1. Trimera

Trimera. Tarsus three-jointed. Ex. Lady-birds (Coccinellidae).

2. Tetramera

Tetramera. Tarsus four-jointed. Ex. The Longicorn Beetles (Longicornia), the Weevils (Rhynchophora), etc.

3. Heteromera

Heteromera. Tarsus of the two anterior pairs of legs five-jointed, of the posterior pair four-jointed. Ex. The Blister Beetles (Can-tharidae), and the great family of the Tenebrionidae.

4. Pentamera

Pentamera. Tarsus five-jointed in all the legs. Ex. Soldierbeetles (Telephorus), Glow-worm (Lampyris), the Elateridae (the larvae known as "wire-worms") the beautiful Buprestidae, the great group of the Lamellicorn Beetles (such as the Stag-beetle, Cockchafer, Dung-beetle, &c), the Burying beetles (Necrophorus), the Devil's-coach-horses (Staphylinidae), the Water-beetles (Hydro-philidae and Dytiscidae), the Whirligigs (Gyrinidae), the Ground-beetles (Carabidae), and the Tiger-beetles (Cicindelidae).

LITERATURE. General Works.

1. "Glieder-fussler : Arthropoda," in 'Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs.' Gerstaecker.

2. "Regne Animal." Cuvier.

3. "Sur un nouveau rapprochement a etablir entre les classes qui composent le regne animal." Cuvier. 'Annales du Museum.' 1812.

4. "Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertebres." Lamarck. 1835-45.

5. "Handbuch der Zoologie." Carus und Gerstaecker. 1863.


6. Article "Crustacea," in 'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 9th ed. vol. vi.

Henry Woodward. 1877.

7. Article " Crustacea." 'Todd's Encyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology.' Milne-Edwards. 1835.

8. "Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces." Milne-Edwards. 1834-40.

9. "History of British Stalk-eyed Crustacea." Bell. 1853.

10. "History of British Sessile-eyed Crustacea." Spence Bate and J. O.

Westwood. 1863.

11. " Report on the present state of our Knowledge of Crustacea." Spence Bate. 'Brit. Assoc. Rep.' 1875.

12. "Crustacea of the United States' Exploring Expedition." Dana.


13. " Facts and Arguments for Darwin." Fritz Muller. English translation of "Fur Darwin " by W. S. Dallas. 1869.

14. " Monograph of the Cirripedia." Darwin. 'Ray Society.' " Lepadidae," 1851. " Balanidae," 1854.

15. "Fossil Lepadidae of Britain." Darwin. 'Palaeontographical Society.' 1851.

16. "Fossil Balanidae of Britain." Darwin. 'Palaeontographical Society.' 1854.

17. "On the Development of Lepas fascicularis and the 'Archizoea' of the Cirripedia." Von Willemoes-Suhm. ' Phil. Trans.' 1876.

18. "A Monograph of the Free and Semi - parasitic Copepoda of the British Islands." G.S.Brady. 'Ray Society.' 1878.

19. "Natural History of British Entomostraca." Baird. 'Ray Society.' 1850.

20. "Naturgeschichte der Daphniden." Leydig. 1860.

21. "Die frei-lebenden Copepoden," etc. Claus. 1863.

22. "Monograph of the Recent British Ostracoda." G. S. Brady.

'Trans. Linn. Soc' 1866.

23. "Oversigt af Norges marine Ostracoder." G. O. Sars. 1865.

24. " On the Anatomy and development of the American King Crab."

Owen. 'Trans. Linn. Soc' 1872.

25. "Development of Limulus polyphemus." A. S. Packard. 'Mem.

Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.' 1871.

26. "Zur Embryologie und Morphologie des Limulus polyphemus."

Dohrn. 'Jenaischen Zeitschr.' 1871.

27. " Recherches sur l'hist. nat. et Anat. des Limules." Van der Hoeven. 1838.

28. "On the Relation of the Xiphosura to the Eurypterida." Henry Woodward. 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' 1872.

29. " Monograph of the Fossil Merostomata." Henry Woodward.

'Palaeontographical Society.' 1866-1872.

30. "Report on the Structure and Classification of Fossil Crustacea."

Henry Woodward. ' Rep. Brit. Assoc' 1871.

31. "Monograph of the British Trilobites." Salter. 'Palaeontographical Society.' 1862-64.

32. "Monograph of Trilobites." Barrande. In 'Systeme Silurien de Boheme.' 1852.

33. " Organisation of Trilobites." Burmeister. ' Ray Society.' 1846.

34. "Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces fossiles." Brongniart and Desmarest. 1822.

35. "Catalogue of the British Fossil Crustacea." Henry Woodward. 1877.

36. "Fossil Estheriae." Rupert Jones. 'Palseontographical Society.' 1862.

37. "British Tertiary Entomostraca." Rupert Jones. 'Palaeontographical Society.' 1856.

38. "On the Development of the Decapod Crustacea." Spence Bate.

'Phil. Trans.' 1858.

39. "Malacostraca Podophthalma Britannica." Leach. 1815-75. (Completed by G. B. Sowerby.)


40. Article "Arachnida." Rev. O. P. Cambridge. ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 9th ed. vol. ii. 1875.

41. "Guide to the Study of Insects." Packard, 3d ed. 1872.

42. Article "Arachnida." Audouin. 'Todd's Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology.' 1835.

43. "Bau und Entwickelungs-geschichte der Pentastomiden." Leuckart.

44. "Studien an Acariden." Claparede.

45. "Memoire sur les Tardigrades." Doyere. 'Ann. Sciences Nat.' 1840.

46. "Recherches sur l'organisation et la developpement des Linguatules.'

Van Beneden. 'Nouv. Mem. de l'Acad. de Belg.' 1849.

47. "Beitrage zur Anatomie der Milben." Pagenstecher. 1860.

48. "Ueber Entwickelung und Bau der Pycnogoniden." Dohrn. In 'Ueber Bau und Entwickelung der Arthropoden.' 1879.

49. "Monograph of the British Species of Phalangiidae." Meade.

'Ann. Nat. Hist.' 1855.

50. "Die Arachniden." Koch. 1831-48.

51. "Uebersicht des Arachniden Systems." Koch. 1850.

52. "Embryologie des Scorpions." Metschnikoff. 1870.

53. "Histoire Naturelle des Insectes Apteres." Walckenaer. 1837.

54. "Histoire des Araignees. Simon. 1864.

55. "On the Genera of European Spiders." Thorell. 1870.

56. "History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland." Blackwall.

' Ray Society.' 1861-64.

57. "De Generatione Aranearum in Ovo." Herold. 1824.

58. "Ueber den innern Bau der Arachniden." Treviranus. 1812.

59. "Recherches sur l'evolution des Araignees." Claparede. 1862.

60. "Trap-door Spiders and Harvesting Ants." Moggridge. 1873.


61. "Guide to the Study of Insects." Packard. 1872.

62. "On the Organs of Reproduction and the Development of the Myriapoda." Newport. ' Phil. Trans.' 1841. and Physiology.' 1839-47.

64. "On Pauropus, a new Type of Centipede." Sir John Lubbock.

'Trans. Linn. Soc' 1868.

65. "Ueber den Bau von Peripatus Edwardsii." Grube. ' Archiv fur Anat.' 1853.

66. "On the Structure and Development of Peripatus Capensis." H. N.

Moseley. 'Proc. Roy. Soc' 1874; and 'Ann. Nat. Hist.' 1874.

67. "On Peripatus Novo-Zelandiae." Capt. F. W. Hutton. 'Ann.

Nat. Hist.' 1876.

68. "Embryologie der doppelt-fiissigen Myriapoden. Metschnikoff.

'Siebold und Kolliker's Zeitschrift.' 1874.

69. "Embryologisches uber Geophilus." Metschnikoff. 'Siebold und Kolliker's Zeitschrift.' 1875.Insecta.

70. "Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects." Westwood.


71. "Introduction to Entomology." Kirby and Spence. 1828.

72. "Handbuch der Entomologie." Burmeister. 1832-47.

73. "Guide to the Study of Insects." Packard. 1872.

74. Article "Insecta." Newport. 'Todd's Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology.' 1836-39.

75. "Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des Insectes." De Geer. 1752-78.

76. "Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des Insectes." Reaumur. 1734-42.

77. "Systema Entomologiae" Fabricius. 1775.

78. "Histoire naturelle des Crustaces et des Insectes." Latreille.


79. "British Entomology." Curtis.

80. "British Butterflies." Humphrey and Westwood. 1841.

81. "British Moths." Humphrey. 1843-45.

82. "British Moths and Butterflies. Newman. 1874.

83. "Insects of North America." Say. (Ed. by Le Conte.) 1869.

84. "Origin and Metamorphoses of Insects." Sir John Lubbock. 1874.

85. "On the Thysanura." Sir John Lubbock. 'Trans. Linn. Soc'

1862, 1867, 1869.

86. "Monograph of the Collembola." Sir John Lubbock. ' Ray Society.'

87. "Transformations of Insects." Martin Duncan. 1875.