"Carbolic Acid, the first antiseptic introduced by Lister, has a direct germicidal action in strong solutions and an inhibitory effect in weaker ones. The crystals when heated with 10 per cent of water constitute an oily fluid known as pure or liquefied carbolic acid, which is a powerful though superficial caustic, and may be employed without much fear to infected lesions, in order, if possible, to sterilize them. Thus it is always well to treat tuberculous wounds with this fluid after scraping them, in order to destroy any portions of tuberculous material which may have escaped the spoon. The liquid carbolic dissolves in water on the application of a little warmth, and the l-in-20 and l-in-40 solutions are those mainly employed; the former is an efficient and potent antiseptic, and must be used carefully on delicate skins. Carbolic acid is frequently somewhat crude and impure, and many of the irritative and toxic phenomena are due to cresylic acid and other substances which should not be present. General absorption of this reagent leads to darkening of the urine, which may become olive-green or even black in colour, and this carboluria is often associated with a rise in temperature and some intestinal irritation, whilst diseased kidneys may be seriously affected. It is more likely to occur when weaker solutions are employed than when the liquefied or pure acid is applied. The latter is seldom absorbed."
"Corrosive Sublimate is a valuable though very poisonous remedy which is usually employed in solutions of 1 in 2000, 1 in 1000, or 1 in 500. Occasionally the last of these three solutions has 5 per cent of carbolic acid added to it, constituting what is known as Lister's strong mixture. Sublimate solutions are inhibitory in action rather than germicidal, but are potent and reliable. They have less power of penetration than carbolic acid, but have no hardening or roughening influence on the skin. If, however, a dressing soaked in a sublimate solution (1 in 2000) is kept for long in contact with the skin, it acts as a direct irritant, and may lead to an abundant formation of pustules, owing to the activity of the germs in the deeper parts of the cutis which have not been destroyed by the antiseptic. Instruments should not be placed in sublimate solutions, as, even if plated, they soon lose their bright appearance."
"Biniodide Of Mercury is a potent antiseptic which has been chiefly employed in the form of a l-in-500 solution in 70 per cent methylated spirit for the purification of the hands or of the skin of the patient."
"Boric or Boracic Acid is a mild and weak antiseptic which may be utilized when stronger remedies might prove harmful, e.g. in plastic operations. It is also useful when antiseptic fomentations are required in treating inflammatory phenomena."
"Iodoform is a yellow powder of characteristic and unpleasant odour, which probably acts by being decomposed in the tissues and slowly giving off iodine. Commercial iodoform is usually contaminated with a variety of germs, as may be shown by dusting it over a film of nutrient gelatine and allowing them to develop. It is, therefore, wise to wash the iodoform before use in l-in-20 carbolic lotion or some such antiseptic. Its chief value is in septic or tuberculous wounds, and indeed it seems to have a specific inhibitory action upon the development of the bacillus of tuberculosis. It may be suspended in glycerine (10 per cent), and, after sterilization by heat, injected into tuberculous tissues, joints, or abscesses, or if open wounds exist, gauze soaked in this emulsion, as it is incorrectly termed, may be packed into them with advantage."
"Chinosol is a yellow substance harmless and free from toxic qualities. It is freely soluble in water, and possesses powerful antiseptic properties."
"Lysol is another useful antiseptic derivative of coal-tar. It is freely soluble in water, and, as a 2-per-cent solution, may be used in syringing out cavities such as the vagina, external ear, etc. One of its great advantages is that the solution is somewhat sticky, and tends to cling to the tissues and prolong its action."
"Permanganate of Potash and Peroxide of Hydrogen both act in the same way as oxidizing agents. They are necessarily unstable, and cannot be utilized for dressing, and are therefore chiefly employed in the disinfection of cavities or wounds already contaminated. The most potent of these is peroxide of hydrogen, which is sold as a fluid capable of setting free ten or twenty times its volume of nascent oxygen. It is quite unirri-tating, and may be poured directly into a septic wound or even into the peritoneal cavity; forthwith it commences to effervesce, liberating its oxygen and forming a frothy foam which is likely to bring to the surface any loose foreign bodies. Its use is particularly indicated in the treatment of septic ulcers, carbuncles, sloughy abscess cavities, and the like. Permanganate of potash is used in solutions of varying strength, and acts more slowly. It has the disadvantage of staining the tissues with which it is brought in contact." - Rose & Carless.