital of County Leitrim, on the Shannon, 98 miles NW. of Dub...
-Casalpusterlengo - Castel Gandolfo
Casalpusterlengo Casalpusterlengo (u as oo), a town of Italy, 22 miles SE. of Milan by rail. Pop. 5513. Casamicciola Casamicciola (Kasamitch'ola), a watering-place on the island of Ischia, in a v...
-Castellamare - Castlecary
Castellamare Castellamare (Kas-tel-la-mah'reh), (1) a seaport of Italy, 17 1/2 miles SE. of Naples by rail; near ancient StabiAe, where the elder Pliny lost his life when the city was overwhelmed wit...
-Castlecomer - Castlewellan
Castlecomer Castlecomer, a Kilkenny market-town, 14 1/2 miles SW. of Carlow. Pop. 958. Castleconnell Castleconnell, a village on the Shannon, 8 miles NE. of Limerick. Castlederg Castlederg, a...
-Castres - Catania
Castres Castres (Kastr), a town in the French dep. of Tarn, on the river Agout, 46 miles (72 by rail) E. of Toulouse. It rose up around a Benedictine abbey (647), and in the 16th century became a Hug...
-Catanzaro - Cauca
Catanzaro Catanzaro (Katantzah'ro), a city of S. Italy, on a rocky hill 6 m. from the Gulf of Squillace, and 326 SE. of Naples by rail. It has a cathedral, a ruined castle of Robert Guiscard, and man...
-Caudebec - Cayenne
Caudebec Caudebec (Koad-bek'), two places in Seine-Inferieure. Caudebec les Elbeuf, 12 miles S. by W. of Rouen, has a population of 9700, and manufactures cloth. Caudebcc-en-Caux, a pretty antique vi...
-Cayes - Central City
Cayes Cayes, or Aux Cayes (O Kay'), a seaport of Hayti, on the south-west coast, 95 miles WSW. of Port-au-Prince. Pop. 8000. Caymans Caymans (Ki-mans'), three fertile coral islands, 165 miles NW....
-Central Falls - Cerro Gordo
Central Falls Central Falls, a city of Providence county, Rhode Island, 4 1/2 miles N. of Providence, with extensive manufactures. Pop. (1900) 1S,1(37. Central India Central India, the official t...
-Cerro Largo - Chablis
Cerro Largo Cerro Largo, a dep. in the NE. of Uruguay. Area, 5735 sq. m.; pop. 38,000. Capital, Cerro Largo or Melo; pop. 5000. Certaldo Certaldo (Cher-takl'do), a town of central Italy, 19 miles...
-Chaco - Chalon-sur-Saone
Chaco Chaco, El Gran. See Gran Chaco. Chadda Chadda, another name for the Benue (q.v.). Chadderton Chadderton, a suburb of Oldham (q.v.). Chaeronea Chaeronea, a town in ancient Boti...
-Chamalari - Chancellorsville
Chamalari Chamalari (Tcha-ma-lah'ree), a peak (23,944 feet) of the Himalayas, between Tibet and Bhutan, 140 miles E. of Mount Everest. Chamba Chamba, one of the Punjab Hill States, immediately SE...
-Chanda - Chard
Chanda Chanda, chief town of a district of India, on the south-west frontier of the Central Provinces, 90 miles S. of Nagpur. Pop. 16,137. Chandausi Chandausi, a town of the United Provinces, 27 ...
-Charente - Charlottenburg
Charente Charente (Sharongt), a river, rises in the dep. of Haute-Vienne, and winds 222 miles NW., S., and WNW., mainly through the deps. of Charente and Charente-Inferieure, to the Bay of Biscay, op...
-Charlottetown - Chateauroux
Charlottetown Charlottetown, the capital of Prince Edward Island, on the south coast, stands on the Hillsborough estuary, which forms a secure and commodious harbour for the largest vessels. It has t...
-Chatelineau - Chaudes-Algues
Chatelineau Chatelineau, a Belgian town in Hainault, on the Sambre, 27 miles E. of Mons, with coal-mines and ironworks. Pop. 12,000. Chatellerault Chatellerault (Shah-tel-ro'), a town and river-p...
-Chaudfontaine - Cheduba
Chaudfontaine Chaudfontaine (Shoad-fong-tayn'), a Belgian village in the valley of the Vesdre, 5 m. SSE. of Liege by rail, with mineral springs (92 F.). Pop. 1552. Chaudiere Chaudiere (Sho-d...
-Cheesewring - Cheneys
Cheesewring Cheesewring, a curious natural pillar, 32 feet high, in Cornwall, 5 miles N. of Liskeard. Che-foo Che-foo, a treaty port on the north side of the peninsula of Shan-tung, at the entran...
-Chengalpat - Cheshunt
Chengalpat Chengalpat. See Chingalpat. Chopping Wycombe Chopping Wycombe. See Wycombe. Chepstow Chepstow, a river-port of Monmouthshire, on the right bank of the Wye, 2 1/2 miles from its inf...
-Chesll Bank or Beach - Chiapas
Chesll Bank or Beach Chesll Bank or Beach, a bank of gravel and shingle extending 16 miles from Bridport to Portland. It varies in height from 20 to 43 feet, and in width from 170 to 200 yards. For s...
-Chiaramonte - Chihuahua
Chiaramonte Chiaramonte (Kee-ah-ra-mon'teh), a town of Sicily, 30 miles W. of Syracuse. Pop. 9364. Chiari Chia'ri (Kee-ah'ree), a town of Lombardy, 13 miles W. of Brescia by rail. Here the Austri...
-Chilkoot - China
Chilkoot Chilkoot, a pass from Dyea, on the inlet from the Pacific, over the mountains to the head-waters of the Yukon; on the main route to Klondike till the railway by the White Horse Pass. Chil...
-Chinampo - Chipping Sodbury
Chinampo Chinampo, or Chinnampho, a free port on the N. coast of Corea, 105 m. N W. of Seoul. Pop. 17,000. Chinandega Chinandega (Tcheenanday'ga), a Nicaraguan town, 30 miles NW. of Leon. Pop. 11...
-Chipping Wycombe - Chivilcoy
Chipping Wycombe Chipping Wycombe. See Wycombe. Chiquimula Chiquimula, a town (pop. 6000) in the east of Guatemala, which gives name to the Isthmus of Chiquimula, with a breadth from the Gulf of ...
-Chobe - Christiansund
Chobe Chobe, a tributary of the Zambesi. Chobham Chobham, a Surrey parish, 4 miles NW. of Woking. A camp was formed here in 1853. Cholet Cholet (Sho-lay'), in the French dep. of Maine-et-Loir...
-Christmas Island - Chusan
Christmas Island Christmas Island, in the Pacific, is in 1 57' N. lat., and 157 27' W. long., with some guano deposits, and is a British possession. - Another Christmas Island, annexed to B...
-Cicest8r - Cis-Sutlej States
Cicest8r Cicest8r. See Cirencester. Cienfuegos Cienfuegos (See-en-foo-ay'gos), a port of Cuba, on the south coast, on the Bahia de Jagua, 140 miles ESE. of Havana by rail. Pop. 30,560. Cieza ...
-Citeaux - Clapham
Citeaux Citeaux (See-to'; anc. Cistercium), the mother abbey of the great Cistercian monastic order (founded here in 1098), stands 12 miles S. of Dijon, in the French dep. of Cote d'Or. The abbey bui...
-Clapton - Cleobury-Mortimer
Clapton Clapton, a north-east district of London. Clara Clara, a market-town of King's county, 65 miles W. of Dublin. Pop. 1111. Clare Island Clare Island, a Mayo island (5x3 miles), in the A...
-Clerkenwell - Clippens
Clerkenwell Clerkenwell, a London parish, lying within the parliamentary borough of Finsbury, and due north of St Paul's. It is largely inhabited by watchmakers, goldsmiths, and opticians. The Fenian...
-Clipstone - Clontarf
Clipstone Clipstone, in Sherwood Forest, Notts, 5 miles NE. of Mansfield, the seat of an ancient royal palace. Clitheroe Clitheroe, a municipal borough in Lancashire, on the Ribble, 35 miles N. o...
-Cloughjordan - Coalisland
Cloughjordan Cloughjordan, a village of Tipperary, 87 miles SW. of Dublin. Pop. 518. Clovelly Clovelly, a coast-village of North Devon, 11 miles WSW. of Bideford. From its rude little pier it cli...
-Coalville - Cochin
Coalville Coalville, an urban district of Leicestershire, 16 miles NW. of Leicester by rail. Pop. (1901) 15,280. Coiinza Coiinza, Kwanza, or Quanza, a river of West Africa, rising in the east of ...
-Cockburnspath - Coimbra
Cockburnspath Cockburnspath, a Berwickshire village, 7 miles SE. of Dunbar. Cockenzie Cockenzie, a Haddingtonshire fishing-village, 1 mile NE. of Prestonpans. Pop. 1678. Cockermouth Cockermou...
-Coina - Collingwood
Coina Coina, a town of Spain, 20 miles WSW. of Malaga. Pop. 9972. Coire Coire. See Chur. Cojutepeque Cojutepeque (Ko-hoo-te-pay'kay), a town of San Salvador, Central America, 15 miles E. of t...
-Collumpton - Colorado Springs
Collumpton Collumpton. See Cullompton. Colmar Colmar, the capital of the German district of Upper Alsace, on a plain near the Vosges, 42 miles SSW. of Strasburg. It is one of the chief seats of t...
-Colwyn Bay - Compstone
Colwyn Bay Colwyn Bay, a beautiful watering-place of Denbighshire, 6 miles W. of Abergele. Pop. of district, 9000. Colyton Colyton, a Devon market-town, on the Coly (a feeder of the Axe), 4 1/2 m...
-Compton Castle - Conde-sur-Noireau
Compton Castle Compton Castle, Devon, 4 miles W. of Torquay, a fine old fortified house. Comrie Comrie, a pleasant, sheltered village of Perthshire, on the Earn, 7 miles W. of Crieff by rail (189...
-Condom - Connel Ferry
Condom Condom (Corgdong), a town in the dep. of Gers, on a height above the confluence of the Baise and the Gele, 20 miles SW. of Agen by rail. Pop. 6735. Conegliano Conegliano (Con-el-yah'no), a...
-Connemara - Cooktown
Connemara Connemara (Con-ne-mah'ra), a wild district forming the westernmost division of Galway. Connor Connor, an Antrim village, 5 miles S. of Bally-mena. Here Edward Bruce defeated the English...
-Coolgardie - Coquimbo
Coolgardie Coolgardie, since 1893 a great gold-mining centre in Western Australia, 350 miles ENE. of Perth by rail. Pop. in 1905, 5000. Coolins Coolins. See Cuchullins. Coomassie Coomassie, t...
-Corato - Corfe Castle
Corato Corato (Co-rah'to), a town of southern Italy, 25 miles W. of Bari. Pop. 40,428. Corbell Corbell (Cor-bayl'), a town in the French dep. of Seine-et-Oise, on the Seine, 21 miles S. of Paris ...
-Corfu - Correze
Corfu Corfu, the most northerly and important of the Ionian Islands (q.v.), at the entrance to the Adriatic, separated from Albania by a channel 2 to 12 miles broad. It is 40 miles long, 3 1/2 to 20 ...
-Corrib - Cos
Corrib Corrib, Lough, an isleted lake of counties Galway and Mayo, the second largest in Ireland. Lying only 30 feet above sea-level, it is 25 miles long from NW. to SE., and 1 to 6 broad, with an ar...
-Coseley - Cottingham
Coseley Coseley, a south-eastern suburb of Wolver-hampton. Cosenza Cosenza (Co-sentz'a; anc. Consentia), a cathedral city of Italy, 12 miles B. of the Mediterranean, and 262 SE. of Naples by rail...
-Coulmiers - Cove and Kilcreggan
Coulmiers Coulmiers (Koolm-yay'), a French village, 12 miles WNW. of Orleans, the scene of a Bavarian defeat, 9th November 1870. Coulport Coulport, Dumbartonshire, a pier on Loch Long, 4 miles N....
-Covilhao - Craig Gowan
Covilhao Covilhao, a Portuguese town, 103 miles by rail NNE.of Abrantes. Pop. 15,986. Covington Covington, a city of Kentucky, on the Ohio, opposite Cincinnati, with which it is connected by a fi...
-Craighall - Crema
Craighall Craighall, New, a collier village of Midlothian, 2 miles WSW. of Musselburgh. Pop. 1650 Craigieburn, 3 miles E. of Moffat, a wood celebrated by Burns. Craigleith Craigleith, a huge quar...
-Cremona - Criccieth
Cremona Cremona, a decayed city of northern Italy, on the north bank of the Po, 60 miles SE. of Milan by rail. Among its buildings are the cathedral (1107-1606), with gorgeous interior; the neighbour...
-Crichton - Cromer
Crichton Crichton (now Kri-ton; formerly Krihh'ton), a fine ruined castle of Midlothian, on the Tyne, 5 miles ESE. of Dalkeith. It figures in Marmion. Crickhowell Crickhowell, a market-town of Br...
-Cromford - Csongrad
Cromford Cromford, a town of Derbyshire, on the Der-went, 2 miles N. by E. of Wirksworth. Ark-wright migrated hither in 1771. Pop. 1082. Crompton Crompton, a northern suburb of Oldham. Cronsta...
-Cuando - Cullera
Cuando Cuando, a name of the Chobe, a tributary of the Zambesi (q.v.). Cuango Cuango, or Kwanoo. See Congo. Cubango Cubango, a river of central Southern Africa, the chief feeder of Lake Ngami...
-Culloden - Cumnock
Culloden Cullod'en, or Drummossie Muir, a broad flat sandstone ridge, 300 to 500 feet high, 6 miles ENE. of Inverness. Planting and culture have changed its aspect much since 16th April 1746, when it...
-Cumnor - Custrin
Cumnor Cumnor, a Berkshire village, 3f miles WSW. of Oxford. The house in which Amy Robsart was murdered is gone. Cunaxa Cunaxa, east of the Euphrates, 60 miles N. of Babylon, the battlefield (40...
-Cutch - Czernowitz
Cutch Cutch (Kachchh), a protected principality under the government of Bombay, stretches along the Gulf of Cutch and the Indian Ocean between Gujarat and Sind. Excluding the Rann of Cutch, it is 160...
-Dacia - Dalmahoy
Dacia Dacia, the land of the ancient Daci or Getse, including the country between the Danube, the Theiss, the Carpathians, and the Pruth. Daer Water Daer Water. See Clyde. Daghestan Daghestan...
-Dalmally - Damaraland
Dalmally Dalmally, an Argyllshire village, near the NE. end of Loch Awe, 24 1/2 miles E. of Oban. Dalmatia Dalmatia, a narrow strip of Austrian territory extending along the Adriatic. Area, 4940 ...
-Dambula - Danville
Dambula Dambula, or Dambul, a vast Buddhist rock-temple in Ceylon, 40 miles N. of Kandy, containing, among a profusion of carvings, colossal figures of Buddha. Damietta Damietta (Arab. Dimyat), a...
-Daoudnagar - Dar-Fur
Daoudnagar Daoudnagar. See Daudnagar. Dapsang Dapsang, a mountain in the part of the Himalaya system called Karakorum, in Baltistan or Little Tibet, 28,700 feet high. Darabgherd Darabgherd, o...
-Dargai - Dartford
Dargai Dargai, in the Afridi hill country, near the Kohat Pass, in the NW. Frontier Province of India, was the scene of a brilliant feat of arms during the Tirah campaign in 1897. Dariel Dariel. ...
-Darton - Davos
Darton Darton, a township in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 3 1/4 miles NW. of Barnsley. Pop. 7613. Darvel Darvel, an Ayrshire police-burgh, with muslin manufacture, 9 miles E. of Kilmarnock. Pop....
-Dawley - Debreczen
Dawley Dawley, a Shropshire township, 4 miles SE. of Wellington, with mineral industries. Pop. 7996. Dawlish, a pleasant watering-place of SE. Devon Devon, 12 miles SE. of Exeter, and backed by t...
-Decatnr - Delft
Decatnr Deca'tnr, capital of Macon county, Illinois, on the Sangamon River, 39 miles E. of Springfield. It has woollen, planing, and flour mills. Pop. (1880) 9547; (1900) 20,700. Decazeville Deca...
-Delitzsch - Denbigh
Delitzsch Delitzsch (Day'leetch), a town of Prussian Saxony, on the Lobber, 12 m. N. of Leipzig. Pop. 8342. Dellys Dellys (Del-leess'), a port of Algeria, 50 miles E. of Algiers. Pop. 3578. De...
-Denby - Derajat
Denby Denby, with Cumberworth, a township of Yorkshire, 8 miles W. of Barnsley. Pop. 3500. Denderah Den'derah (Gr. Tentyra; Coptic Tentore, prob-ably from Tei-n-Athor, 'abode of Athor'), a villag...
-Derayeh - Des Moines
Derayeh Derayeh, a town of Arabia, 450 miles NE. of Mecca, was the capital of the Wahabis, and had a pop. of 60,000 prior to 1819, when it was nearly destroyed by Ibrahim Pasha. Pop. 1500. Derbend...
-Desmond - Deutschbrod
Desmond Desmond, a former district of Munster, comprising the counties of Cork and Kerry. Desna Desna, a navigable river of Russia, rising in Smolensk province, and flowing 550 miles SE. and SW. ...
-Deutz - Dharmsala
Deutz Deutz (Doitz). See Cologne. Deux-ponts Deux-ponts (Duh-pong'). See Zweibrucken. Deux-Sevres Deux-Sevres (Duh-Sehvr'). See Sevres. Deventer Dev'enter, an old Hanse town of Holland, o...
-Dharwar - Dinajpur
Dharwar Dharwar, a town in the southern Mahratta country, Bombay presidency, separated by the river Tungabhadra from Madras. Pop. 32,841. Dholka Dholka, a town of Bombay presidency, 22 miles SW. ...
-Dinapore - District of Columbia
Dinapore Dinapore (Danapur), military headquarters of the district of Patna in Bengal, on the Ganges, 12 miles W. of Patna. Pop. 35,000. Dinard Dinard, the most fashionable watering-place in Brit...
-Ditmarsh - Doberan
Ditmarsh Ditmarsh, or Dithmarschen, the western district of Holstein, low-lying and fertile, between the Eider and the Elbe, with an area of 531 miles. Diu Diu, a seaport situated at the eastern ...
-Dobrudja - Dolomite Mountains
Dobrudja Dobrudja (also spelt Dobruja, Dobrudscha, Do-brogea), the south-eastern portion of Roumania, between the lower Danube and the Black Sea, transferred to Roumania by the Berlin Congress of 187...
-Domo dOssola - Dordogne
Domo dOssola Domo d'Os'sola, a cathedral city of Piedmont, at the foot of the Simplon, near the Toce's right bank, 56 miles by rail N. of Novara. Pop. 2300. Domremy-la-Pucelle Domremy-la-Pucelle,...
-Dordrecht - Dort
Dordrecht Dordrecht. See Dort. Dorking Dorking, a pleasant old-fashioned market-town of Surrey, stands in a picturesque valley near the base of Box Hill (590 feet), 24 miles SSW. of London. Its n...
-Dortmund - Douro
Dortmund Dortmund (Dort'moont), chief town of Westphalia, in the fertile Hellweg plain, near the Emscher, 74 miles NNE. of Cologne by rail. It is the mining headquarters of Westphalia, and an importa...
-Dove - Drave
Dove Dove, a river rising 4 miles SW. of Buxton, and flowing 45 miles S. and SE. along the borders of Derby and Stafford shires to the Trent, at Newton Solney. It was the favourite fishing stream of ...
-Drayton - Dromore
Drayton Drayton, West, a Middlesex parish, with a racecourse, 3 miles S. of Uxbridge. Pop. 1118. Drayton-in-Hales Drayton-in-Hales. See Market-Drayton. Drenthe Dren'the, a frontier province o...
-Dronfield - Dufftown
Dronfield Dronfield, a town of Derbyshire, 6 miles NNW. of Chesterfield. It has large edge-tool factories and neighbouring collieries. Pop. 3838. Drontheim Drontheim. See Trondhjem. Droylsden ...
-Duisburg - Dunblane
Duisburg Duisburg (Doo'is-boorg), a town of Rhenish Prussia, 16 m. N. of Dusseldorf by rail, in a fertile district between the Ruhr and Rhine, with both of which it is connected by a canal. Its manuf...
-Duncannon - Dunkeld
Duncannon Duncannon, a coast-village of County Wexford, 9 miles SE. of Waterford. Duncansbay Head Duncansbay Head, a promontory, 210 feet high, forming the north-east extremity of Caithness, 18 m...
-Dunkery Beacon - Dunstable
Dunkery Beacon Dunkery Beacon. See Exmoor. Dunlavin Dunlavin, a Wicklow market-town, 26 miles SSW. of Dublin. Pop. 480. Dunlop Dunlop', an Ayrshire village, 8 miles NNW. of Kilmarnock. Its ch...
-Dunstaffnage - Duren
Dunstaffnage Dunstaffnage, a ruined castle of Argyllshire, 3 1/2 miles NNE. of Oban. Dunstanburgh Dunstanburgh, a ruined castle (1315) on the Northumbrian coast, 7 miles NE. of Alnwick. Dunste...
-Durisdeer - Earlestown
Durisdeer Durisdeer, a parish of upper Nithsdale, 21 miles NNW. of Dumfries. In its church are interesting monuments of the Queensberry family. Durkheim Durkheim (Durk'hime), a town of Rhenish Ba...
-Earlsferry - Easton
Earlsferry Earlsferry, a decayed royal burgh of Fife, just W. of Elie (q.v.). Pop. with Elie, 1000. Earlston Earlston, or Ercildoune, a Berwickshire village, 4 miles NNE. of Melrose. It manufactu...
-East Orange - Ecbatana
East Orange East Orange, a manufacturing and residential city of New Jersey, adjoining Orange, and 13 miles E. of Jersey City. Pop. 21,600. East Providence East Providence, a town of Rhode Island...
-Ecclefechan - Edessa
Ecclefechan Ecclefechan (Ek'kel-feh'han), a Dumfriesshire village, 20 m. NW. of Carlisle. The house in which Carlyle was born (4th Dec. 1795) still stands, and in the churchyard of the U.P. church he...
-Edfu - Egba
Edfu Edfu (Coptic Atbo, Egypt. Teb, Gr. Apollino-polis Magna), a town of Upper Egypt, on the Nile's left bank, in 25 N. lat., and 32 45' E. long. It contains the remains of two temples: the...
-Eger - Eifel
Eger Eger (Ay'ger; g hard), a Bohemian town, on the river Eger, 66 miles NW. of Pilsen by rail. It was formerly a border fortress of some importance, but its fortifications were razed in 1809; it is ...
-Eigg - Eisleben
Eigg Eigg, or Egg, a Hebridean island, 7 1/2 miles W. of the mainland of Inverness-shire, and 5 SW. of Skye. With an utmost length and breadth of 6 1/2 and 4 miles, it is 12 sq. m. in area, and culmi...
-Ekaterinburg - Elbeuf
Ekaterinburg Ekaterinburg, a fortified town of Russia, on the east slope of the Urals, and on the Isset, 312 miles SE. of Perm by rail. It has two cathedrals, and a mint for copper coinage, and is in...
-Elbing - Eleuthera
Elbing Elbing, a town of West Prussia, 48 miles by rail ESE. of Danzig, on the navigable Elbing, which enters the Frisches Haff 5 miles to the north. Founded in the 13th century by colonists from Lub...
-Elgon - Ellice Islands
Elgon Elgon, a volcanic mountain mass, 40 miles square, in British East Africa, 50 miles NNE. of the Victoria Nyanza, first visited by Joseph Thomson in 1883; highest point of the crater's rim, 14,10...
-Ellichpur - Elsinore
Ellichpur Ellichpur, a town in the north of Berar, at one time capital of the Deccan, and said to have contained 40,000 houses. Its buildings include a ruinous palace, a fort, and several handsome to...
-Elster - Emilia
Elster Elster, the name of two rivers of Germany. The White Elster rises at the foot of the Elster Mountains, on the NW. boundary of Bohemia, and flows 122 miles N. to the Saale, above Halle, in Prus...
-Emmerich - Engadine
Emmerich Emmerich (Em'mer-ihh), an old town of Rhenish Prussia, on the Rhine, 94 miles by rail E. of Rotterdam. It manufactures iron, glass, tobacco, etc. The seat of a famous Jesuit seminary from 15...
-Enghien - Enterkin
Enghien Enghien (Ong-ghe-ang'), a watering-place and summer-resort, 7 miles N. of Paris, on a small lake. It has five sulphur-springs, good for the skin and throat. Pop. 2670. - (2) In the Belgian pr...
-Entrecasteaux - Epworth
Entrecasteaux Entrecasteaux. See D'Entrecasteaux. Entre Douro e Minho Entre Douro e Minho (Entray Dooro-ay-Meen'yo), or simply Minho, a province of NW. Portugal, is bounded N. by the river Minho,...
-Ercildoune - Erlau
Ercildoune Ercildoune. See Earlston. Erdington Erdington, an urban district of Warwickshire, 5 miles NE. of Birmingham. Pop. 16.368. Erebus Erebus, Mount, an active volcano (12,760 feet) in V...
-Ermeland - Esdraelon
Ermeland Ermeland (Er'meh-lant), a district of the old province of Prussia, inland of the Frisches Haff. Ermenonville Ermenonville (Erm'nongveel'), a village 18 miles NNE. of Paris. Rousseau died...
-Esher - Essequibo
Esher Esher, a pretty village of Surrey, on the Mole, 15 miles SW. of London by rail. Here are Esher Place, a brick gate-tower of Wolsey's palace, and Claremont (q.v.). Pop. 10,000. Eski-Djumna E...
-Esslingen - Eton
Esslingen Esslingen (Ess'ling-en), a town of Wurtemberg, on the Neckar, 9 miles by rail ESE. of Stuttgart. The chief buildings are the old citadel; the Liebfrauen Church (1440), with a beautiful spir...
-Etretat - Eure-et-Loir
Etretat Etretat (Aytr-tah'), a Norman watering-place, 18 miles NE. of Havre. Pop. 2000. Etruria Etruria, the country inhabited or ruled by the Etruscans, a very ancient people of Italy. Lying wes...
-Eureka - Evora
Eureka Eureka, (1) a port and capital of Humboldt county, California, on Humboldt Bay, with lumber-mills ; pop. 7658. - (2) A town, capital of Eureka county, Nevada, 90 miles by rail S. of the Palisa...
-Evreux - Eyre
Evreux Evreux (Ev-ruh'; named from the anc. Eburo-vices), the capital of the French dep. of Eure, in the fertile valley of the Iton, a feeder of the Eure, 67 miles by rail WNW. of Paris. Among its bu...
-Eyrecourt - Falaise
Eyrecourt Eyrecourt, a Galway village, 12 miles SE. of Ballinasloe. Eyria Peninsula Eyria Peninsula, a rich pastoral district on the south coast of South Australia, triangular in shape, its base ...
-Falcon - Fanning
Falcon Falcon, a maritime state of Venezuela (q.v.)- Faleme, an important tributary of the Senegal, rising in Futa-Jallon, and flowing northward to a point above Bakel. Falkirk Falkirk, a town of...
-Fano - Famworth
Fano Fano (Fah-no; Lat. Fanum Fortun, from the temple of Fortune commemorating Hasdrubal's defeat on the Metaurus), a seaport of Italy, on the Adriatic, 29 miles NW. of Ancona by rail. It has a...
-Faro - Favara
Faro Faro, the capital of the Portuguese province of Algarve, on the south coast, behind three islands which form a good roadstead. It was burned by the English in 1596, and partly destroyed by the e...
-Faversham - Fecamp
Faversham Faversham, an ancient municipal borough and river-port of Kent, 52 miles by rail ESE. of London, and 10 WNW. of Canterbury. It has a valuable oyster-fishery, and the creek on which it stand...
-Fehrbellin - Fernandina
Fehrbellin Fehrbellin, a town of Prussia, with 1920 inhabitants, 40 miles NW. of Berlin by rail. Here the Great Elector defeated the Swedes in 1675. A tower (1879) marks the battlefield. Felaniche...
-Fernando Noronha - Ferrol
Fernando Noronha Fernando Noronha (Noron'ya), a Brazilian volcanic island in the Atlantic, in 3 50' S. lat., and 32 25' W. long. Measuring 5 1/2 by \\ miles, it is cultivated by 2000 Brazil...
-Ferryden - Findlay
Ferryden Ferryden, a Forfar fishing-village, at the South Esk's mouth, opposite Montrose. Pop. 1382. Ferryport Ferryport. See Tayport. Fesa Fesa, or Fasa, a town of Persia, 60 miles SE. of Sh...
-Findochty - Fitchburg
Findochty Findochty, a Banffshire fishing-village, 3 1/2 miles W. by N. of Cullen. Pop. 1501. Findon Findon, a Kincardineshire fishing-village, 6 miles S. of Aberdeen. The well-known Findon (Finn...
-Fitzroy - Fleurus
Fitzroy Fitzroy, the largest river of Western Australia, flows 380 miles to the southern end of King Bound. Flamborough Head Flamborough Head, a Yorkshire promontory, forming the northern horn of...
-Flint River - Foggla
Flint River Flint River, in Georgia, U.S., rises 10 miles S. of Atlanta, and flowing southward 400 miles (150 navigable for steamboats), unites with the Chattahoochee to form the Appalachicola (q.v.)...
-Fohr - Fontenay-le-Comte
Fohr Fohr, a fertile island in the North Sea, off the west coast of Sleswick. Area, 28 sq. m. ; pop. 4350, Frisians by race. The chief town is Wyk (pop. 1063). Foix Foix (Fwah), capital of the Fr...
-Fontenoy - Forst
Fontenoy Fontenoy, a village (pop. 857) of Belgium, 5 miles SE. of Tournay. Here, on 11th May 1745, the French under Marshal Saxe, defeated the allies (English, Dutch, and Austrians) under the Duke o...
-Fortaleza - Fort William
Fortaleza Fortaleza, the official name of Ceara (q.v.), an important seaport of Brazil. Fort Augustus Fort Augustus, a village on the Caledonian Canal, at the head of Loch Ness, 33 miles SW. of I...
-Fort Worth - Fox Channel
Fort Worth Fort Worth, capital of Tarrant county, Texas, on the west fork of the Trinity River, 33 miles W. of Dallas by rail, with several mills, and a trade in cotton. Pop. (1880) 6663 ; (1900) 26,...
-Fox Islands - Frankenthal
Fox Islands Fox Islands. See Aleutian Islands. Foyers Foyers (Fi'ers), a stream of Inverness-shire, running 9 miles N. to the east side of Loch Ness, 10 1/2 miles NE. of Fort Augustus. During the...
-Frankfort - Fraserburgh
Frankfort Frankfort, the capital of Kentucky, on the Kentucky River, 29 miles NW. of Lexington by rail. It contains a state-house built of Kentucky marble, the state library, penitentiary, distilleri...
-Fraser River - Free-town
Fraser River Fraser River, the principal stream of British Columbia, is formed by two branches, which unite near Fort George, in 54 N. lat. and 122 45' W. long. ; thence the river flows 800...
-Freiberg - Frejus
Freiberg Freiberg, a mining-town of Saxony, on the northern slope of the Erzgebirge Mountains, 20 miles SW. of Dresden. Its cathedral, successor to one burned in 1484, contains tombs of the Saxon ele...
-Fremantle - Frisches HafF
Fremantle Fremantle, the principal seaport of Western Australia, at the mouth of the Swan River, 12 miles SW. of Perth by rail. It was named after Captain Fremantle, R.N. (1829). Pop. 20,450. Frem...
-Friuli - Fuente Alamo
Friuli Friuli (Fre-oo'le; Lat. Forum Julii), a once independent duchy at the head of the Gulf of Venice. With a total pop. of about 700,000, and a total area of 3470 sq. m., it is divided between Aus...
-Fuente Ovejuna - Funen
Fuente Ovejuna Fuente Ovejuna, a small walled town of Spain, 45 miles NW. of Cordova. Pop. 9698. Fuenterrabia Fuenterrabia. See Fontarabia. Fuentes de Onoro Fuentes de Onoro, a village of Sal...
-Funfhaus - Futa Jallon
Funfhaus Funfhaus, a south-western suburb of Vienna. Funfkirchen Funfkirchen ('Five Churches,' from the five mosques built during the Turkish occupation, in the 16th century; Hungarian Pecs), a f...
-Futehgunge - Gainsborough
Futehgunge Futehgunge, etc. See Fatehganj, etc. Fyne Fyne, Loch, an Argyllshire sea-loch, running 40 miles N. and NE. from the Sound of Bute to beyond Inveraray. It is 1 to 5 miles broad, and 40 ...
-Gairloch - Gala Water
Gairloch Gairloch, an inlet of the sea on the west coast of Ross-shire, 6 miles in length, which gives name to a parish and village. See J. H. Dixon, The Gairloch (1888). Gairney Bridge Gairney B...
-Galena - Galveston
Galena Galena, a city of Illinois, on the Fevre River, 6 miles above its junction with the Mississippi, and 133 WNW. of Chicago by rail. Pop. 5035. Galesburg Galesburg, a city of Illinois, 53 mil...
-Gambler Islands - Gard
Gambler Islands Gambler Islands, or Mangareva, a Polynesian group of six larger and several smaller islands, under a French protectorate, in 23 8' S. lat. and 134 55' W. long. Area, 15 sq. ...
-Garda - Garleton Hills
Garda Garda, Lago di (Roman Lacus Benacus), a beautiful, clear lake, the largest of Italy, lies between Lombardy and Venetia, its northern end extending into the Austrian Tyrol. Situated 226 feet abo...
-Garliestown - Gatineau
Garliestown Garliestown, a Wigtownshire seaport, 9 1/4 miles by rail SSE. of Wigtown. It was founded about 1760 by Lord Gar lies (the seventh Earl of Galloway). Pop. 532. Garmouth Garmouth, an El...
-Gatschina - Genazzano
Gatschina Gatschina, Gatshina. See Gatchina. Gattonside Gattonside, a Tweedside village, opposite Melrose, famous for its fruit. Gauhati Gauhati. See Assam. Gaul Gaul. See France. Gaur...
-Genesee - Gerizim and Ebal
Genesee Genesee, a river rising in Pennsylvania, and flowing nearly 200 miles north through western New York into Lake Ontario, 7 miles N. of Rochester. Three of its extraordinary falls occur within ...
-German Ocean - Ghazni
German Ocean German Ocean. See North Sea. Germantown Germantown, a former borough of Pennsylvania, included since 1854 in the limits of Philadelphia. Here an attack by Washington on the British c...
-Gheel - Gigha
Gheel Gheel, a famous colony for the insane, in Belgium, 26 miles ESB. of Antwerp by rail. Ghilan Ghilan', a province of Persia, the western portion of the narrow strip of country lying between t...
-Gijon - Girgeh
Gijon Gijon, a seaport of Spain, on a peninsula and bay of the Atlantic, 20 miles by rail NE. of Oviedo. It manufactures tobacco, glass, and earthenware. Pop. 47,144. Gila Gila (He'la), a river r...
-Girgenti - Gizeh
Girgenti Girgenti (Jer-jen'te; anc. Agrigentum), a coast-town of Sicily, 84 miles by rail SSE. of Palermo, with magnificent Greek ruins. Pop. 25,100. Girnar Girnar, a sacred mountain (3500 feet) ...
-Gladbach - Glenalmond
Gladbach Gladbach, or Bergisch-Gladbach, an industrial town of Rhenish Prussia, 8 miles NE. of Cologne. Pop. 11,500. Gladbach Gladbach, or Monchen-Gladbach, a rapidly growing manufacturing town of ...
-Glenarm - Glenluce
Glenarm Glenarm, an Antrim seaport, on Glenarm Bay, 11 miles NW. of Larne. Pop. 1048. Glencoe Glencoe, a valley of northern Argyllshire, descending 7 1/2 miles west-by-northward from a 'col,' 101...
-Glenlyon - Gluckstadt
Glenlyon Glenlyon, a Perthshire glen descending 24 miles ENE. to the Vale of Fortingall. Glenmore-nan-Albin Glenmore-nan-Albin ('great glen of Scotland '), the Highland depression, 60 miles long,...
-Glukhov - Godesberg
Glukhov Glukhov. See Gluchov. Gmund Gmund, a town of Wurtemberg, in the fertile valley of the Rems, 30 miles E. of Stuttgart by rail. It manufactures jewels and hardware. Pop. about 20,000. Gm...
-Godmanchester - Goletta
Godmanchester Godmanchester (Gum'sester). See Huntingdon. Godollo Godollo, a town of Hungary, 15 miles NE. of Pesth, with a castle and park presented by the Hungarians in 1867 to their king, the ...
-Gollnitz - Goole
Gollnitz Gollnitz, or Gollniczbanya, a town of Hungary, 17 miles SW. of Eperies. It has iron and copper mines, and ironworks. Pop. 4353. Gollnow Gollnow, a town of Prussia, in Pomerania, 15 miles...
-Goppingen - Gosford
Goppingen Goppingen, a town of Wurtemberg, 26 miles by rail ESE. of Stuttgart, has a 16th-century castle, a mineral spring, and manufactures of woollens, paper, toys, etc. Pop. 19,352. Gorakhpur ...
-Goshen - Gothland
Goshen Goshen, that part of ancient Egypt which Pharaoh presented to Joseph's kindred, appears to have lain between the eastern delta of the Nile and the Isthmus of Suez, as far south as the modern I...
-Gouda - Graaf-Reinet
Gouda Gouda (Dutch pron. Hou'da), or Ter Gouwe, a town of South Holland, on the right bank of the Hollaendsche Yssel, 13 miles by rail NE. of Rotterdam. The church of St John has seventy-five magnifi...
-Gradlsca - Grampians
Gradlsca Gradlsca, a town of Austria, on the Isonzo, 25 miles NW. of Trieste, which came to Austria in 1511, and in 1754 was united to Gorz (q.v.). Pop. 4000. Graemsay Graemsay, an Orkney island,...
-Grampound - Grand Sapids
Grampound Grampound, a decayed Cornish market-town, 7 miles SW. of St Austell. Pop. 495. Gran Gran, a royal free-town of Hungary, on the right bank of the Danube, here crossed by a bridge of boat...
-Grangemouth - Grasmere
Grangemouth Grangemouth, a rising port in Stirlingshire, 3 miles ENE. of Falkirk. Founded in 1777, and erected into a police-burgh in 1872, Grangemouth has extensive quays and warehouses, docks (incl...
-Grasse - Great Fish River
Grasse Grasse, a town in the French dep. of Alpes-Maritimes, on the southern slope of the Basses-Alpes, 1066 feet above sea-level, and 12 miles N. of Cannes by rail. The seat of a bishopric from 1244...
-Great Grimsby - Grenada
Great Grimsby Great Grimsby. See Grimsby. Great Kanawha Great Kanawha (pron. Kanaw'wa), an affluent of the Ohio, is called New River in its upper course, and rises in the Blue Ridge of North Caro...
-Grenadines - Grinnell Land
Grenadines Grenadines, a chain of West Indian islets, extending between Grenada and St Vincent, with a total area of 13 sq. m., and 7800 inhabitants. The largest is Carriacou (11 sq. m.). Grenelle...
-Grodek - Guadalajara
Grodek Grodek, a town of Austrian Galicia, 20 miles SSW. of Lemberg. Pop. 12,116. Grodno Grodno, the capital of a Russian province, on the Niemeu's right bank, 148 miles by rail NE. of Warsaw....
-Guadalaviar - Guadiana
Guadalaviar Guadalaviar (anc. Turia), a river of eastern Spain, rises near the Tagus, in SW. Aragon, and flows 190 miles SSB. to the Mediterranean at Grao, l 1/2 mile below Valencia. Guadalquivir ...
-Guaira - Gubbio
Guaira Guaira, La, the port of Caracas (q.v.), on a narrow, shadeless strip of land between the mountains and the Caribbean Sea. Pop. 15,293. Gualeguay Gualeguay, a town of Entre Rios, Argentina,...
-Guben - Guingamp
Guben Guben, a manufacturing town in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, at the head of the navigable portion of the Neisse, 28 miles S. of Frankfort-on-the-Oder. The principal staples are hats and...
-Guipuzcoa - Gurgaon
Guipuzcoa Guipuzco'a, the smallest but the most densely peopled of the Spanish Basque provinces on the Bay of Biscay. The capital is San Sebastian. Area, 728 sq. m.; pop. near 200,000. Guisborough...
-Gurhwal - Haddon Hall
Gurhwal Gurhwal. See Garhwal. Gustrow Gustrow, a town of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 70 miles E. by S. of Lubeck, with castle (1565), old church, breweries, iron-foundries, a sugar-factory, etc. Pop. 1...
-Hadersleben - Haikh
Hadersleben Hadersleben, or Haderslev, a town of Sles-wick-Holstein, 32 miles N. of Flensborg, on a narrow arm of the Little Belt. Pop. 9635. Hadleigh Hadleigh, (1) a quaint old market-town of Su...
-Haileybury College - Hal
Haileybury College Haileybury College, 2 miles SE. of Hertford, was erected in 1809 as a cadets' training-college, by the East India Company, and in 1862, four years after the transference of the Com...
-Halas - Halstead
Halas Halas, a town of Hungary, 82 miles by rail SSE. of Budapest. Pop. 19,860. Halberstadt Halberstadt, a quaint old town of Prussian Saxony, in a fertile plain extending from the north foot of ...
-Haltwhistle - Hammerfest
Haltwhistle Haltwhistle, a market-town of Northumberland, on the South Tyne, 16 1/2 miles W. of Hexham. Pop. of parish, 3150. Halys Halys. See Asia Minor. Ham Ham, a town in the French dep. o...
-Hammersmith - Hang-chow
Hammersmith Hammersmith, a metropolitan and parliamentary borough of the county of London. A suspension bridge was opened here in 1827, and a new one by Prince Albert Victor in 1887. The borough retu...
-Han-hai - Harbour Grace
Han-hai Han-hai, a dried-up sea in central Asia, now represented only by Lake Lob-nor (q.v.). Hankow Hankow, a river-port of China, at the junction of the Han River with the Yang-tsze, 600 miles ...
-Harburg - Harlech
Harburg Harburg, a Prussian seaport in Luneburg, 5 miles S. of Hamburg, on the Elbe. Its industries include gutta-percha goods, palm-oil, cotton-seed oil, chemicals, etc. Since the deepening of the E...
-Harleston - Harrogate
Harleston Harleston, a Norfolk market-town, near the Waveney, 6 1/2 miles SW. of Bungay. Pop., with Redenhall, 2003. Harlingen Harlingen (Frisian Hams), a Dutch seaport, in Friesland, on the Zuid...
-Harrow - Harz Mountains
Harrow Harrow, or Harrow-on-the-Hill, a town of Middlesex, ll 1/2 miles WNW. of St Paul's, stands on a hill, 200 feet high, that looks over thirteen shires. Its 'visible church, which crowns the hil...
-Haskeval - Havel
Haskeval Haskeval. See Rum. Haslar Hospital Haslar Hospital. See Gosport. Haslemere Haslemere, a town of Surrey, 12 1/2 miles SW. of Guildford by rail, manufactures walking-sticks and woodwar...
-Haverfordwest - Haworth
Haverfordwest Haverfordwest (Welsh Hwlffordd), a parliamentary and municipal borough, seaport, and market-town of Wales, capital of Pembrokeshire, on the river Cleddau, 10 miles NNE. of Milford by ra...
-Hawthornden - Heckmondwike
Hawthornden Hawthornden, the romantic home of the poet Drummond, in Midlothian, on the Esk, 1 1/4 mile NE. of Roslin. Hay Hay, a Brecon market-town, on the Wye, 21 miles W. of Hereford. Pop. 1630...
-Hecla - Helicon
Hecla Hecla, or Hekla, a volcano in Iceland, stands isolated 20 miles from the SW. coast and 68 E. of Reykjavik. Its snow-clad summit is 5102 feet high, and has five craters; its sides are seamed by ...
-Heliopolis - Hems
Heliopolis Heliopolis ('city of the sun'), the Greek name of the city called by the Egyptians On or An, which stood on the east side of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, near the apex of the Delta, an...
-Henderson - Hermopolis Magna
Henderson Henderson, capital of Henderson county, Kentucky, on the Ohio, 10 miles S. of Evans-ville by rail, with tobacco-factories. Pop. 10,280. Hengrave Hall Hengrave Hall, a splendid Tudor man...
-Hermosillo - Hexham
Hermosillo Hermosillo, capital of the Mexican state of Sonora, on the Rio Sonora, 50 miles by rail N. of the port of Guaymas. Pop. 18,000. Hermoupolis Hermoupolis. See Syra. Hermus Hermus, a ...
-Heysham - Hildesheim
Heysham Heysham, a village on Morecambe Bay, 5 miles SW. of Lancaster, made into a railway port for trade with the Isle of Man and Ireland in 1900-4. Pop. 2500. Haywood Haywood, a municipal town ...
-Hillah - Hitchin
Hillah Hillah, or Hilla, a town of Turkey In Asia, on the Euphrates, 60 miles S. of Bagdad, on the site of Babylon. Pop. about 10,000. Hillsborough Hillsborough, a village of County Down, on the ...
-Hitteren - Hohenzollern
Hitteren Hit'teren, an island off the west coast of Norway. Area, 203 sq. m. ; pop. 2900. Hjelmar Hjelmar, a lake of Sweden (40 miles by 15) discharging into Lake Malar. HLassa H'Lassa. See L...
-Hokitika - Holyhead Island
Hokitika Hokitika, the capital of Westland, New Zealand, and the chief town on the west coast, is the centre of a gold-producing district. Pop. 1950. Holbeach Holbeach, (1) a market-town of south...
-Holyoke - Honiton
Holyoke Holyoke, a city of Massachusetts, 8 miles N. of Springfield, on the Connecticut River, which is here crossed by a dam over 1000 feet long and falls 60 feet in less than a mile, supplying imme...
-Honolulu - Horde
Honolulu Honolulu, the capital of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands, on the southern coast of the island of Oahu. Its spacious harbour, the only really well-protected port in the archipelago, is enter...
-Horeb - Hot Springs
Horeb Horeb. See Sinai. Horn Horn, Cape, commonly spoken of as the southernmost point of America, is a steep, black, bare mountain-headland of one of the small islands of the Fuegian Archipelago,...
-Houghton-le-Spring - Hoy
Houghton-le-Spring Houghton-le-Spring, a town in the county, and 6 1/2 miles NE. of the city, of Durham. its rapid growth is mainly due to the extension of neighbouring collieries. The fine cruciform...
-Hoylake - Hughenden
Hoylake Hoylake, a small watering-place of Cheshire, at the extremity of Wirral peninsula, 8 miles by rail W. of Birkenhead. It has a celebrated golf-links, opened in 1869. Pop. 10,900. Hradschin ...
-Hugh Town - Huntly
Hugh Town Hugh Town. See Scilly Islands. Huglf Huglf. See Hooghly. Humbleton Humbleton. See Homildon. Humboldt Humboldt, a river rising in the NE. part of Nevada, and flowing 350 miles WS...
-Huntsville - Hyde
Huntsville Huntsville, capital of Madison county, Alabama, in the valley of the Tennessee, 212 miles ESE. of Memphis by rail. It manufactures cotton, oil, ice, iron, and flour. Pop. 8100. Huon Gul...
-Hydra - Ica
Hydra Hydra, a bleak, rock-bound Greek island, lies 4 miles from the coast of the Peloponnesian department of Argolis and Corinth. It is a narrow rocky ridge, 11 miles long, 1960 feet high, and 20 sq...
-Ichang - Ilchester
Ichang Ichang, a walled Chinese town, stands on the Yang-tsze-kiang, where it escapes from the limestone gorges of its middle course, and 1000 miles from Shanghai at its mouth. In 1877 it was declare...
-Ile-de-France - Ille-et-Vilaine
Ile-de-France Ile-de-France, an old province of France, having Paris for capital, and now mostly comprised in the deps. of Seine, Seine-et-Oise, Aisne, Seine-et-Marne, Somme, and Oise. Ile-de-France ...
-Illmani - Indo-China
Illmani Illma'ni, a chief summit (21,150 feet) of the Bolivian Andes, 40 miles SE. of La Paz. Illyria Illyria (Lat. Illyricum), the country that stretched along the eastern side of the Adriatic S...
-Indre - Inkermann
Indre Indre, a French dep., formed principally out of the western portion of the old province of Berri, lies immediately south of the dep. of Loir-et-Cher. Area, 2623 sq. m. Pop. (1872) 277,693; (190...
-Inn - Inversnaid
Inn Inn (anc. nus), the most important Alpine affluent of the Danube, rises in the south of the Swiss canton of Grisons, and flows 317 miles north-east through the Engadine, and onwards through...
-Inverugie - Irtish
Inverugie Inverugie (g hard), a ruined castle of Aberdeenshire, 3 miles NW. of Peterhead. It was the birthplace of Marshal Keith. Inverurie Inverurie, a royal burgh of Aberdeenshire, at the influ...
-Irun - Ischl
Irun Irun (Ee-roon), a town in the Spanish province of Guipuzcoa, on the Bidassoa, near the French frontier, 24 miles by rail SW. of Bayoune. In 1837 General Sir De Lacy Evans captured it from the Ca...
-Iseghem - Isleworth
Iseghem Iseghem (Ee'ze-khem), a town of Belgium, 10 miles by rail N. by W. of Courtrai. Pop. 12,200. Iseo Iseo (Ee-zay-o), Lake (Lacus Sebinus), a lake of northern Italy, situated between the pro...
-Islington - Istrla
Islington Islington (Iz'ling-ton), (1) one of the metropolitan boroughs of the county of London. Pop. (1861) 155,341; (1901) 334,906. It has numerous religious, educational, and benevolent institutio...
-Itasca Lake - JABALPUR
Itasca Lake Itasca Lake. See Mississippi. Itchen Itchen, a Hampshire river, flowing 25 miles SSW. past Winchester to Southampton Water. Ithaca Ith'aca, now Thiaki, one of the Ionian Islands (...
-Jackson - Jaffa
Jackson Jackson, (1) a flourishing city of Michigan, capital of Jackson county, on the Grand River, 76 miles W. of Detroit, at the intersection of several railways. It has flour, paper, and planing-m...
-Jaffnapatam - Janesville
Jaffnapatam Jaffnapatam', a seaport on an island at the north end of Ceylon. Pop. 37,000. Jagerndorf Jagerndorf (Yay-gem-dorf, g hard), a town of Austrian Silesia, 34 miles by rail W. of Ratibor....
-Janina - Jativa
Janina Janina (Yanina), or Joannina, capital of a vilayet in Turkish Albania, stands in a striking situation on a lake (12 miles long by 3 broad), 50 miles inland from the shore opposite Corfu. Here ...
-Jauer - Jemappes
Jauer Jauer (Yow'er), a town of Prussian Silesia, on the Neisse, 13 miles by rail S. of Liegnitz. It is famous for its sausages and its weekly corn-market, held regularly since 1404. Pop. 13,178. ...
-Jenissei - Jiddah
Jenissei Jenissei. See Yenisei. Jenolan Caves Jeno'lan Caves, a series of vast limestone caverns (rivalling the Mammoth Caves of Kentucky), on the west side of the Blue Mountains, in New South Wa...
-Jihun - Johore
Jihun Jihun. See Oxus. Jimena Jimena, or Ximena, a town of Spain, 21 miles N. of Gibraltar, has some remarkable caves and the remains of a Moorish castle. Pop. 8677. Joachimsthal Joachimsthal...
-Joigny - Juan Fernandez
Joigny Joigny (Zhwan'yee, anc. Joviniacum), an old walled town in the French dep. of Yonne, 90 miles by rail SE. of Paris, manufactures cloth, linen, and sporting rifles. Pop. 5271. Joinville Joi...
-Juba - Jutland
Juba Juba, or Jub, a great river of eastern Africa, which flows into the Indian Ocean at about 0 5' S. lat., and whose mouth marks the northern boundary of the coast placed under British control...
-Jyhoon - Kairwan
Jyhoon Jyhoon. See Oxus. K2 K2. See Godwin- Austen. Kadiak Kadiak, a wooded, mountainous island off the S. coast of Alaska. It contains good harbours, and has an area of 3465 sq. m. Pop. 14...
-Kaisarieh - Kalinjar
Kaisarieh Kaisarieh. See CAesarea. Kaiserslautern Kaiserslautern (Kisersloivtern), a town of the Bavarian Palatinate, 52 miles by rail SW. of Worms. The chief manufactures are tissues, yarn, sewi...
-Kalisz - Kampen
Kalisz Kalisz, capital of a government (area, 4390 sq. m. ; pop. 850,000) in Russian Poland, 132 miles WSW. of Warsaw. Pop. 22,750. Kalmar Kalmar, a seaport of Sweden, capital of a Ian or county ...
-Kamschatka - Karakorum
Kamschatka Kamschatka. See Kamchatka. Kamthi Kamthi, or Kampti, a town and cantonment of the Central Provinces, India, 9 miles NE. of Nagpur, on the Kanhan River. Pop. 40,159. Kamyshin Kamysh...
-Kara-kum - Kars
Kara-kum Kara-kum. See Kizil-kum. Karaman Karaman. See Caramania. Karamnasa Karamnasa, a river of Bengal, rises in 24 34' N. lat. and 83 41' E. long., and, after a course of 146 mil...
-Karshi - Kaskaskia
Karshi Karshi, a town of Bokhara, 95 miles SE. of Bokhara city and 80 SW. of Samarcand. It is of great importance in the transit trade between Bokhara, Kabul, and India ; and its knives and firearms ...
-Kassai - Kaveri
Kassai Kassai. See Congo. Kassala Kas'sala, a fortified town on a tributary of the Atbara, 260 miles S. of Suakin. Pop. 10,000. Kassassin Kassas'sin, a lock on the canal between Ismailia and ...
-Kayes - Keighley
Kayes Kayes, or Khayes, a town of the French Soudan, on the river Senegal, with a railway of 94 miles to Bafoulabe. Pop. 10,000. Kazbek Kazbek, or Casbeck. See Caucasus. Kazvin Kazvin, or Cas...
-Kei Islands - Kendal
Kei Islands Kei Islands. See Key: Keir Keir, the seat of the late Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, 1 3/4 mile NW. of Bridge of Allan. Kei River Kei River, Great, a river of South Africa, which i...
-Kenfig - Kerguelens Land
Kenfig Kenfig, a Swansea (q.v.) borough, Glamorganshire, 6 1/2 miles W. by N. of Bridgend. Pop. 380. Kenia Kenia, Mount, an isolated snow-capped mountain mass in British East Africa, about 10' S....
-Kerki - Keswick
Kerki Kerki, a town of central Asia, on the left bank of the Amu-Daria or Oxus, 120 miles S. of Bokhara city. An important place both commercially and strategically, it was occupied and garrisoned by...
-Keszthely - Key West
Keszthely Keszthely, a market-town of Hungary, on the western shore of Lake Balaton, 113 miles by rail SW. of Budapest. Pop. 5393. Kettering Ket'tering, a market-town (since 1227) of Northamptons...
-Khabarovsk - Khasi and Jaintia Hills
Khabarovsk Khabarovsk, or Khabarovka, capital of the Maritime Province, and seat of the governor-general of the Amur (q.v.). Khairpur Khairpur, the chief town of Khairpur state, in Sind, stands a...
-Khatmandu - Khyber Pass
Khatmandu Khatmandu', the capital of Nepal, at the confluence of the Baghmati and Vishnumati rivers. The principal building is the immense ugly palace of the Maharaja. Pop. 50,000. Khelat Khelat....
-Kiachta - Kilchurn
Kiachta Kiachta, or Kiakhta, a town of the Siberian province of Transbaikalia, 165 miles SE. of Irkutsk, close to the Chinese town of Maimatchin. Pop. 9000. Kiachta was from 1689 to 1800 the sole tra...
-Kilcreggan - Kilmainham
Kilcreggan Kilcreggan, a coast-village in Rosneath peninsula, Dumbartonshire, 3 1/4 miles NW. of Greenock. It forms a police-burgh with Cove. Pop. 916. Kilcullen Kilcullen, a town of Kildare, 5 m...
-Kilmalcolm - Kinburn
Kilmalcolm Kilmalcolm (locally Kil-ma-koam'), a Renfrewshire village,15 miles WNW. of Glasgow. Pop. 2220. Kilmallock Kilmallock, a market-town, 17 miles S. of Limerick. Pop. 1029. Kilmaurs Ki...
-Kincardine - Kingston-on-Hull
Kincardine Kincardine, a seaport now of Fife (till 1889 Perthshire detached), on the Forth's left bank, 10 miles W. by N. of Dunfermline. Pop. 1700. Kinchinjinga Kinchinjinga, or Kanchanjanga, a ...
-Kingswinford - Kinsale
Kingswinford Kingswinford, a Staffordshire village, 3 1/2 miles N. by W. of Stourbridge. It has coal and iron mines, and manufactures of iron, glass, bricks, etc. Pop. of rural district, 20,000.' ...
-Kintore - Kirklees
Kintore Kintore', an ancient royal burgh of Aberdeenshire (one of the Elgin parl, burghs), near the Don, 13 1/2 miles N W. of Aberdeen. Pop. 789. Kintyre Kintyre', or Cantire (Gael. ceann-tir, 'h...
-Kirkmaiden - Kismayu
Kirkmaiden Kirkmaiden, a parish, the southernmost of Wigtownshire and Scotland; hence the phrase, 'frae Maidenkirk to John o' Groat's.' Kirkoswald Kirkoswald, an Ayrshire parish, 4 1/2 miles WSW....
-Kissingen - Knapdale
Kissingen Kissingen (Kis'sing-en), the most popular watering-place in Bavaria, on the Saale, 60 miles E. byN. from Frankfort-on-Main. Its three mineral springs (51 F.) are both drunk and used as...
-Knaresborough - Koko-nor
Knaresborough Knaresborough, a market-town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, on the Nidd, 3 1/2 miles NE. of Harrogate and 17 WNW. of York. It has a church (restored 1872), with interesting Slingsby m...
-Kokstadt - Konigstein
Kokstadt Kokstadt. See Griqualand. Kola Kola, the capital (pop. 770) of Russian Lapland, and the most northern town of European Russia, is situated on the peninsula of Kola, near the head of the ...
-Konigswart - Kostroma
Konigswart Konigswart, a town of Bohemia, 14 miles by rail SE. of Eger, in a romantic valley, has a fine castle of Prince Metternich, chalybeate springs, and a bathing establishment. Pop. 2112. Ko...
-Kotah - Krefeld
Kotah Kotah, the chief town of a native state in Rajputana, on the right bank of the Chambal. Pop. 33,624. The area of the state is 3803 sq. in.; pop. 544,350. Kothen Kothen, a town in the German...
-Kremenchug - Kulm
Kremenchug Kremenchug, a town of Russia on the Dnieper, 74 miles by rail SW. of Pultowa. From 1765 to 1789 it was the chief town of New Russia ; it is now the seat of great industrial activity, espec...
-Kum - Kuskoquim
Kum Kum, next to Meshed the most sacred city of Persia, is a straggling, half-ruined town between Ispahan and Teheran. Its shrines and tombs of Mohammedan (Shiite) saints attract thousands of pilgrim...
-Kustendji - Laccadives
Kustendji Kustendji, or more properly since 1878 Con-stanza, a seaport in the Dobrudja, Roumania, stands on the Black Sea, at the end of Trajan's Wall and of the railway to Tchernavoda on the Danube....
-Lachine - Ladrones
Lachine Lachine (La-sheen'), a summer residence of Quebec, 8 miles SW. of Montreal by rail. There is a canal hence to Montreal to avoid the Lachine Rapids of the St Lawrence. Pop. 5600. Lachlan L...
-Ladybank - Lake of the Thousand Islands
Ladybank Ladybank, a police-burgh of Fife, 5 1/2 miles SW. of Cupar. Pop. 1350. Ladysmith Ladysmith (see also Ladismith), a town of 6000 in Natal, 140 miles NW. of Durban. Here in 1S99-1900 the B...
-Lake of the Woods - Lanark
Lake of the Woods Lake of the Woods, a lake of North America, studded with wooded islands, in 49 N. lat. and 95 W. long. It is mostly in Ontario, but extends into Manitoba and Minnesota. Ne...
-Lancaster Sound - Landskrona
Lancaster Sound Lancaster Sound, a western outlet of Baffin Bay, first navigated by Parry in 1819. Lan-chau Lan-chau, or Lan-chow, capital of Kan-su province, China, on the Hoang-ho, near the Gre...
-Lanercost - Languedoc
Lanercost Lanercost, an Augustinian priory, founded about 1169, lies in the valley of the Irthing, 16 miles NE. of Carlisle. It is partly in ruins ; but the nave is used as a parish church. Naworth C...
-Lannion - La Paz
Lannion Lannion, a town in the French dep. of Cotes-du-Nord, on the Guer, 69 miles by rail ENE. of Brest. Pop. 5593. Lansdown Lansdown, a hill (813 feet) to the north of Bath, commanding a prospe...
-Laporte - La Salle
Laporte Laporte, capital of Laporte county, Indiana, 50 miles ESE. of Chicago. Pop. 7126. Lar Lar, capital of Laristan, in south Persia, 170 miles SE. of Shiraz. Pop. 12,000. Laracor Lar'acor...
-Lashkar - Laurvik
Lashkar Lashkar. See Gwalior. Las Palmas Las Palmas, chief town of the Canary Islands, on the north-east coast of Gran Canaria, is the seat of a bishop. Pop. 47,800. Lassa Lassa. See Lhassa. ...
-Lausanne - Lazareff
Lausanne Lausanne (Lazann'), capital of the Swiss canton of Vaud, on the S. slope of the Jura Mountains, close to the N. shore of the Lake of Geneva, the village of Ouchy (where Byron wrote The Priso...
-Lazistan - Lee
Lazistan Lazistan', a coast strip at the south-east corner of the Black Sea, partly Turkish, partly Russian, inhabited by the rough Lazes. Le Le, or Leh, the walled capital of Ladakh (q.v.), stan...
-Lee Castle - Leighton-Buzzard
Lee Castle Lee Castle, a Lanarkshire mansion, 3 miles NNW. of Lanark. It is the ancient seat of the Lockharts, with the ' Lee penny' talisman. Leek Leek, a manufacturing and market town of Staffo...
-Leinster - Lemnos
Leinster Leinster (Lens'ter), one of the four provinces of Ireland (q.v.), occupies the south-east portion of the country, comprising the counties of Carlow, Dublin, Kildare, Kilkenny, King's, Longfo...
-Lena - Lepanto
Lena Lena, a river of eastern Siberia, 3000 miles long, rises amid the mountains on the north-west shore of Lake Baikal, in the government of Irkutsk, flows first NE. to Yakutsk, where it is 6 1/2 mi...
-Lerida - Leuchars
Lerida Ler'ida, a town of Spain, capital of a province (area, 4775 sq. m. ; pop. 285,417 in 1887, having decreased from 314,530 in 1860), on a tributary of the Ebro, 114 miles by rail W. by N. of Bar...
-Leuctra - Liao-tung
Leuctra Leuctra, a village of Botia. Here the Thebans under Epaminondas routed the Spartan king Cleombrotus (371 B.C.). Leuk Leuk (Fr. Loeche), a town (pop. 1411) in the Swiss canton of Val...
-Libau - Lifford
Libau Libau (Lee'bow), a seaport and watering-place of Courland, in Russia, on the Baltic, 146 miles by rail W. by S. of Riga. Its fine harbour admits vessels that draw 17 and 18 feet, and is free fr...
-Ligny - Limpopo
Ligny Ligny (Leen'yi), a Belgian village, 13 miles NE. of Charleroi. Here Napoleon defeated the Prussians under Blucher, 16th June 1815, the same day as Quatre-Bras. Ligonyi Ligonyi, or Elgon, a ...
-Linares - Lions
Linares Linares (Lee-na'res), a town of southern Spain, 90 miles by rail ENE. of Cordova, is celebrated for its mines of lead and copper, and has lead and iron foundries, gunpowder and dynamite facto...
-Lipari Islands - Lisieux
Lipari Islands Lip'ari Islands, known also as the Aeolian Islands, a volcanic group in the Mediterranean, off the N. coast of Sicily, NW. of Messina. It comprises six larger and numerous smaller isla...
-Liskeard - Little Rock
Liskeard Liskeard (Lis'kard), a municipal borough in Cornwall, stands on steep hills overlooking the Looe, 18 miles WNW. of Plymouth. It has manufactures of leather and iron, and trade with the neigh...
-Livadia - Llandudno
Livadia Livadia (anc. Lebadeia), a town of Greece, 60 miles NW. of Athens. Pop. 5000. Livadia Livadia, an estate, with a couple of palaces and magnificent gardens and vineyards, belonging to the im...
-Llanelly - Llanthony
Llanelly Llanelly (Hhlan-ehh'ly; nearly like Thlanethly), a manufacturing town and seaport of Carmarthenshire, South Wales, 11 miles WNW. of Swansea. The mineral wealth_of the vicinity, and the easy ...
-Llantrisaint - Lochleven
Llantrisaint Llantrisaint. a town of Glamorganshire, 11 1/2 miles NW. of Cardiff. It is one of the Cardiff boroughs. Pop. 1637. Llerena Llerena (L'yeraina), a town of Spain, 83 miles by rail N. o...
-Lochmaben - Lodz
Lochmaben Lochma'ben, a market-town of Annandale, Dumfriesshire, 10 miles by rail NE. of Dumfries. It stands amid seven lochs, two of which contain the rare vendace, and has a town-hall (1878), with ...
-Lofoden - Lombardy
Lofoden Lofo'den, or Lofoten, a chain of islands on the north-west coast of Norway, between 67 and 69 15' N. lat., stretching SW. and NE. for 150 miles. They include the Lofoten proper and ...
-Lombok - Longford
Lombok Lombok, one of the Sunda Islands (q.v.), between Java and Timor. It is mountainous (some volcanic peaks reach 11,620 feet) but fertile, producing maize, cotton, tobacco, indigo, sugar, and cof...
-Long Island - Lons-le-Saunier
Long Island Long Island, an island which forms three counties of New York state, bounded by Long Island Sound, the Atlantic, and the East River (spanned by the Brooklyn suspension bridge). It is 115 ...
-Loochoo - LOrient
Loochoo Loochoo (otherwise Liukiu or Riu Kiu), a group Of thirty-seven Japanese islands. The islands extend SW. about halfway from Kyushu in Japan towards Formosa. Their aggregate area is 1863 sq. m....
-Lome - Loughton
Lome Lome, a district of Argyllshire, between Lochs Leven and Awe. Lorraine Lorraine. See Alsace-Lorraine. Lossiemouth Lossiemouth, an Elginshire seaport, at the mouth of the Lossie (31 miles...
-Louisburg - Louth
Louisburg Louisburg, a decayed fishing-village near the E. point of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. There are the ruins of the old town, which was the strongest French fortress in North America, unt...
-Louvlers - Lubnaig
Louvlers Louvlers (Loov-yay'), a town in the French dep. of Eure, 16 miles S. of Rouen, has a Gothic cathedral (13-15th c), and celebrated cloth (since 1681) and ticking manufactures. Pop. 9973. L...
-Lucan - Lugano
Lucan Lucan, a village on the Liffey, 9 miles W. of Dublin. Pop. 874. Lucania Lucania, a province of ancient Italy, southeast of Calabria, and bordering on the Gulf of Tarentum. It corresponds ne...
-Lugar - Lundy
Lugar Lugar, an Ayrshire village, with ironworks, on Lugar Water, l 1/2 mile ENE. of Cumnock. Pop. 1286. Lugdunum Lugdunum. See Lyons, Leyden. Luggie Luggie, a stream, besung by David Gray, f...
-Lune - Luttringhausen
Lune Lune, a river of Westmorland and Lancashire, flowing 45 miles SW. and S. to the Irish Sea, 6 miles SW. of Lancaster. Lunel Lunel, a town in the south of France, 14 miles by rail NE. of Montp...
-Lutzen - Lyndhurst
Lutzen Lutzen, a town of 4501 inhabitants, in Prussian Saxony, 9 miles SE. of Merseburg. Two great battles were fought in its vicinity - the first, a brilliant victory of the Swedes, who lost, howeve...
-Lynmouth - Machrihanish
Lynmouth Lynmouth. See Lynton. Lynton and Lynmouth Lynton and Lynmouth, two villages of North Devon, on the Bristol Channel, 18 miles NE. of Barnstaple. Lynmouth stands close to the sea, and Lynt...
-Machynlleth - Madeira
Machynlleth Machynlleth (Ma-hun'tleth), one of the Montgomery district of boroughs, on the Dovey, 21 miles NNE. of Aberystwith. Pop. 2040. MKeesport M'Keesport, a borough of Pennsylvania, on the ...
-Madeley - Magdala
Madeley Mad'eley, a Shropshire town, on the Severn, 6 miles NE. of Much Wenlock, and within the municipal limits of Wenlock, with ironworks and coal and iron pits. Pop. 10,000. Madison Mad'ison, ...
-Magdalena - Mahanadi
Magdalena Magdale'na, the principal river of Colombia, rises in the Central Cordillera, only 8 miles from the source of the Cauca. These streams flow north on either side of the Cordillera, uniting a...
-Mahanoy City - Maitland
Mahanoy City Mahanoy' City, a mining-town of Pennsylvania, 109 miles by rail NW. of Philadelphia, with collieries and manufactories. Pop. 13,286. Mahe Mahe, the only French settlement on the west...
-Maiwand - Maldon
Maiwand Maiwand, 50 miles NW. of Kandahar, where an English army was defeated by Ayub Khan, 27th July 1880. Majuba Hill Maju'ba Hill, in the extreme north of Natal, was the scene of the defeat of...
-Maldonado - Malton
Maldonado Maldona'do, a coast dep. in Uruguay; area, 1584 sq. m. ; pop. 27,000. - Also a fortified seaport in same department; pop. 2500. Mallaig Mallaig, a hamlet in the NW. corner of Morar, Inv...
-Malvern - Mancha
Malvern Malvern, Great, one of the most fashionable watering-places in England, is situated 9 miles SW. of Worcester, and 129 WNW. of London, on the east side of the Malvern Hills, at the foot of the...
-Manche - Mangalore
Manche Manche (Mongsh;' sleeve'), a maritime Norman dep. of NW. France, derives its name from La Manche (the English Channel), which washes its rocky coasts. Greatest length, 81 miles ; average bread...
-Manhattan Island - Mannheim
Manhattan Island Manhattan Island, the island on which the great part of New York City stands. Manica Manica (Manee'ca), a gold-field long worked by the Portuguese, 130 miles NW. of the port of B...
-Manningtree - Mantes
Manningtree Manningtree, an Essex town, on the tidal Stour, 8 3/4 miles NE. of Colchester. Pop. 900. Manorbier Manorbier, a ruined castle on the Pembrokeshire coast, 5 miles ESE. of Pembroke. It ...
-Mantinea - Marburg
Mantinea Mantine'a, an ancient city of Arcadia, in the Peloponnesus, on the river Ophis. Here Epamin-ondas fell in the moment of a great victory over the Spartans, 362 b.c. Manytch Manytch. See A...
-March - Margate
March March, a market-town of Cambridgeshire, on the Neii, 14 miles E. of Peterborough and 16 NW. of Ely. Pop. 7570. March March (Marhh; Slav. Morava), the principal river of Moravia, rises on the ...
-Margaux - Mariposa
Margaux Margaux (Mar-go'), a village 15 miles by rail NNW. of Bordeaux, near the Gironde's left bank. Its chateau (a handsome Italian villa) and celebrated vineyards are 1/2 mile distant. Pop. 1819. ...
-Marisco Castle - Marmora
Marisco Castle Marisco Castle. See Lundy. Maritime Province Maritime Province (Primorskaya), part of eastern Siberia, extending along the Pacific from Corea to the Arctic Ocean, and including Kam...
-Marne - Marshall Islands
Marne Marne (Man), a river of France, rises in the plateau of Langres, and flows 326 miles NW. and W. past Chalons and Epernay to the Seine at Charenton, a few miles above Paris. It is navigable for ...
-Marshall town - Maryport
Marshall town Marshall town, capital of Marshall county, Iowa, near the Iowa River, 50 miles NE. of Des Moines. Pop. 11,550. Marshfield Marshfield, a Gloucestershire town, on the Cotswolds, 11 1/...
-Marysville - Matera
Marysville Marysville, capital of Yuba county, California, on the Yuba River, at the head of navigation, 52 miles by rail N. of Sacramento. It is a great resort of gold-miners, and contains flour-mil...
-Mathura - Maulmain
Mathura Mathura. See Muttra. Matlock Matlock, a Derbyshire parish, 17 miles N. by W. of Derby, containing Matlock Bath, Matlock Bridge, Matlock town, and Matlock Bank, which extend 2 miles along ...
-Mauna Loa - Meadville
Mauna Loa Mauna Loa. See Hawaii. Mauritania Mauritania, or Mauretania, was anciently the most north-western part of Africa, corresponding to Morocco and western Algeria. Maxstoke Maxstoke, an...
-Mealfourvonie - Meeanee
Mealfourvonie Mealfour'vonie. See Ness, Loch. Meanee Meanee. See Meeanee. Mearns Mearns. See Kincardineshire. Meath Meath, a maritime county of Leinster, Ireland, bounded E. for 10 miles ...
-Meerane - Mekong
Meerane Meerane (May-ra'nuh), a prosperous manufacturing town of Saxony, 43 miles by rail S. of Leipzig. From a small country town, it has increased rapidly through its woollen manufactures and expor...
-Melanesia - Melville
Melanesia Melanesia. See Polynesia. Melbourn Melbourn, a parish 7 miles SE. of Derby. It has noted market-gardens. Melcombe Regis Melcombe Regis. See Weymouth. Melegnamo(Melenyah' no), forme...
-Memel - Menin
Memel Memel (May'mel), a fortified Prussian seaport, lies at the northern extremity of the Kurisches Haff, at its opening into the Baltic, 70 miles NNE. of Danzig. Founded in 1252, and almost totally...
-Menominee - Mercia
Menominee Menominee, capital of Menominee county, Michigan, at the mouth of Menominee River, on Green Bay, 179 miles by rail N. of Milwaukee, with a large trade in lumber, etc. Pop. (1880) 3288; (190...
-Mere - Meshhed
Mere Mere, a Wiltshire town, 21 miles S. by E. of Bath. Pop. of parish, 2749. Mergul Mergul, a seaport of Burma, on an island in the Tenasserim River, 2 miles from its mouth. Pop. 8633. - The Mer...
-Meskoutin - Mevagissey
Meskoutin Meskoutin, or Hammam Meskoutin ('the Accursed Baths'), a place in Algeria, 48 miles (77 by rail) E. by N. of Constantine, with remarkable hot baths (203 F.), known to the Romans as Aqu...
-Mexborough - Middletown
Mexborough Mexborough, a town of Yorkshire, 5 3/4 miles NE. of Rotherham, with ironworks and potteries. Pop. 10,630. Mezieres Mezieres (Mezee-ehr'), the capital of the French dep. of Ardennes, on...
-Middlewich - Militello
Middlewich Middlewich, an old-fashioned market-town of Cheshire, on the river Dane and the Grand Trunk Canal, 21 miles E. of Chester. Its salt-manufacture has declined. Pop. 4706. Midhurst Midhur...
-Millau - Minden
Millau Millau (Mee'yo), a town in the French dep. of Aveyron, on the Tarn's right bank, 52 miles NW. of Montpellier. During the 16th and 17th centuries it was a Calvinist stronghold. Leather and glov...
-Minehead - Miseno
Minehead Minehead, a watering-place (till 1832 parl, borough) of Somerset, on the Bristol Channel, 25 miles NW. of Taunton. Pop. 2511. Minervino Minervino, an agricultural town of southern Italy,...
-Misiones - Modica
Misiones Misiones (Meezio'nes), an Argentinian territory, lies between the Uruguay and the Parana, and is bounded on all sides but the SW. by Brazil and Paraguay. Area, 20,823 sq. m.; pop. 30,000. Ca...
-Moel Famman - Mohave Desert
Moel Famman Moel Famman, a hill (1823 feet) of North Wales, 4 miles W. of Mold. Moen Moen, a Danish island, 20 miles long, in the Baltic, at the SE. end of Zealand. Pop. 15,000. Moeris Moeris...
-Moher - Mologa
Moher Moher, Cliffs of, a wall of rock facing the Atlantic, on the coast of Clare, 20 miles NW. of Ennis, 4 miles long and from 440 to 660 feet high. Mohileff Mohileff, or Mogileff, (1) the capit...
-Molokai - Mons
Molokai Molokai. See Hawaii. Molton Molton, South. See South Molton. Momien Momien, a Chinese frontier-town in the extreme west of Yunnan, 135 miles NE. of Bhamo. Mompox Mompox, or Mompos...
-Montagnana - Monte Catini
Montagnana Montagnana (Mon-tan-yah'na), a town of northern Italy, 32 miles SW. of Padua. Pop. 8200. Montalcino Montalcino (Montalchee'no), a cathedral city of Italy, on a hill (1900 feet), 22 mil...
-Monte Corno - Montilla
Monte Corno Monte Corno. See Apennines. Monte Cristo Monte Cristo, an uninhabited islet of granite off the Italian coast, 26 miles S. of Elba. Montego Bay Montego Bay, a northern port of Jama...
-Montlucon - Monza
Montlucon Montlucon (Monglussong'), a town in the French dep. of Allier, on a castle-crowned hill whose base is washed by the Cher, 202 miles S. of Paris. It owes its rapid growth to the Com-mentry c...
-Mooltan - Moresnet
Mooltan Mooltan. See Multan. Moorfoot Hills Moorfoot Hills, a range in Midlothian and Peeblesshire, culminating in Blackhope Scar (2136 feet). Moorhouse Moorhouse, a farm 3 miles W. of Eagles...
-Moreton Bay - Mortlake
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay, on the east coast of Queensland, Australia, is formed inside the islands of Moreton and Stradbroke. The bay is 40 miles long by 17 broad; its southern half is dotted with isl...
-Morvan - Mosul
Morvan Morvan (Morvong), Le, a barren district of France, a north-easterly extension of the central plateau, is mainly in the dep. of Nievre. Morvern Morvern, a peninsula of north-west Argyllshir...
-Motherwell - Mount Vernon
Motherwell Motherwell, a town of Lanarkshire, 12 miles SE. of Glasgow. Owing its rapid growth to the amazing extension of its mineral industries, it has a good water-supply (1877), municipal building...
-Mourna Mountains - Mullingar
Mourna Mountains Mourna Mountains. See Down. Mourzouk Mourzouk. See Fezzan. Mousa Mousa, a Shetland island, 11 miles S. by W. of Lerwick. Here is a very perfect 'broch,' or dry-built circular...
-Multan - Murshidabad
Multan Multan (Mooltan), an ancient city of India, in the Punjab, 4 miles from the left bank of the Chenab, surrounded except on the south by a wall 10 to 20 feet high. The European quarter lies to t...
-Murten - Muttra
Murten Murten, battle. See Morat. Murviedro Murviedro (Moor-vee-ay'dro; 'old walls'), or Sagunto, a town of Spain, 18 miles NNE. of Valencia, stands on the site of Saguntum, a Greek colony, the s...
-Muyscas - Nagina
Muyscas Muyscas. See Colombia. Muzaffarnagar Muzaffarnag'ar, a town in the United Provinces, 80 miles NE. of Delhi. Pop. 23,450. Muzaffarpur Muzaffarpur', a Bengal town, on the Little Gan-dak...
-Nagoya - Namur
Nagoya Nagoya, a town of the main island of Japan, 170 miles W. of Tokyo. It has a famous Buddhist temple, and is the most important pottery centre in Japan. Pop. (1904) 288,700. Nagpur Nagpur (N...
-Nanaimo - Narva
Nanaimo Nanaimo (Nany'mo), a town on the east coast of Vancouver Island, 74 miles by rail NNW. of Victoria. There are large coal-mines in the district, which has a pop. of 6600. Nanda Devi Nanda ...
-Narvik - Nauheim
Narvik Narvik, a Norwegian port opposite the Lofoten Islands, shipping iron ore brought by rail from the mines of Gellivara in Sweden. Pop. 5000. Naseby Naseby, a Northamptonshire parish, 7 miles...
-Naumburg - Naxos
Naumburg Naumburg (Nowm'boorg), a quaint old town of Prussian Saxony, on the Saale, in an amphitheatre of vine-clad hills, 30 miles by rail SW. of Leipzig. Of its six churches, the triple-towered cat...
-Nazareth - Needwood Forest
Nazareth Nazareth, the home of Jesus, anciently in the district of Galilee, 21 miles SE. of Acre, is still a small but flourishing town of Palestine. The principal building is the Latin convent, on t...
-Neerwinden - Nenagh
Neerwinden Neerwinden (Nayr'winden), a small village in the north-west corner of the Belgian province of Liege. Here the French under Luxembourg defeated the English under William III. (29th July 169...
-Nerbudda - Neumunster
Nerbudda Nerbudda, or Narbada, a river of India, rises on the Amarkantak plateau, 3493 feet above sea-level, and flows west, through the Central Provinces, past Jabalpur, through the great depression...
-Neu-Pommern - Nevers
Neu-Pommern Neu-Pommern. See New Britain. Neusatz Neusatz (Noy-zatz), or Uj Videk, a town of Hungary, on the Danube's left bank, opposite Peterwardein (q.v.). Pop. 24,717. Neusiedler Lake Neu...
-Neviansk - Newborn
Neviansk Neviansk, a town in the Russian government of Perm, 50 miles N. of Ekaterinburg by rail, stands on the Siberian side of the Ural Mountains, and on a tributary of the Tobol. The district is r...
-Newbiggin - Newcastle
Newbiggin Newbiggin, a Northumberland watering-place, 7 1/4 miles E. by N. of Morpeth. Pop. 2032. New Brighton New Brighton, a Cheshire watering-place, 4 miles N. of Birkenhead. Pop. 4366. New B...
-Newcastle Emlyn - Newhaven
Newcastle Emlyn Newcastle Emlyn, a Carmarthenshire town, on the Teifi, 26 miles NNW. of Carmarthen. Pop. 855. Newcastleton Newcastleton, a Roxburghshire village, on Liddel Water, 21 1/4 miles S. ...
-New Holland - New Ross
New Holland New Holland. See Australia. New Ireland New Ireland, now, as part of the German Bismarck Archipelago, called Neu-Mecklenburg, a long, narrow island in the Pacific, lying NE. of New Gu...
-Newry - Newtown
Newry Newry, a seaport, mainly in County Down, but partly in Armagh, on the Newry River, 38 miles SSW. of Belfast by rail. A canal connects it with Carlingford Lough and with Lough Neagh. Flax spinni...
-Newtownards - Nicopolis
Newtownards Newtownards, a town of County Down, 14 miles E. of Belfast by rail. Flax-spinning, muslin-weaving and embroidering, and nursery-gardening are industries, and there are large markets. Pop....
-Nicosia - Nikolaevsk
Nicosia Nicosia, (1) called also Levkosia, the capital of Cyprus, situated near the middle of the northern half of the island, has some manufactures of silk, leather, and cotton. Pop. 14,536. - (2) A...
-Nikolaieff - Niort
Nikolaieff Nikolaieff (Nikolieffr), headquarters of the Russian Black Sea fleet, in the government of Kherson, at the confluence of the Ingul with the Bug, and 42 miles from the Black Sea. It is a gr...
-Nipigon - Nord
Nipigon Nip'igon, an island-studded lake of Ontario, 30 miles NW. of Lake Superior, with which it is connected by the Nipigon River. It is 70 miles long, but its deeply indented coast-line measures 5...
-Nordenham - Norrkoping
Nordenham Nordenham. See Bremerhaven. Norderney Norderney (Norderni), a small treeless island, lying 3 miles off the coast of the Prussian district of East Friesland. Area, 4 sq. m.; pop. 4850. I...
-North Adams - North-west Passage
North Adams North Adams, a manufacturing village of Massachusetts, on the Hoosac River, near the west end of the Hoosac tunnel, 143 miles by rail W. by N. of Boston. It has woollen and cotton mills, ...
-North-west Provinces - Norwich
North-west Provinces North-west Provinces, a lieutenant-governorship of British India (since 1835), occupying the upper basin of the Ganges and Jumna, and extending from Bengal to the Punjab. Oudh, f...
-Norwood - Novogeorgievsk
Norwood Norwood, now part of the county borough of Croydon, gives name to a parliamentary division (pop. 85,730) of Lambeth. Noss Noss. See Bressay. Nossi-Be Nossi-Be (Bay), a volcanic island...
-Novorossisk - Oakengates
Novorossisk Novorossisk', a fortified port on the Black Sea, to the SE. of Anapa in Caucasia. A breakwater and quay were begun in 1890. Pop. 16,200. Novotcherkask Novotcherkask', a town of southe...
-Oakham - Oberhausen
Oakham Oakham, the county town of Rutland, in the vale of Catmose, 25 miles WNW. of Peterborough. The castle, every peer passing which must forfeit either a horseshoe or a fine, is in ruins except th...
-Oberland - Oder
Oberland Oberland. See Bern. Obi Obi, or Ob, the great river of Western Siberia, rises in two branches, the Biya and the Katun, in the Altai Mountains, within the Chinese frontier, and flows 2120...
-Odeypoor - Ogowe
Odeypoor Odeypoor. See Udaipur. Odiham Odiham, a market-town of Hampshire, 23 miles NE. of Winchester. Pop. of parish, 2667. Oedenburg {Odenboorg; Hung Oedenburg {Odenboorg'; Hung. Soprony; t...
-Ohlau - Olives
Ohlau Ohlau (Oa-low'), a town of Prussian Silesia, 20 miles SE. of Breslau, on the Oder. Pop. 9575. Oich Oich, a loch of Inverness-shire, measuring 4 miles by mile, 105 feet above the sea, at t...
-Ollerton - Omaha
Ollerton Ollerton, a town of Notts, on the Maun and near Sherwood Forest, 8 1/2 miles NE. of Mansfield. Pop. 090. Olmutz Olmutz, a town of Moravia, Austria, on the March, 129 miles NNE. of Vienna...
-Oman - Ophir
Oman Oman', the most eastern portion of Arabia, a strip of maritime territory, extending between the Strait of Ormuz and Ras-el-Had, and bounded on the SW. by the deserts of the interior. At a distan...
-Openshaw - Orissa
Openshaw Openshaw, a SE. suburb of Manchester. Opoteca Opoteca (Opotay'ca), a town of 1000 inhabitants, in Honduras, 15 miles NNW. of Comayagua, once famous for its great silver-mines. Oppeln ...
-Orizaba - Orthez
Orizaba Oriza'ba, a town or the Mexican state of Vera Cruz, 82 miles WSW. of Vera Cruz City, and 181 ESE. of Mexico, lies in a fertile garden country, 4030 feet above the sea. It has a cotton-factory...
-Ortler Spitz - Oshkosh
Ortler Spitz Ortler Spitz, highest(12,874 feet) of the RhAetian Alps, in Tyrol, close to the Swiss frontier. Orton Orton, a Westmorland market-town, 8 miles SW. of Appleby. Pop. of parish, 830. ...
-Oskaloosa - Osuna
Oskaloosa Oskaloosa, capital of Mahaska county, Iowa, 104 miles WNW. of Burlington. It mines bituminous coal, and manufactures flour, woollens, boilers, electric appliances, etc. Here are Penn Colleg...
-Oswego - Otranto
Oswego Oswe'go, the capital of Oswego county, New York, is situated at the mouth of Oswego River (here crossed by three bridges), on Lake Ontario, at the extremity of the Oswego Canal (to Syracuse), ...
-Otter - Oundle
Otter Otter, a Devon stream running 24 miles to the English Channel, 5 miles SW. of Sidmouth. Otterbourne Otterbourne, a Hampshire parish, 4 miles SW. of Winchester. Otterburn Otterburn, a sm...
-Ouro Preto - Owen Sound
Ouro Preto Ouro Preto (Ooro Pray'to; 'Black Gold'), capital of the province of Minas Geraes, Brazil, stands among barren mountains, 3780 feet above sea-level, and 200 miles N. by W. of Rio Janeiro. T...
-Owston Ferry - Pahang
Owston Ferry Owston Ferry, a Lincolnshire town, on the Trent, 7 miles N. of Gainsborough. Pop. 1204. Owosso Owosso, or Owasso, a city of Michigan, on the Shiawassee River, 78 miles by rail NW. of...
-Paignton - Palestrina
Paignton Paignton (Pain'ton), a Devon watering-place, 2 1/4 miles S. of Torquay. Near it is a ruined palace of the bishops of Exeter. Pop. of the urban district (1901) 8385. Painswick Painswick, ...
-Palghat - Pampeluna
Palghat Palghat, a town of Malabar district, 68 miles SB. of Calicut by rail. Pop. 44,200. Pali Pali, the commercial capital of Jodhpur (q.v.), 45 miles by rail SE. of Jodhpur city. Palikao P...
-Pamphylia - Para
Pamphylia Pamphylia, anciently a country on the south coast of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia. Pancsova Panc'sova, a town of Hungary, on the Temes, near its junction with the Danube, 9 mil...
-Parahyba - Paropamisus
Parahyba Parahyba (Par-a-ee'ba), capital of the Brazilian state of Parahyba, on the Parahyba River, 10 miles from the sea. It has a cathedral, government palace (formerly the Jesuit college), and lar...
-Paros - Partinico
Paros Paros, one of the larger Cyclades (q.v.); it has an area of 64 sq. m. and a pop. of nearly 7800, of whom some 2500 live in the capital, Parkia. The quarries of the famous white Parian mar...
-Parton - Paterson
Parton Parton, a Cumberland seaport, 1 1/2 mile N. of Whitehaven. Pop. of parish, 1452. Pasadena Pasade'na, a town of California, 10 miles E. of Los Angeles. Pop. (1880) 391; (1900) 9117. Pascago...
-Pathhead - Pawtucket
Pathhead Pathhead, a village, on the Tyne, 11 miles SE. of Edinburgh. Pop. 466. Patiala Patiala (Putteedh'la), a native Indian Punjab state, partly S. of the Sutlej, partly in hills. Area, 5951 s...
-Paxo - Peebles
Paxo Paxo, an Ionian island, has with Antipaxo an area of 8 1/2 sq. m. and a pop. of 4000. Paysandu Paysandu, the chief town of a Uruguayan department (pop. 38,507), on the Uruguay River, 280 mil...
-Peekskill - Pemba
Peekskill Peekskill, a manufacturing village, on a beautiful point of the Hudson River, 42 miles N. of New York. Pop. 10,360. Peel Peel, a coast-town of the Isle of Man, 11 1/2 miles by rail NW. ...
-Pemberton - Penobscot
Pemberton Pemberton, a town in Lancashire, 2 miles from Wigan, with collieries and cotton-mills. . Pop. (1901) 21,664. Pembina Pembina, capital of Pembina county, North Dakota, on the Red River o...
-Penrhyn - Pentland Hills
Penrhyn Penrhyn, great slate-quarries in Carnarvonshire, near Bethesda (q.v.). Penrhyn Castle, close to Bangor, is the seat of Lord Penrhyn. Penrith Penrith, a market-town of Cumberland, in a pic...
-Pentonville - Perim
Pentonville Pentonville, a populous district in London in the parish of St James's, Clerkenwell, the first buildings in which were erected in 1773 on fields belonging to Henry Penton, Esq. The name h...
-Perleberg - Perth Amboy
Perleberg Perleberg (Per'leh-berg), a Prussian town, in Brandenburg, 80 miles NW. of Berlin. Pop. 7825. Perm Perm, a town of Russia, on the Kama, by which it is 685 miles NE. of Kazan. It is the ...
-Peru - Peterwardein
Peru Peru, (1) a city of Illinois, at the head of navigation on the Illinois River, 100 miles by rail WSW. of Chicago. It contains zinc-works, a foundry, a plough-factory, and several icehouses. Pop....
-Petherton - Pforzheim
Petherton Petherton, South, a Somerset town, on the Parret, 4 1/2 miles N. of Crewkerne. Pop. 2250. Petra Petra (the Greek equivalent of the Heb. Sela, 'Rock'), the ancient stronghold of the Naba...
-Phalsbourg - Philippopolis
Phalsbourg Phalsbourg, or Pfalzburg, a town of Lorraine, stands on the north-west shoulder of the Vosges, 25 miles NW. of Strasburg. It was fortified by Vauban in 1680; invested, but not taken, by th...
-Philippsburg - Pichincha
Philippsburg Philippsburg, a town of Baden, on the Rhine's right bank, 16 miles N. of Carlsruhe. Fortified until 1800, it was often besieged. Pop. 2922. Philipstown Philipstown, a market-town of ...
-Pickering - Pilcomayo
Pickering Pickering, in the North Riding, 32 miles NNE. of York, has a ruined castle and a fine parish church. Pop. 3500. Picton Picton, capital of Prince Edward county in Ontario, 38 miles SW. o...
-Pilibhit - Piombino
Pilibhit Pilibhit, a town in the United Provinces, 30 miles NE. of Bareilly by rail. Pop. 33,799. Pillar Mountain Pillar Mountain, in Ennerdale, Cumberland, 2927 feet high. Pillau Pillau (Pil...
-Piotrkow - Pisidia
Piotrkow Piotrkow (Ger. Petrikau), a town of Russian Poland, 87 miles by rail SW. of Warsaw. Pop. 32,200. - The government has an area of 4730 sq. m. and a population of 1,410,000, and is a centre of...
-Pistoia - Plassey
Pistoia Pistoia (Pis-to'ya; anc. Pistoria), a walled town of Italy, stands 21 miles by rail NW. of Florence, on a spur of the Apennines. The cathedral (12th and 13th centuries) contains a magnificent...
-PlatAea - Plymouth
PlatAea PlatAea (Gr. Plataiai), a city in the western part of Botia, on the borders of Attica, and at the foot of Mount CithAeron, 6 miles from Thebes. In 479 B.C. it witnessed the glorious vic...
-Plympton - Pollokshaws
Plympton Plympton, a Devon market-town, near the Plym, 4 1/2 miles E. by N. of Plymouth. It returned two members till 1832. At its grammar-school (1658) were educated Sir Joshua Reynolds (a native) a...
-Pollokshields - Pontiac
Pollokshields Pollokshields, a SW. suburb of Glasgow. Polmont Polmont, a Stirlingshire village, 4 1/2 miles W. by N. of Linlithgow. Pop. 561. Polotsk Polotsk, a town of Russia on the Dwina, 6...
-Pontianak - Popocatepetl
Pontianak Pontianak', capital of the western division of Dutch Borneo, near the mouth of the river Kapuas. Pop. 5000. Pontigny Pontigny (Ponteen-yee'), a village of the French dep. of Yonne, 18 m...
-Port Adelaide - Port Darwin
Port Adelaide Port Adelaide. See Adelaide. Portadown Portadown, a market-town of Armagh, Ireland, on the Bann, 6 miles S. of Lough Neagh and 25 by rail SW. of Belfast. It trades in farm-produce, ...
-Port DUrban - Port Hope
Port DUrban Port D'Urban. See Durban. Port Durnford Port Durnford, a harbour in British East Africa, on an indentation of the coast a little more than 1 S. of the equator. Port Elizabeth ...
-Port Huron - Portobello
Port Huron Port Huron, capital of St Clair county, Michigan, is on the St Clair River, where it issues from Lake Huron, and at the mouth of the Black River, 69 miles by rail NNE. of Detroit. The rive...
-Portobelo - Portmsh
Portobelo Portobelo, a decayed seaport of Colombia, on the northern shore of the Isthmus of Panama, almost due north of the town of Panama. It has an excellent harbour, discovered by Columbus in 1502...
-Port Said - Poti
Port Said Port Said (Sah-eed'), a town of Egypt, on the west side of the Suez Canal, on a desolate strip of land between Lake Menzaleh and the Mediterranean. The place, which owes its origin to the S...
-PotidAea - Poughkeepsie
PotidAea PotidAe'a, a Corinthian colony founded on the westernmost isthmus of the Chalcidice peninsula in ancient Macedonia. Potomac Poto'mac, a river of the United States, formed by two branches...
-Poulton le Fylde - Prestonpans
Poulton le Fylde Poulton le Fylde, a Lancashire town, near the Wyre, 5 miles S. of Fleetwood. Pop. 2230. Poverty Bay Poverty Bay. See Gisborne. Powerscourt Powerscourt, a Wicklow parish, 4 1/...
-Prestwich - Prisrend
Prestwich Prestwich, a cotton manufacturing town of Lancashire, 4 miles NNW. of Manchester. It has a Gothic church (13th century; restored in 1861), also many fine villas and a large lunatic asylum. ...
-Pristina - Puebla
Pristina Pris'tina, a town of European Turkey, 59 miles by rail N. of Uskub. Pop. 18,000. Procida Procida (Protch'ida), an islet of Italy, between the island of Ischia and the mainland (Cape Mise...
-Pueblo - Pultowa
Pueblo Pueblo (Pweb'lo), capital of Pueblo county, Colorado, on the Arkansas River, at the mouth of Fountain Creek, 117 miles by rail S. by E. of Denver. Through its iron and steel industry it rapidl...
-Pultusk - Putney
Pultusk Pultusk (Pool-toosk'), a town of Poland, 32 miles N. of Warsaw. Here Charles XII. of Sweden defeated the Saxons in 1703, and here in 1806 the French defeated the Russians. The town was destro...
-Putrid Sea - Quatre-Bras
Putrid Sea Putrid Sea. See Azov. Putumayo Putumayo (Poo-too-mi'o), or ICA, rises in Colombia on the eastern side of the Andes, and flows SE. 950 miles to the Amazon. Puy Puy (Pwee), Le, or Le...
-Quedah - Queenstown
Quedah Quedah, or Kedah, a state on the west side of the Malay Peninsula, with an area of 3600 sq. m. and a pop. of 30,000, nominally subject to Siam. The capital, Quedah, has 8000 inhabitants. Qu...
-Quelpart - Quincy
Quelpart Quelpart, a rock-bound, wooded island 60 miles off the S. coast of Corea, 40 miles long by 17 broad, attains in the volcanic Mount Auckland 6500 feet. It is fertile and populous. Queretar...
-Quiraing - Radley
Quiraing Quiraing (Kwee-rang'), a fantastic rock mass (1779 feet) in the N. of Skye. Quorn Quorn, or Quorndon, a village of Leicestershire, 2 1/2 miles SE. of Loughborough, gives name to a celebr...
-Radnor - Rajputana
Radnor Radnor, New, a Radnorshire village, on the Somergill, 7 miles WSW. of Presteigne. Pop. 497. - Old Radnor (pop. 340) is 3 miles ESE. Radom Rad'om, a town of Poland, on a sub-tributary of th...
-Rajshahi - Rannoch
Rajshahi Rajshahi. See Rampur Beauleah. Raleigh Raleigh, the capital of North Carolina, is near the Neuse River, 186 miles (by rail 271) SSW. of Richmond. It is regularly built on an elevated sit...
-Rapallo - Rattray
Rapallo Rapallo, a winter health-resort of Northern Italy, 17 miles by rail ESE. of Genoa, with a castle and the pilgrimage church of the Madonna (1557) on the Monte Allegro. Pop. 5625. Raphoe Ra...
-Ratzeburg - Redesdale
Ratzeburg Ratzeburg, a town of Lauenburg, 35 miles ENE. of Hamburg. Here Coleridge learned German. Pop. 4315. Ravelston Ravelston, a seat of the Keiths, 2 1/2 miles W. of Edinburgh. Ravenglass...
-Redout Kale - Reichenberg
Redout Kale Redout Kale (Redoot' Kah-lay'), a fortified post on the Black Sea coast of Caucasia, 10 miles N. of Poti, captured by the British fleet in 1854. Red River Red River, the lowest wester...
-Reichenhall - Rennes
Reichenhall Reichenhall (Ri'hhen-hal), an Alpine spa in the extreme south-east of Bavaria, 10 miles SW. of Salzburg. It was handsomely rebuilt after the great fire in 1834. It is the chief centre of ...
-Ronton - Reuss
Ronton Ronton, a town of Dumbartonshire, on the Leven's right bank, 2 miles N. by W. of Dumbarton. Founded in 1782, it has a Tuscan column (1774) to the novelist Smollett, who was born close by, and ...
-Reutlingen - Rheydt
Reutlingen Reutlingen (Roit'ling-eri), a pleasant town of Wurtemberg, on a feeder of the Neckar, 8 miles E. by S. of Tubingen, manufacturing woollen and cotton yarns, cloth, leather, cutlery, hosiery...
-Rhin - Rickmansworth
Rhin Rhin (Rang), Bas and Haut, until 1871 frontier deps. of France, corresponded nearly to what are now the two districts of Lower and Upper Alsace, in German Alsace-Lorraine (q.v.). See Belfort. ...
-Riddings - Rio Grande do Norte
Riddings Riddings, a Derbyshire market-town, 3 miles SE. of Alfreton, with neighbouring coal-pits and ironworks. Pop. 6000: Riddon Riddon, Loch, an Argyllshire sea-loch, striking 4 miles N. from ...
-Rio Grande do Sul - Rive-de-Gier
Rio Grande do Sul Rio Grande do Sul (Ree'o Gran'deh do Sool; 'Great River of the South'), sometimes called San Pedro, the southernmost province of Brazil, is bounded N. and W. by the river Uruguay, S...
-Rivera - Rocha
Rivera Rivera (Reevay'ra), a dep. in the north-east of Uruguay, separated by a mountain-chain from Brazil. Area, 3790 sq. m.; pop. 27,100. Riverina Riverina (Riveree'na), a name given to the exte...
-Roche Abbey - Rockingham Castle
Roche Abbey Roche Abbey, a ruined Yorkshire Cistercian monastery (c. 1147), 8 miles E. of Rotherham. Rochefort-sur-Mer Rochefort-sur-Mer (Rosh-forr'-sur-Mayr), a French seaport, naval arsenal, an...
-Rock Island - Roeskilde
Rock Island Rock Island, capital of a county in Illinois, on the Mississippi, opposite Davenport, Iowa (the two are connected by a wrought-iron bridge which cost $1,300,000), 181 miles by rail WSW. o...
-Rohilkhand - Romsey
Rohilkhand Rohilkhand, a division of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, has an area of 10,908 sq. m. and a pop. of 5,500,000. Rohtak Rohtak, a town of British India, in the Punjab, 42 miles N...
-Rona - Rosetta
Rona Rona, an Inverness-shire island, between Skye and the mainland, 4 sq. m. in area, and 404 feet high. Pop. 161. Ronaldshay Ronaldshay, North and South, the most northerly and the most souther...
-Rosherville - Rothenburg
Rosherville Rosherville, gardens near Gravesend (q.v.). Rosneath Rosneath. See Dumbartonshire. Ross Ross, a market-town in Herefordshire, on the Wye's left bank, 14 miles SSE. of Hereford. In...
-Rother - Roveredo
Rother Rother, a river (1) of Derbyshire and Yorkshire, flowing 21 miles to the Don; (2) of Hants and Sussex, flowing 24 miles to the Arun; and (3) of Sussex and Kent, flowing 31 miles to the English...
-Rovigno - Rudesheim
Rovigno Rovigno (Roveen'yo), an Austrian seaport, on the west side of the peninsula of Istria, 40 miles S. by W. of Trieste. Pop. 10,500. Rovigo Rovigo (Rovee'go), a cathedral city of Italy, 27 m...
-Rudolf - Runcorn
Rudolf Rudolf, Lake, an equatorial sea in British East Africa, near the edge of the Kaffa or South Ethiopian highlands, is long and narrow, stretching 160 miles NE. and SW. by 20 broad, with an area ...
-Runnimede - Ruthven Castle
Runnimede Runnimede, a long stretch of green meadow, lying along the right bank of the Thames, 1 mile above Staines and 36 miles by river WSW. of London. Here, or on Charta Island, a little way off t...
-Ruthwell - Rye
Ruthwell Ruthwell (th as in this; locally Ri'well), a Dumfriesshire coast parish, 9 miles ESE. of Dumfries. Its famous sandstone cross, 17 3/4 feet high, bears carvings in front and behind of the Cru...
-Rye House - Sabrina Land
Rye House Rye House, an old Hertfordshire mansion, 5 1/4 miles SE. of Hertford, where it was proposed by some of the Whigs to waylay and assassinate Charles II. (1683). Ryswick Ryswick, a village...
-Sachsen - Saghalien
Sachsen Sachsen. See Saxony, Saxon States. Sacketts Harbor Sacketts Harbor, a summer-resort (in 1812 an important naval station) of New York, on a bay of Lake Ontario, at the mouth of Black River...
-Saginaw - St Amand-les-Eaux
Saginaw Saginaw', the third city of Michigan, and capital of Saginaw county, is built on an elevated plateau on the Saginaw River, 108 miles by rail NNW. of Detroit. It manufactures flour, salt, lumb...
-St Annes on the Sea - St Bernard
St Annes on the Sea St Annes on the Sea, a watering-place of N. Lancashire, 4 1/2 miles S. of Blackpool. Pop. 6840. St Asaph St Asaph, a little cathedral city of Flintshire, North Wales, on an em...
-St Blazey - St Cloud
St Blazey St Blazey, a town of Cornwall, 4 miles ENE. of St Austell. Pop. of parish, 2705. St Boswells St Boswells, or Lessudden, a Roxburghshire village, near the Tweed's right bank, 4 miles SE....
-St Columb Major - St Flour {San9 Floor)
St Columb Major St Columb Major, a Cornish town, on the Trent, 14 miles NNE. of Truro. Pop. 2612. St Croix St Croix (Sent Kroi), an American river, called also the Passamaquoddy and the Schoodic,...
-St Georges - St Helens
St Georges St George's. See Bermudas, Grenada. St Georges Channel St George's Channel. See Ireland. St-Germain-en-Laye St-Germain-en-Laye (Sang-Zhermang-ong-Lay), a town of France, dep. Seine...
-St Holier - St Keyne
St Holier St Holier (Fr. Sangt Eleeay), the capital of Jersey, is situated on the south shore of the island, and the east side of St Aubin Bay. It is defended by Elizabeth Castle (1551-86), on a rock...
-St Kitts - St Neots
St Kitts St Kitts. See St Christopher. St Leonards-on-Sea St Leonards-on-Sea (St Len'nards). See Hastings. St L6 St L6, a town of Normandy, dep. Manche, is built on a rocky elevation on the r...
-St Nicolas - St Servan
St Nicolas St Nicolas, a town of Belgium, 12 miles by rail W. by S. of Antwerp. It has a large flax-market, and manufactures cotton and woollen stuffs, lace, needles, bricks, and pottery. Pop. 32,000...
-St Trond - Salerno
St Trond St Trond, a manufacturing town of Belgian Limburg, 12 miles WNW. of Tongres. St Ubes St Ubes. See Setubal. St Valery St Valery, two French watering-places on the English Channel, one...
-Salette - Salta
Salette Salette, La, an Alpine village of France, dep. Isere, 28 miles SSE. of Grenoble. In 1846 the Virgin was alleged to have appeared to two peasant children on a spot where in 1852-61 a pilgrimag...
-Saltaire - Salween
Saltaire Saltaire, a model village of Yorkshire, on the Aire, 3 miles NW. of Bradford, founded and built by Sir Titus Salt, who opened his worsted and alpaca factory here in 1853. This factory covers...
-Salzbrunn - Samothrace
Salzbrunn Salzbrunn (Sahltz'broon), a group of three villages in Prussian Silesia, 40 miles by rail SW. of Breslau. Their eight mineral springs attract nearly 4000 visitors in the season. The alkalo-...
-Samso - Sandgate
Samso Samso, a Danish island in the entrance to the Great Belt, between Zealand and Jutland. Area, 42 sq. m.; pop. 6600. Samsun Samsun, a seaport, with growing trade, on the Black Sea coast of As...
-Sandhurst - San Felipe
Sandhurst Sandhurst. See Bendigo. Sandhurst Military College Sandhurst Military College, Berkshire, 5 miles SSE. of Wokingham and 33 WSW. of London, dates from 1799, was transferred from Great Ma...
-San Fernando - San Luis Potosi
San Fernando San Fernando, a Spanish town, near the head of a bay, 9 miles SSE. of Cadiz. Pop. 29,920. San Francisco del Rincon San Francisco del Rincon, a town of Mexico, 40 miles W. of Guanajua...
-San Marco in Lamis - San Salvador
San Marco in Lamis San Marco in Lamis, a town of South Italy, 18 miles N. of Foggia. Pop. 15,345. San Marino San Marino (Maree'no), an Italian republic, the smallest independent state of Europe, ...
-Sansanding - Santander
Sansanding Sansanding, or Sansandig, a town of Africa, on the Niger's left bank, 370 miles SW. of Tim-buctoo. Pop. 20,000. San Sebastian San Sebastian, a fortress and seaport in the north of Spai...
-Santarem - Santorin
Santarem Santarem (San-ta-reng), capital of the Portuguese province of Estremadura, on the Tagus' right bank, 46 miles NE. of Lisbon by rail. An old Moorish castle, crowning a hill was the ancient re...
-Santos - Saratoff
Santos Santos, a port of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil, founded in 1546, on the island of Sao Vicente. It has fine wharves, tramways, and a good water-supply; but it is hot and unhealthy. A railwa...
-Saratoga Springs - Saskatchewan
Saratoga Springs Saratoga Springs, one of the chief watering-places in the United States, is on a monotonous plateau in New York, 38 miles by rail N. of Albany. It contains about 30 mineral springs, ...
-Sassari - Savigliano
Sassari Sassari (Sass'aree), a eity of NW. Sardinia, 12 miles by rail from its port, Porto Torres (pop. 4500), on the Gulf of Asinara, and 162 miles N. by W. of Cagliari. It has a cathedral (1531), c...
-Savona - Schassburg
Savona Savo'na, a seaport of Italy, on the Gulf of Genoa, 26 miles by rail S. by W. of Genoa and 91 SSE. of Turin. A handsome modern town embowered in orange-groves, it has a Renaissance cathedral (1...
-Schaumburg-Lippe - Schlettstadt
Schaumburg-Lippe Schaumburg-Lippe (Showm'boorg-Lippeh), a sovereign German principality, lying between Westphalia and Hanover. Area, 131 sq. m.; pop. (1900) 43,132, mostly Lutherans. Some coal is ext...
-Schlusselburg - Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
Schlusselburg Schlusselburg (Schleess'elboorg), a town (pop. 5542) and prison-fortress of Russia, the fortress being on a rocky islet in the Neva where it issues from Lake Ladoga. Here Ivan VI. was m...
-Schwarzwald - Scone
Schwarzwald Schwarzwald (Shvartzvalt). See Black Forest. Schwedt Schwedt (Shvayt), a town in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the Oder, 28 miles SSW. of Stettin, the residence of the marg...
-Scotsbrig - Seattle
Scotsbrig Scotsbrig, a Dumfriesshire farm, 3 miles NE. of Ecclefechan, the home (1826) of the Carlyles. Scrabster Scrabster. See Thurso. Scranton Scranton, a city of Pennsylvania, the capital...
-Sebenico - Segovia
Sebenico Sebenico (Seb-en-ee'ko; Slav. Sibenik), a picturesque town of Austrian Dalmatia, stands on a landlocked bay of the Adriatic, 43 miles by rail NW. of Spalato. The chief ornament of the place ...
-Segu - Selby
Segu Segu, or Segu-Sikoro, an important trading town of western Africa, stands on the Niger (here called the Joliba), 400 miles SW. of Timbuctoo; once the capital of a large native state, now practic...
-Selenga - Semipalatinsk
Selenga Selenga, a river (740 miles) of Mongolia and Siberia, flowing by three arms into Lake Baikal. It is navigable in summer for 200 miles from the Chinese frontier, and steamers ply on it. Sel...
-Semiretchinsk - Senlis
Semiretchinsk Semiretchinsk', a province of Asiatic Russia, having East Turkestan on the SE., and Lake Balkash on the N., is a mountainous region, being crossed from east to west by the Ala-tau and T...
-Sennaar - Seringapatam
Sennaar Sennaar, Sennar, or Senaar, a city of the Eastern Soudan, on the Blue Nile, 160 miles SSE. of Khartoum. Pop. 8000. It is the chief town of a district lying between the Blue and the White Nile...
-Seringham - Sfax
Seringham Seringham (Srirangam), a town in the Madras Presidency, on an island in the Kaveri, 11 miles W. of Trichinopoly, with a great temple of Vishnu, a vast complex of halls and colossal gateways...
-Shadwell - Shapinshay
Shadwell Shadwell, a parish, now included in Tower Hamlets (q.v.). Shaftesbury Shaftesbury (locally Shaston), a very ancient municipal borough in Dorsetshire, 3 miles SSW. of Semley station and 2...
-Shari - Sheppey
Shari Shari (Shah'ree). See Chad, Lake. Sharon Sharon, an extensive tract of plain and corn-land in Palestine, lying between the sand-dunes of the coast and the foot-hills of the interior, and ex...
-Shepton Mallet - Shikarpur
Shepton Mallet Shepton Mallet (locally Shep'un), an ancient market-town of Somerset, 5 miles ESE. of Wells and 15 SSW. of Bath. It has an hexagonal market-cross of 1500, 51 feet high; a church with a...
-Shikoku - Shirwa
Shikoku Shikoku. See Japan. Shildon Shildon, a Durham town, 3 miles SSE. of Bishop Auckland, with neighbouring quarries and coal-mines. Pop., with East Thickley, 11,760. Shilka Shilka. See Am...
-Shisdra - Shreveport
Shisdra Shisdra, a town of Russia, 80 miles SW. of Kaluga, on a branch of the Oka. Pop. 11,678. Shoa Sho'a, a mountainous country of Africa, usually accounted one of the three divisions of Abyssi...
-Shrubland Hall - Sidmoutn
Shrubland Hall Shrubland Hall, a Suffolk seat, with splendid gardens, 3 miles SE. of Needham Market. Shumla Shumla (Shoom'la), a strongly fortified city of Bulgaria, 56 miles by rail W. by N. of ...
-Sidon - Sikkim
Sidon Si'don (Heb. Zidon), anciently a city of Phoenicia, situated on the east coast of the Mediterranean, half-way between Tyre and Beyrout. The present town of Saida, which was stormed by the allie...
-Sikrol - Simla
Sikrol Sikrol, or Secrole, a W. suburb of Benares. Silbury Hill. See Avebury. Silchester Sil'chester, a village in the extreme north of Hampshire, 7 miles N. of Basingstoke, famous for the remain...
-Simonoseki - Sion
Simonoseki Simonoseki. See Shimonoseki. Simons Town Simon's Town (pop. 5000), on Simon's Bay. See Cape Colony. Simplon(Fr. pron. Sangplong; Ital. Sempione), a Swiss mountain-pass (6594 feet high...
-Sion House - Skegness
Sion House Sion House. See Isleworth. Siout Siout, or Asioot (anc. Lycopolis), the chief city of Upper Egypt, stands near the Nile's west bank, 200 miles by rail south of Cairo. It has several mo...
-Skelligs - Slaithwaite
Skelligs Skelligs, three rocky islands on the south-west coast of Ireland, 10 miles SW. of Valentia. On one of the rocks is a lighthouse, and on Great Skellig (710 feet high) a ruined monastery. S...
-Slaney - Smolensk
Slaney Slaney, a river of Leinster, flowing 60 miles SW. and S. to Wexford Harbour. Slateford Slateford, a village 2 miles SW. of Edinburgh. Pop. 576. Slatwoods Slatwoods. See Cowes. Slave...
-Snaith - Socotra
Snaith Snaith, a town of Yorkshire, on the Aire, 7 miles W. by S. of Goole. Pop. 1647. Snake River Snake River, the largest affluent of the Columbia River, rises among the Rocky Mountains near th...
-Sodbury - Soissons
Sodbury Sodbury. See Chipping Sodbury. Soderhamn Soderhamn, a Swedish seaport, on the Gulf of Bothnia, 13 miles N. of Gefle. Pop. 11,500. Sodom and Gomorrah Sodom and Gomorrah, two ancient ci...
-Sokoto - Somersworth
Sokoto Sok'oto, a Central African state, bounded by the Sahara, the rivers Niger and the Benuwe, and Bornu. Since 1900 Sokoto has been included in the northern part of the British protectorate of Nig...
-Somerton - Sora
Somerton Somerton, a town of Somerset, on the Cary, 5 miles ENE. of Langport. Pop. of parish, 1962. Somerville Somerville, a city of Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston, 2 miles from the central st...
-Sorata - South Georgia
Sorata Sorata (Sorah'ta), a volcanic peak (21,470 feet) of the Bolivian Andes, E. of Lake Titicaca. Sorau Sorau (Zo-row), a town of Prussia, 60 miles by rail SSE. of Frankfort-on-the-Oder. Pop. 1...
-South Island - Spalding
South Island South Island, the southern of the two larger islands of New Zealand (q.v.). South Kensington South Kensington. See Kensington. South Molton South Molton, a municipal borough (159...
-Spandau - Spey
Spandau Spandau (au as ow in now), a town and first-class fortress of Prussia, at the confluence of the Havel and the Spree, 8 miles by rail W. by N. of Berlin. The principal defence of the capital o...
-Speyer - Spree
Speyer Speyer. See Spires. Spice Islands Spice Islands. See Moluccas. Spicheren Spicheren (Spihh'er-en), or Speichern, a village on the frontiers of Prussia and Lorraine, 2 miles S. of Saarbr...
-Spurn Head - Stalybridge
Spurn Head Spurn Head, a promontory stretching 2 1/2 miles into the mouth of the Humber (q.v.), and forming the south-eastern extremity of Yorkshire. It has two lighthouses. Between 1771, when Smeato...
-Stamboul - Staunton
Stamboul Stamboul (Stambool'). See Constantinople. Stamford Bridge Stamford Bridge, a Yorkshire village, on the Derwent, 9 1/4 miles NE. of York. Here Harold routed Harold Haarfager (1066). St...
-Stavanger - Stettin
Stavanger Stavanger (Stah'vang-er), the chief town of SW. Norway, on the S. side of Bukken Fjord, 100 miles S. of Bergen. It has two harbours, and derives its importance from the fisheries of the adj...
-Steubenville - Stockton
Steubenville Steubenville (Steio'ben-vil), capital of Jefferson county, Ohio, on the Ohio River, 68 miles below Pittsburgh (by railway 43), with blast-furnaces, rolling-mills, machine and railway sho...
-Stoke-Poges - Stony Stratford
Stoke-Poges Stoke-Poges (Pogis), a village of Buckinghamshire, 2 miles N. of Slough station. Gray's mother settled here in 1742; the beautiful churchyard is the scene of his Elegy, and in that church...
-Stormont - Strabane
Stormont Stormont. See Perthshire. Stormontfield Stormontfield, a Tayside village, 4 1/2 miles N. of Perth, with salmon-breeding ponds (1853). Stornoway Stor'noway, a seaport and important fi...
-Stradbroke - Strathclyde
Stradbroke Stradbroke, a Suffolk town, Bishop Grosse-teste's birthplace, 5 1/2 miles E. of Eye. Pop. 1069. Stralsund Stralsund (Stral-soont'), a seaport of Prussia, on the narrow Strela Sound, wh...
-Strathcona - Strontian
Strathcona Strathcona, a village of Alberta, Canada, on the Canadian Pacific Railway, named from the Canadian magnate, Lord Strathcona. Pop. 1600. Strathearn Strathearn. See Earn. Strathfields...
-Stroud - Suakin
Stroud Stroud, a manufacturing and market town of Gloucestershire, 10 miles SSE. of Gloucester, on an eminence in a valley sheltered by the Cotes-wolds, where the Frome and Slade rivulets unite to fo...
-Subiaco - Suliman Hills
Subiaco Subiaco (Soobyah'ko; anc. Sublaqueum), a city of Italy, lies embosomed in hills beside the Teverone, 32 miles E. by N. of Rome. It was the cradle of the Benedictine order and the place where ...
-Sulina - Sundarbans
Sulina Sulina (Soolet'na), a lower branch of the Danube (q.v.). The Roumanian town of Sulina (pop. 5000) is on its S. bank, near the mouth. Sulmona Sulmo'na, or Solmona, a city of Italy, 80 miles...
-Sundsvall - Sutlej
Sundsvall Sundsvall (Soonds-val), a Swedish seaport, on the Gulf of Bothnia, 80 miles N. by W. of Stockholm, and 290 by rail E. by S. of Trondhjem in Norway, has ironworks and sawmills. It was almost...
-Sutors of Cromarty - Swanage
Sutors of Cromarty Sutors of Cromarty. See Cromarty. Sutton Sutton, a town and urban district in Surrey, 11 miles from London. Pop. (1901) 17,224. Sutton Bridge Sutton Bridge, a town of Linco...
-Swanee River - Syene
Swanee River Swanee River. See Suwanee. Swanetia Swanetia. See Caucasus. Swan River Swan River. See Western Australia. Swatow Swatow, a Chinese seaport, opened to foreign trade since 1869...
-Sylhet - Szolnok
Sylhet Sylhet (Seel'het), or Srihatta, a British district in the extreme south of Assam (q.v.). Area, 5414 sq. m.; pop. 2,000,000. The chief town, Sylhet, on the Surma River, has a pop. of 15,000. ...
-TABASCO - Tagus
TABASCO TABASCO, a Gulf state of Mexico, named from a river running to Campeachy Bay. Area, 10,072 sq. m.; pop. 160,000. Table Mountain Table Mountain. See Capetown. Taboga Taboga. See Panama...
-Tahlequah - Tampa
Tahlequah Tahlequah, a small Cherokee town in the U. S. Indian Territory, 1 mile from the Illinois River. Taimyr Taimyr. See Chelyuskin. Tain Tain (Scand. Thing, 'a place of assembly'), an an...
-Tampico - Tappington Court
Tampico Tampi'co (i as ee), a Mexican seaport, on the Panuco, 9 miles from the Gulf of Mexico, and 200 miles NNE. of Mexico. Pop. 16,000. Tamsui Tamsui. See Formosa. Tana Tana, a river of Bri...
-Taprobane - Tarifa
Taprobane Taprobane (Tap-rob'a-nee). See Ceylon. Tapti Tapti (Taptee), a river of Bombay, rises in the Central Provinces, and flows 450 miles W. to the Gulf of Cambay, 17 miles below Surat. Ta...
-Tarik - Tatar-Bazardjik
Tarik Tarik. See Gibraltar. Tarim River Tarim River. See Turkestan (Eastern). Tarn Tarn, a hilly, well-wooded dep. of S. France, named after the river Tarn, an affluent of the Garonne. Area, ...
-Tati - Tehuantepec
Tati Tati. See Matabeleland. Tattershall Tattershall, a Lincolnshire market-town, on the Bain, 9 miles SSW. of Horncastle. Pop. 474. Taunus Mountains Taunus Mountains. See Hesse-Nassau. Ta...
-Teifi - Tenby
Teifi Teifi, a river of South Wales, flowing 50 miles to Cardigan Bay. Teignmouth Teignmouth (Tinmuth), a Devon seaport and watering-place, 12 miles (by rail 15) S. of Exeter, on the N. side of t...
-Tene - Terschelling
Tene Tene, La, near the north end of the Lake of Neuchatel (q.v.), was the seat of a characteristic type of prehistoric culture. Tenedos Ten'edos (Bosdscha Ada), a rocky Turkish island in the Aeg...
-Teschen - Tharsis
Teschen Teschen (Tay'shen), a town of Austrian Silesia, 35 miles ESE. of Troppau. Pop. 23,000. Tessin. See Ticino. Tetbury Tetbury, an old market-town of Gloucestershire, 5 miles NW. of Malmesbur...
-Thasos - Thionville
Thasos Tha'sos, the most northerly island in the Aegean, near the coast of Macedonia. Area, 167 sq. m.; pop. 12,000, almost all Greeks. The surface is covered with wooded hills (Hypsaria, 3428 feet)....
-Thirlestane Castle - Thourout
Thirlestane Castle Thirlestane Castle. See Lauder. Thirlmere Thirlmere, a narrow sheet of water in the heart of the Lake District (q.v.), lying 533 feet above sea-level, between Derwentwater and ...
-Thousand Islands - Thurso
Thousand Islands Thousand Islands. See St Lawrence. Thrace Thrace, a name used by the ancients somewhat vaguely for a large region to the west of the Euxine (Black Sea), so as to include the whol...
-Thyatira - Tien-tsin
Thyatira Thyati'ra. See Ak-hissar. Tian-sban Tian-sban (Tee-an-shan'; 'Celestial Mountains'), a great mountain-system, consisting of several ridges, mostly parallel, in central Asia, extends from...
-Tiffin - Tillicoultry
Tiffin Tiffin, capital of Seneca county, Ohio, on the Sandusky River, 43 miles by rail SSE. of Toledo. It is the seat of Heidelberg College (Reformed Church; 1851), and manufactures farming implement...
-Tillietudlem - Tinto
Tillietudlem Tillietudlem. See Craignethan. Tilsit Til'sit, a town of East Prussia, on the left bank of the Memel or Niemen, 65 miles NE. of Konigsberg by rail. Here was signed, on an island in t...
-Tippecanoe - Tivoli
Tippecanoe Tippecanoe (Tip'pehkanoo'), a river of Indiana, which rises in the north, flows 200 miles WSW. and S., and empties into the Wabash 10 miles above Lafayette. In a battle near its mouth, in ...
-Tlaxcala - Tokat
Tlaxcala Tlaxcala (Tlaskah'la), the smallest state of Mexico. Area, 1506 sq. m.; population, 175,000. The capital, Tlaxcala, stands 7300 feet above the sea; pop. 2850. Tlemcen Tlemcen (Tlem-sen')...
-Tokay - Tonquin
Tokay Tokay, the centre of a wine-growing district in Hungary, 130 miles NE. of Pesth. Pop. 5500. Tokushima Tokushima, the largest town of Shikoku, Japan, on the NE. coast. Pop. 65,300. Tolent...
-Tonsberg - Torres-Vedras
Tonsberg Tonsberg, an old Norwegian seaport, 71 miles SW. of Christiania by rail. Pop. 8650. Toombudra Toombudra (correctly, Tungabhadra) rises in the south-west of Mysore, and flows 400 miles NE...
-Torridge - Tournay
Torridge Torridge, a Devon stream, flowing 37 miles to the Taw at Bideford Bay. Torrington Torrington, Great, a market-town of North Devon, on an eminence sloping to the Torridge, 10 miles (by ra...
-Towcester - Trapani
Towcester Towcester, a town, on the Tove, 8 1/4 miles SSW. of Northampton. Pop. of parish, 2775. Tower Hamlets Tower Hamlets, originally certain parishes, hamlets, and liberties without the City ...
-Trappe - Treguier
Trappe Trappe, La, a narrow valley in the Norman dep. of Orne, near Mortagne. Its Cistercian abbey (12th c.) was reformed in 1662 by the Abbe de Rance into the rigorous Trappist community. Traquai...
-Treig - Trincomalee
Treig Treig (Traig), Loch, a loch of SW. Inverness-shire, 5 1/8 miles long, 3/4 mile wide, and 784 feet above sea-level. Mountains, 2000 to 3658 feet high, overhang it, and it is skirted by the West ...
-Trinidad - Trowbridge
Trinidad Trinidad, a small Brazilian island in the Atlantic, in 20 30' S. lat., and 700 miles E. of the coast of Brazil, reported to contain pirates' buried treasure. See Knight's Cruise of the ...
-Troyes - Tsu-shima
Troyes Troyes (Trwah), a town of France, the capital formerly of the province of Champagne, and now of the dep. of Aube, on the Seine's left bank, 104 miles ESE. of Paris by rail. In spite of moderni...
-Tuam - Tulle
Tuam Tuam (Too'am), a town of County Galway, 130 miles NW. of Dublin by rail, on a branch of the Clare. It is the seat of a R. C. archbishop and of an Anglican bishop. Pop. 2890. Tubingen Tubinge...
-Tullow - Turnberry
Tullow Tullow, a market-town, 9 miles SE. of Carlow. Pop. 1723. Tummel Tummel. See Rannoch. Tunbrldge Tunbrldge, or Tonbridge, a market-town of Kent, 29 1/2 miles SE. of London, stands on the...
-Turnhout - Twickenham
Turnhout Turnhout (Tyrn-howt'), a town of Belgium, 26 miles ENE. of Antwerp. It has a palais de justice (1371), and manufactures of cotton, linen, lace, paper, etc. Pop. 21,000. Turriff Turriff, ...
-Tyldesley - Uffculme
Tyldesley Tyldesley, a town of Lancashire, 10 miles NW. of Manchester, with cotton-mills and collieries. Pop., with Shakerley, 14,891. Tyndrum Tyndrum (Tine-drum'), a Perthshire village, 36 1/2 m...
-Ugbrooke Park - Ulverston
Ugbrooke Park Ugbrooke Park, Devon, the seat of Lord Clifford of Chudleigh, l 1/2 mile SSE. of Chudleigh. Uglitch Uglitch (u as oo), a town of Russia, on the Volga, 58 miles W. by 8. of Jaroslav....
-Ulvrar - Ural
Ulvrar Ulvrar. See Alwak. Uman Uman (Oo-man), a town of Russia, 120 miles S. of Kieff, on the Umanka. Pop. 28,630. Umballa Umbal'la, or Amba'la, a city of the Punjab, 150 miles N. by W. of De...
-Uralsk - Urumtsi
Uralsk Uralsk (Ooralsk), a Russian town, on the Ural's right bank, 280 miles N. of its mouth in the Caspian Sea. Pop. 40,000. - Area of Uralsk government, 139,168 sq. m.; pop. 692,500. Urbana Urb...
-Usagara - Uxbridge
Usagara Usagara (Oosagah'ra), a territory in German East Africa, between Tanganyika and the coast. Usedom Usedom (Oo'zeh-dom), a Prussian island at the mouth of the Oder, shutting off the Stettin...
-Uxmal - Valleyfield
Uxmal Uxmal (u as oo), a ruined city in the NW. of Yucatan, 40 miles SW. of Merida, with vast remains of ancient grandeur, temple-terraces, &c VAA.L (Vahl), a river of South Africa, rises in the D...
-Vallombrosa - Varese
Vallombrosa Vallombro'sa ('shady Valley'), a celebrated abbey among the Apennines, 15 miles E. of Florence, in a valley surrounded with forests of fir, beech, and chestnut trees. Here an order of Ben...
-Varinas - Ventimiglia
Varinas Varinas (Vareenas), a town of Venezuela, 100 miles SE. of Lake Maracaybo. Pop. 7000. Varna Varna, a Bulgarian Black Sea port, 115 miles SE. of Rustchuk by rail. The French and British enc...
-Ventnor - Vesuvius
Ventnor Vent'nor, the principal town on the south shore of the Isle of Wight, 11 miles by rail S. by W. of Ryde. Situated amid the finest of the fine scenery of the Undercliff, it has a southern expo...
-Veszprim - Vicksburg
Veszprim Veszprim (Vess-preem), a Hungarian city, 25 miles SW. of Stuhlweissenburg. Pop. 14,584. Vevay Vev'ay, or Vevey (Ger. Vivis), a Swiss town in the canton of Vaud, a lovely health-resort, o...
-Victoria Falls - Vilna
Victoria Falls Victoria Falls. See Zambesi. Victoria Lake Victoria Lake, or Alexandrine Lake, a shallow lake of South Australia. See Murray. Victoria Nyanza Victoria Nyanza (y consonantal), a...
-Vimeiro - Vistula
Vimeiro Vimeiro (Vee-may-eefro), also spelt Vimiera, a Portuguese town (pop. 1800), 30 miles N. of Lisbon, where in 1808 Wellington defeated Junot. Vinaroz Vinaroz (Veenaroth'), a port of Spain, ...
-Vitebsk - Voil
Vitebsk Vitebsk', capital of a government of W. Russia, on the Western Dwina, 380 miles S. of St Petersburg by rail. Pop. 65,880 (many Jews). - Area of government, 17,440 sq. m.; pop. 1,489,250. V...
-Voiron - Vyrnwy
Voiron Voiron (Vwah-rong'), a town of the French dep. Isere, 15 miles NW. of Grenoble. Pop. 8287. Volhynia Volhynia (Volhee'nia), a government of W. Russia; area, 27,743 sq. m., or larger than Gr...
-Waal - Walcheren
Waal Waal (Waul). See Rhine. Wabash Wabash (Waw'bash), capital of Wabash county, Indiana, on the Wabash River, 89 miles by rail NNE. of Indianapolis. Pop. 8620. - The Wabash River rises in wester...
-Wald - Walsham
Wald Wald, a town of Rhenish Prussia, 7 miles SW. of Elberfeld, with ironworks. Pop. 19,600. Waldeck Waldeck (w as v), or Waldeck-Pyrmont, a small German principality controlled since 1867 by Pru...
-Walsingham - Ware
Walsingham Wal'singham, a small town of one long street and 1000 inhabitants in the north of Norfolk, 5 miles N. by E. of Fakenham. The ruined Augus-tinian priory (1016) contained a famous image of '...
-Wareham - Wash
Wareham Wareham, a small but very ancient market-town of Dorsetshire, stands between the rivers Piddle and Frome, 15 miles E. of Dorchester. It was a British town, and afterwards a Roman station, and...
-Washita - Watling Street
Washita Washita (Wosh-e-taw'), a tributary of the Red River (q.v.), noted for its whetstones. Wast Water Wast Water, Cumberland, 14 miles SSW. of Keswick, is a lake 3 miles long, 1/2 mile wide, 2...
-Watlington - Weimar
Watlington Watlington, a market-town of Oxfordshire, 8 miles NE. of Wallingford. Pop. of parish, 1734. Watton Watton, a Norfolk market-town, 12 miles N. of Thetford. Near it is Wayland Wood, the ...
-Weissenburg - Wembly
Weissenburg Weissenburg (Vice'en-boorg). See Wissem-bourg. Weissenfels Weissenfels (Vice'en-fels), a town of Prussian Saxony, 35 miles SW. of Leipzig. Pop. 28,200. Welbeck Abbey Welbeck Abbey...
-Wemyss - Weser
Wemyss Wemyss (Weemz; Gael. Uaimh, 'a cave'), a S. coast parish of Fife, 2 miles NE. of Dysart, containing the villages of East and West Wemyss, with pops. of 2550 and 1260. Wemyss Bay Wemyss Bay...
-Wessex - West Prussia
Wessex Wessex, the ancient kingdom of the West Saxons, comprising Berks, Hants, Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall. Mr Thomas Hardy, whose native county is Dorsetshire, has made the name on...
-Westray - Wheeling
Westray Westray, an Orkney Island, 10 1/2 miles NNE. of Pomona. Area, 24 1/4 sq. m.; greatest height, 556 feet; pop. 1956. Westward Ho Westward Ho, on the coast of North Devon, 2 1/2 miles W. of ...
-Whickham - White Sea
Whickham Whickham, a manufacturing town of Durham, 3 1/2 miles SW. of Gateshead. Pop. 12,852. Whidah Whidah. See Dahomey. Whitadder Whit'adder, a Berwickshire stream, flowing 34 miles to the ...
-White Sulphur Springs - Widnes
White Sulphur Springs White Sulphur Springs, a watering-place of West Virginia, 227 miles by rail W. of Richmond. Whithorn Whithorn, a royal burgh in Wigtownshire, 3 1/4 miles NW. of the Isle of ...
-Wieliczka - Williamsport
Wieliczka Wieliczka (Vyay-litch'ka), a town of Austrian Galicia, 10 miles SE. of Cracow by rail, with remarkable salt-mines. Pop. 6289. Wiener-Neustadt Wiener-Neustadt, a manufacturing town of Lo...
-Willimantic - Wimborne
Willimantic Willimantic, a borough of Connecticut, 31 miles by rail E. by S. of Hartford, with large cotton, silk, woollen, and tin factories, etc, driven by the Willimantic River, which here falls 1...
-Wimmera - Winnipeg
Wimmera Wim'mera. See Victoria. Wincanton Wincanton, a Somerset town, on the Cale, 5 miles SSE. of Bruton. Pop. of parish, 2109. Winceby Winceby. See Horncastle. Winchcomb Winchcomb, a Gl...
-Winona - Witham
Winona Wino'na, capital of Winona county, Minnesota, on the right bank of the Mississippi, 103 miles by rail SE. of St Paul. It has flour and saw mills, foundries, carriage, barrel, and sash factorie...
-Withernsea - Wolfenbuttel
Withernsea Withernsea, a watering-place in the East Riding of Yorkshire, 4 miles NE. of Patrington. Withington Withington, a S. suburb of Manchester. Witney Witney, a town of Oxfordshire, on ...
-Wolf Rock - Woonsocket
Wolf Rock Wolf Rock, 8 miles SSW. of Land's End, has a lighthouse (1862-69) 116 1/2 feet high. Wolgast Wolgast (w as v), a Pomeranian seaport, on the Peene, 10 miles from its mouth in the Baltic,...
-Wooster - Wrath
Wooster Wooster, a town of Ohio, on Killbuck Creek, 135 miles W. by N. of Pittsburgh, with a Presbyterian university (1866). Pop. 6060. Wootton Bassett Wootton Bassett, a market-town of Wilts, 6 ...
-Wratza - Wye
Wratza Wratza (Vratz'a), a town of Bulgaria, 43 miles NE. of Sofia. Pop. 10,924. Wrekin Wrekin (Ree'kin). See Shropshire. Wrexham Wrexham (Rex'am), a town of Denbighshire, called sometimes th...
-Wyke Regis - Yakutsk
Wyke Regis Wyke Regis, a Dorset village, 2 miles WSW. of Weymouth. Wylam Wylam, a Northumbrian village, 8 1/4 miles W. of Newcastle. George Stephenson was a native. Wymondham Wymondham (Wind'...
-Yalta - Yell
Yalta Yalta, a Crimean seaport, 3 miles E. of Livadia (q.v.). Pop. 13,300. Yalu Yalu, the frontier-river between Corea and Manchuria, flowing 300 miles SW. to the Bay of Corea. The passage was fo...
-Yellala Falls - Yonkers
Yellala Falls Yellala Falls (Yel-lah'la), the lowest of a series of falls or rapids which interrupt the navigation of the Congo (q.v.) near Vivi, 110 miles from the mouth of the river. Yellow Rive...
-Yonne - Yucatan
Yonne Yonne (Yon), a dep. of NE. Fiance. Area, 2868 sq. m.; pop. (1886) 355,364; (1901) 321,062. Its arrondissements are Auxerre (the capital), Avallon, Joigny, Sens, Tonnerre. York Peninsula Yor...
-Yukon - Zahringen
Yukon Yu'kon, the great river of Alaska, is formed by the junction of the Lewis and Pelly at Fort Selkirk, in British territory (62 45' N. lat.), and flows 2000 miles W. across Alaska into Behri...
-Zama - Zaruma
Zama Za'ma, a city and fortress in Numidia, about 100 miles SW. of Carthage, near which Hannibal was defeated by the Younger Scipio, 201 B.C. Zambesia Zambesia, a name for that portion of the ter...
-Zea - Zermatt
Zea Zea. See Ceos. Zealand Zealand (Dutch Zeeland), a province of the Netherlands, consists of portions of Flanders (East and West) and of the islands Walcheren, North Beveland, South Beveland, S...
-Zetland - Zoar
Zetland Zetland. See Shetland. Zettinye Zettin'ye. See Cetinje. Zeulenroda Zeulenroda (Tzoilenro'da), a town of Reuss-Greiz, 51 miles SSW. of Leipzig. Pop. 8970. Zeyla Zeyla. See Somali-l...
-Zola - Zvenigorodka
Zola Zo'la, a town on the upper Benue (q.v.). Zomba Zomba. See Nyassa. Zombor Zombor (z as tz), a royal free town of Hungary, capital of the district of Bacs, 42 miles NE. of Essek by rail. P...
-Etymology Of Place-Names
THE following are the more important significant syllables or words that enter into the composition of the names (especially British) of rivers, mountains, towns, etc.: A (A.S. ea, Ice. -aa), 'a stre...
-Etymology Of Place-Names. Continued
Halen Halen (Celt.), 'salt;' as Hallein, Haling. Hall (Teut.),' a stone house;' as Eccleshall, Walsall; (in Germany) a salt-work, as Halle. Ham (A.S., Ger. heim), 'a home;' as Buckingham, Hochheim. H...
-Conversion Of Kilometres And Miles
Kilometres Into Miles Kilom. Miles. Yds. 1/4............................................................................. 0 273 1/2...........................
-Differences Of Time Between London (Greenwich) And Various Important Places On The Globe
When it is twelve o'clock noon When it is twelve o'clock noon, in Greenwich mean time, the hour (local time) is as follows at: Hours. Min. Amsterdam.........................
-The Earth, Its Dimensions, Mass, Distribution Of Surface, Distance From The Sun, &C
Meridional circumference.......... 24,856 miles. Equatorial circumference................................... 24,899 ,, Equatorial mean diameter..........................
-Population Of The Earth According To Wagner And Supan
Europe (without Iceland, Atlantic islands, etc.) 357,379,000 Asia (without the Polar Islands)........................ 825,954,000 Africa (without Madagascar, etc.)......
-Numbers Professing The Chief Faiths Of The World
Buddhists........................................................... 500,000,000 Hindus........................................................... 160,000,000 Mohamme...
-Distances From London By Rail, With The Approximate Duration Of The Journey By Express
Miles. Days. Hrs. Aix-la-Chapelle.................................... 339 . . 11 1/2 Basel.................................................... ...
-Distances By Sea In Nautical Miles
(1 nautical mile = 1.151 statute mile.) Brindisi to Alexandria........................................... 836 ,, ,, Athens........................................
-Dates Of Geographical Enterprise And Discovery
Hanno the Carthaginian off Sierra Leone...................... B.C. 470 Alexander the Great in the Punjab................................. 327 Nearchus in the Indian O...









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