This section is from the book "British Dogs, Their Points, Selection, And Show Preparation", by W. D. Drury. Also available from Amazon: British Dogs: Their Points, Selection And Show Preparation.
There does not seem to be any valid reason why the first-named variety should be called Pekinese. A far more appropriate name would be Chinese Spaniels, as they are by no means confined to Pekin, but are to be met with in many other parts of that interesting celestial kingdom. Essentially a pet variety and not extensively known as yet, the Chinese Spaniel is being taken up warmly by quite a number of zealous fanciers. It is also included in the Club recently formed for the benefit of some of the Asiatic toy varieties, and has received recognition at the hands of the Kennel Club by the granting of challenge certificates, all of which will tend to bring it more to the front than heretofore. His Grace the Duke of Richmond has kept the breed for a long time. Fig. 126 gives readers a fair notion of the sort of animal that is known under the above name.
Chinese Spaniels have a little in common, so far as appearance goes, with a rough-coated Pug, but are very short on the legs. They have rather sturdy bodies covered with soft fluffy hair; the fore legs are slightly and the hind legs profusely feathered, as is the tail, which is carried curved over the back. The eyes are large, dark, and brilliant. The colours are usually shades of tawny fawn or drab, but sometimes dark brown and even black. White markings do not disqualify, but are very objectionable. Chinese Spaniels have a comical, self-assertive look about them, quite different from other varieties. The reason that until lately they have been in very few hands is no doubt in a great measure due to the difficulty in obtaining genuine specimens.
At the present time the best-known owners of this variety are Her Majesty Queen Alexandra, Lady Gooch, the Marquis of Anglesey, Lord John Hay, Lady A. Gordon Lennox, Mrs. C. Austin, Mrs. W. Ridler, Mrs. Browning, Mrs. H. B. Samuelson, Mrs. A. C. Tomkins, and Mrs. Douglas Murray. Quite respectable entries of Chinese Spaniels are seen at some of the larger shows when the classification and judge are satisfactory.
The Chinese Spaniel is decidedly hardier than the Japanese Spaniel, and consequently is better able to rough it. This is partly due to the fact that the Japanese Spaniels are not appreciated unless small, whereas Chinese Spaniels are often found winning at shows that turn the scale at 12lb. or more. Chinese Spaniels are much less trouble to keep than Japanese Spaniels, but the former have not the dainty charms of the latter.
Chinese (Pekinese) Spaniels are often confused by novices with the Japanese Spaniels, from the latter of which they differ in being larger-bodied, and somewhat of a lion shape, as fanciers term the heavier front and mane and the falling away behind that should characterise a good specimen. A comparison of the illustration of Japanese Spaniel and that of the Chinese Spaniel will be sufficient to show at once the main points of difference between the two varieties. In head it will be seen that the Chinese Spaniel is very like his Japanese relative, though somewhat coarser and with larger ears; while the front legs are slightly bowed. Again, the Chinese Spaniel is in turn confounded with the Chinese Pug, a variety somewhat of a rarity in this country, but abundantly distinct, and not much removed in general appearance from our own Pugs. In size he is a trifle bigger than the Spaniels above named; but he is more thickly set than the Fawn or the Black Pug, and nothing like so long on the leg.
Below are given the points of the Chinese Spaniel as described by the Japanese and Pekinese Spaniel Club: -
That of a quaint and intelligent little dog, rather long in body, with heavy front chest, and bow legs (i.e. very much out at elbow), the body falling away lighter behind. The tail should be carried right up in a curve over the animal's back, but not too tightly curled.
In size these dogs vary very much, but the smaller the better, provided type and points are not sacrificed. When divided by weight, classes should be for under 10lb. and over 10 lb.
Should be short and rather heavy in bone, but not extravagantly so, as coarseness is to be avoided in every point; they should be well out at elbow, and the feet turned outwards also. Both legs and feet should be feathered.
Should be of medium size, with broad skull, flat between ears, but rounded on the forehead; muzzle very short (not underhung), and very wide. The face should be wrinkled and nostrils black and full. Eyes large and lustrous; ears set high on the head and V-shaped, they should be moderate in size (the tips never coming below the muzzle), and should be covered with long silky hair, which extends much below the leather of the ear proper.
Fig. 126. - Mrs. Ridler's Chinese Spaniel Chifu.
These dogs should either be red, fawn, sable or brindle, with black masks, face and ear shadings, or else all black. White patches on feet or chest, although not a disqualification, should not be encouraged.
Should be long, flat, and rather silky except at the frill, where it should stand out like a lion's mane. The feathering on thighs and tail should be very profuse, and it is preferable that it should be of a lighter colour than the rest of Ihe coat.
STANDARD OF EXCELLENCE
Shape of Body..
Coat and Feathering ........