The chief difference between Birds and Reptiles as regards the course of circulation is, that in the Birds the two sides of the heart are completely separated from one another, the blood sent to the lungs being exclusively venous, whereas that which is sent to the body is exclusively arterial. In Reptiles, on the other hand, the pulmonary and systemic circulations are connected together either in, or in the immediate neighbourhood of, the heart; so that mixed venous and arterial blood is propelled both through the lungs and through every part of the body.

In accordance with their extended respiration and high muscular activity, the complete separation of the greater and lesser circulations, and the perfect structure of the heart, Birds maintain a higher average temperature than is the case with any other class of the Vertebrata. This result is also to a considerable extent conditioned by the non-conducting nature of the combined down and feathers which form the integumentary covering of Birds.

The urinary organs of Birds consist of two elongated kidneys, and two ureters, but there is no urinary bladder. The ureters open into the cloaca, or into a small urogenital sac which communicates with the cloaca.

As regards the reproductive organs, the males have two testes placed above the upper extremities of the kidneys, and their efferent ducts (vasa deferentia) open into the cloaca alongside of the ureters. A male organ (penis) may or may not be present, but there is no perfect urethra. The female bird is provided with only one ovary and oviduct - that of the left side - the corresponding organs of the right side being rudimentary or absent. The oviduct is very long and tortuous, and the egg, during its passage through it, receives the albuminous covering which serves for the nutrition of the embryo, and which is known as the "white" of the egg. The lower portion of the oviduct is dilated, and the egg receives here the calcareous covering which constitutes the "shell." Finally, the oviduct debouches into the cloaca, into which the egg, when ready, is expelled. The further development of the chick is secured by the process of "incubation" or brooding, for which birds are peculiarly adapted, in consequence of the high temperature of their bodies.

The development of the ovum belongs to physiology, and does not concern us here. It is sufficient to notice the means by which the chick is ultimately enabled to escape from the egg. When development has reached a stage at which external life is possible, it is of course necessary for the chick to be liberated from the egg, the shell of which is often extremely hard and resistant. To this end the young bird is provided with a little calcareous knob on the point of the upper mandible, and by means of this it chips out an aperture through the shell, at its blunt end. Having effected its purpose, this temporary appendage then disappears, without leaving a trace behind.

The state of the young upon exclusion from the egg is very different in different cases, and in accordance with this, Birds have been divided into the two sections of the Autophagi or Aves praecoces, and the Heterophagi or Aves altrices. In the Autophagi the young bird is able to run about and help itself from the moment of liberation from the egg. In the Heterophagi the young are born in a blind and naked state, unable to feed themselves, or even to maintain unassisted the necessary vital heat. In these birds, therefore, the young require to be brooded over and fed by the parents for a longer or shorter period after exclusion from the egg.

As regards their nervous system, the brain of Birds is relatively larger, especially as regards the size of the cerebrum proper, than the brain of Reptiles, but the chief mass of the latter consists of the corpora striata, and it does not cover the cerebellum. The cerebellum is less developed than in Mammals, the lateral lobes and Pons Varolii being rudimentary. The corpus callosum is absent, and the surface of the cerebral hemispheres is devoid of convolutions.

As regards the organs of the senses, the eyes are always well developed, and in no bird are they ever rudimentary or absent. The chief peculiarity of the eye is that the cornea forms a segment of a much smaller sphere than does the eyeball proper, so that the anterior part of the eye is obtusely conical, whilst the posterior portion is spheroidal. Another peculiarity is that the form of the eye is maintained by a ring of from thirteen to twenty bony plates, which are placed in the anterior portion of the sclerotic coat. Eyelashes are almost universally absent; but in addition to the ordinary upper and lower eyelids, Birds possess a third membranous eyelid - the "membrana nictitans" - which is sometimes pearly-white, sometimes more or less transparent.* This third eyelid is placed on the inner side of the eye, and possesses a special muscular apparatus, by which it can be drawn over the anterior surface of the eye, like a curtain, moderating the intensity of the light. As to the organ of hearing, most birds possess no external ear or concha, by which sounds can be collected and transmitted to the internal ear. In some birds, however, as in the Ostrich and Bustard, the external meatus auditorius is surrounded by a circle of feathers, which can be raised and depressed at will. The Nocturnal Birds, also, especially Owls, have the external meatus auditorius protected by a musculo-membranous valve, which foreshadows the cartilaginous concha of the majority of Mammals. The external nostrils in Birds are usually placed on the sides of the upper mandible, near its base, in the form of simple perforations, which sometimes communicate from side to side by the deficiency of the septum narium. In the singular Apteryx of New Zealand, the nostrils are placed at the extreme end or tip of the elongated upper mandible. Sometimes the nostrils are defended by bristles, and sometimes by a scale (Rasores). Taste must be absent, or almost absent, in the great majority of birds, the tongue being nothing more than a horny sheath surrounding a process of the hyoid bone, and serving for deglutition or to seize the prey. In the Parrots, however, the tongue is thick and fleshy, and some perception of taste may be present. Touch or tactile sensibility, too, as already remarked, is very poorly developed in Birds. The body is entirely, or almost entirely, covered with feathers; the anterior limbs are converted into wings, and rendered thereby useless as organs of touch; and the posterior limbs are covered with horny scales or feathers. The bill, certainly, officiates as an organ of touch, but it cannot possess any acute sensibility, as in most birds it is encased in a rigid horny sheath. In some birds, however, such as the common Duck, the texture of the bill is moderately soft, and it is richly supplied with filaments of the fifth nerve; so that in these cases the bill doubtless constitutes a tolerably efficient tactile organ. The "cere," too, or the fleshy scale found at the base of the bill in some birds, is in all probability also used as a tactile organ.