A house apiary was another of the early enterprises. Photographs were taken and widely distributed among the subscribers. During those years the magazine served as a means of general correspondence with a large group with similar tastes. Such articles as appeared were usually extracts from letters to the editor, with his reply thereto. Nearly every number had an account of the activity of the editor with his own bees at the particular time. When Gleanings came, the reader was informed as to whether the editor's bees had been put away for the winter, or taken from the cellar, or whether supers had been given or the honey extracted. Every necessary attention given the bees was described in great detail and the result- whether a success or a failure-frankly explained.

George S. Demuth was editor of Gleanings from 1920 until his death in 1934.

George S. Demuth was editor of Gleanings from 1920 until his death in 1934.

A. I. Root could not confine himself to the bees for very long. His magazine was less than three years old when space was added for a department which he called "Our Homes, " in which he felt free to discuss the greatest variety of subjects. He began discussing religion, morals, gardens, and anything which happened to interest him at the moment. At one time he gave a great deal of attention to the evils of tobacco, and even went so far as to offer a bee smoker as a reward to any tobacco user who would abandon the habit.

This department was a very personal thing with the editor and continued to the end of his long life forty-eight years later. It was of such a nature that it hardly could be continued with success after he was gone and was terminated at his death.

It was in August, 1876, that the first illustrated cover was used. It was a simple outline of the arrangement of an apiary on a hexagonal plan, nothing more than a diagram. The following issue made use of drawings of the universal honey box in a similar manner. The October cover was adorned by a picture of Doolittle's apiary. Since wood cuts were used in those days, they lacked the accuracy of the engravings of later days. The editor complained that the picture did not do justice to Doolittle, who had recently moved into a new house also shown in the picture. This appears to have been the beginning of the practice, later so common, of showing pictures of beekeeping scenes on the covers of bee magazines. To Doolittle seems to belong the honor of being the first to have his apiary featured in this manner.

John H. Martin wrote for Gleanings under the name of Rambler from 1888 until 1903.

John H. Martin wrote for Gleanings under the name of "Rambler" from 1888 until 1903.

When the ABC of Bee Culture was launched, it was published serially in Gleanings as the pages were set up and printed. In the May, 1877, issue, the first eight pages of the book appeared as a feature of the magazine. It was announced that the type for the book would be kept standing so that changes could be made as need for revision appeared, and only a few copies printed at a time. Each section of eight pages was sold for five cents.

In those early years much space was given to opposition to patents for any beekeeping equipment. Root argued that everything should be free to everybody. In that he was consistent, for he discussed freely his own progress with anything with which he happened to be occupied, and gave detailed instructions for making hives, smokers, extractors, etc.

In June, 1888, appeared an article entitled "A Ramble, " in which was given an account of a visit by Rambler to Thomas Pierce, a beekeeper of New York state. The editor was so pleased with the article that he asked that the rambles be continued and there began an interesting and unusual feature, which continued for many years. He rambled over the country visiting beekeepers and describing in humorous vein the things he saw and the events of the time. He spent much time in California and made the West well known to the readers of the magazine. John H. Martin was the man who was known as Rambler, and as Rambler he continued to be known until his death in Cuba, January 13, 1903.

As a young man, E. R. Root very gradually relieved his father of a portion of the burden of editing the magazine, until he was in full charge and A. I. Root gave his attention only to his personal department, "Our Homes. " Later Miss Iona Fowls became assistant editor and, for a time, assumed a large part of the responsibility of getting out the publication.

In 1920, George S. Demuth resigned his position as apicul-tural assistant in the Bureau of Entomology to take editorial control and to relieve E. R. Root, who took up the less exacting role of field editor.