Crown and nape white; a large chestnut patch on the sides of the neck: bill black, with a transverse orange band: legs yellow.
Anas glacialis, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 860. Sabine in Linn. Trans, vol. xii. p. 555. Long-tailed Duck, Mont. Orn. Diet, & Supp. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. ii. p. 359. Long-tailed Hareld, Selb. Illust. vol. ii. p. 363. pl. 61. (Trachea,) Linn. Trans, vol. xii. pl. 30. f. 3, & 4.
Entire length, central tail-feathers included, twenty-two inches. Mont.
(Adult male in winter). Crown of the head, nape, front and lower part of the neck, pure white; cheeks and chin ash-gray; on each side of the upper part of the neck a large patch of chestnut-brown: breast, back, wings, rump, and the two elongated central tail-feathers, brownish black: scapulars, and lateral tail-feathers, white; the former long, narrow, and acuminated: flanks cinereous; belly and abdomen white: bill black, with a broad transverse band of deep orange before the nostrils: irides reddish yellow: legs yellowish; the membranes of the toes dusky. (Adult female). " Forehead, chin, and eyebrows, whitish ash; crown of the head, and the large patch on the sides of the neck, dusky ash: nape, front and lower part of the neck, as well as the belly and abdomen, pure white: breast variegated with brown and dark ash-colour: back, scapulars, and wing-coverts, blackish brown, the feathers edged and tipped with reddish ash: the rest of the upper parts sooty brown: tail short, the central feathers not elongated; blackish brown, edged with white: bill bluish; the transverse band yellowish: irides light brown: legs bluish gray." Temm. (Male in summer). " The whole under part of the neck, and breast, black; sides of the head, and a little beyond the eye, brownish white; round the eye some white feathers; from the bill a black line runs on the top of the head to the crown, which is black; back of the neck chiefly black, but at a small distance below the crown with a few white feathers intermixed; the black of the back of the neck extends down the back, but in the centre of the upper part of the back near the neck is a patch of black feathers edged with ferruginous; scapulars long and narrow, black in the centre, and edged with ferruginous white, the longer ones having more white; wings brownish black, the quills being palest; lower belly and sides to the rump, and under tail-coverts, white, a line of black descending between the white from the back to the tail." Sab. (Young of the year). Not very different from the adult female: face, crown, occiput, and nape, grayish white, mottled with brown and ash-colour; on the sides of the neck a large dusky patch; throat and upper part of the neck in front, belly and abdomen, white; lower part of the neck in front, and upper part of the breast, spotted and variegated with brownish ash; sides of the breast with transverse crescent-shaped bars of the same colour; back, and rest of the upper parts, deep brown; the scapulars edged with ash-colour, and some of the shorter ones with white feathers intermixed; tail short, the two middle feathers not elongated. (Egg). Greenish yellow white: long. diam. two inches two lines; trans, diam. one inch six lines and a half.
A regular winter visitant in the Orkneys, and on the northern coasts of England and Scotland. Seldom met with in the southern parts of Britain; such individuals generally young birds. Breeds in the Arctic Regions. Nest said to be placed amongst grass, near the edge of the sea. Eggs, according to Temminck, five in number; according to others, from ten to fourteen. Food, marine insects, and bivalve mollusca. Obs. The Anas hyemails of Linnaeus is the male of this species in summer plumage.