Stone lintels may be used to cover any narrow opening in a wall.

When intended to form a "head" to a door or window opening, the lintel rests on the jambs, and the under side in some cases is checked out so as to form a reveal for the head of the frame.

It is better, however, that the under side or "soffit" of the lintel should be left flush throughout, a wood lintel with relieving arch, concrete beam, or fiat arch, supporting the wall behind it, being kept higher than that of the stone lintel, so that room is afforded for the head of the wood frame (see Figs. 543, 545).

It is often advisable to relieve the stone lintel of the weight of the wall above it. This may be done by a relieving or discharging3 arch, which either forms a feature in the elevation, as in Fig. 143, or if that be objectionable, the walling above may be formed in a sort of flat arch without being conspicuous (see Fig. 542).

Stone Lintel with Relieving Arch.

Stone Lintel with Relieving Arch.

When a discharging arch is used, it is sometimes made of the same span as the opening, so that it rests upon the ends of the lintel instead of being just clear of them as shown in the figure.

1 Sc. Rybates. The inner rough stone sometimes used at the back of the stretchers instead of rubble is called a Scuntion.

2 An Architrave is an ornamental border formed round an opening such as that for a door or window. 3 Sc. Saving arch.

The "core" or portion between the soffit of the relieving arch and the top of the lintel, should be left out until the whole work has taken its bearing, or the settlement of the arch may cause the core to bear upon and to break the lintel.

String Courses (see p. 9) should, as a rule, extend well into the thickness of a wall to give it strength.

They should, if of sufficient projection, be weathered and throated.

Stone string courses in brickwork should be of the exact height of a certain number of courses of bricks (see Fig. 144), otherwise they will necessitate bricks being cut, or upset the bond.

The stones are sometimes united to one another by metal cramps, so as to form a continuous band round the building.

Corbels are stones projecting from a wall, generally in order to form a support, as in Fig. 287.

When the weight to be borne is very great, and in other cases (see p. 9), several courses may be corbelled or gathered over, as already described.

Eaves Courses (See P. 8)

An example of a stone eaves course arranged so as to support an iron gutter is shown in Fig. 452.