Range. - Eastern North America, breeding from northern United States northward; winters in the Gulf States and southward.

These black-throated bluish-backed Warblers are abundant in swampy woodland both during migrations and at their breeding grounds; either sex can readily be identified in any plumage, by the presence of a small white spot at the base of the primaries. They nest in underbrush or low bushes only a few inches above the ground, making the nests of bark strips, moss rootlets, etc., lined with fine grasses or hair; the eggs are pale buffy white more or less dotted with pale brownish; size .65 x .50. Data. -Warren, Pa., June 9, 1891. 3 eggs. Nest one foot from the ground in brush; made of fine pieces of rotten wood, laurel bark and lined with fine grasses.

Greenish white

Greenish white.

Buffy white

Buffy white.

Mangrove Warblers Black throated Blue Warblers

Mangrove Warblers. Black-throated Blue Warblers.

654a. Cairns Warbler. Dendroica Caerulescens Cairnsi

Range. - Mountain ranges of North Carolina to Georgia.

A darker form whose habits and eggs are identical with those of the last.

654a Cairns Warbler Dendroica Caerulescens Cairnsi 1317654a Cairns Warbler Dendroica Caerulescens Cairnsi 1318