Astringents produce contraction in all living tissues with which they are placed in apposition, either directly or by means of absorption in the circulation. Of these, opium, gallic acid, alum, bark, catechu, sulphate of zinc, nitrate of silver, and chloride of zinc are the most commonly used.

An astringent bolus for diabetes or internal hemorrhage:

18. - Gallic acid, 3 to 6 grains. Alum, 4 to 7 grains. Purified opium, 1 to 2 grains.

Mix with syrup, and give two or three times a day to a large dog.

or,

19. - Nitrate of silver, 1/2 grain.

Crumb of bread, enough to make a small pill.

To be given twice a day.

Astringent wash for the eyes:

20. - Sulphate of zinc, 5 to 8 grains. Water, 2 ounces, - Mix.

or,

21. - Extract of goulard, 1 drachm. Water, 1 ounce. - Mix.

or,

22. - Nitrate of silver, 2 to 6 grains. Distilled water, 1 ounce. - Mix.

Wash for the organ:

23. - Chloride of zinc, 1/4 2 to grains. Water, 1 ounce. - Mix.

Astringent application for piles:

24. - Gallic acid, 10 grains.

Extract of goulard, 15 drops. Powdered opium, 15 grains. Lard, 1 ounce.

Mix, and apply night and morning.