MOULDINGS are required merely for ornament. The most ordinary forms are generally parts of a circle in section; and it is recommended that they should not have much projection, the lines of shade being produced rather by deep grooves.
When it is on a separate slip of wood, and attached to the piece it is to ornament, it is said to be "laid in " or "planted," see Fig. 139.
These terms are the same as those used for beads and explained in Part I.
In ordinary panelled work the mouldings are. as a rule in separate slips, bradded or "planted " on to the inner edges of the frames, not on to the panels, as the shrinkage of the latter would draw them away from the frame.
If, however, the moulding is "stuck " on the frame, the groove for the panel should be deeper than the moulding, otherwise, when the framing shrinks, daylight will be seen through the open mitred corners of the moulding.
Figures 123 to 128 are sections of some of the commonest classical mouldings, which are named as follows: -
Tlie Torus (Fig. 123) is a semi-cylindrical projection, surmounted by a flat band called a "fillet."
The Double Torus consists of two such semi-cylindrical projections, the upper one being smaller than the other and surmounted by a fillet.
The Ovolo (Fig. 124) is a curved convex projection surmounted by a fillet.
The ovolo shown in Fig. 124 is a quarter-circle in section, but it may be a portion of an ellipse or hyperbola.
The Double Ovolo consists of two ovolo mouldings opposite to one another, as in the sash bar Fig. 311, Part I. The Cavetto (Fig. 125) is the reverse of the Ovolo, being a concave quadrant.
The Ogee or Cyma Recta (Fig. 126) consists of two curves tangent to one another, the upper being concave and the lower convex.
The Reverse Ogee or Cyma Reversa (Fig. 127) is composed of the same parts as the Ogee, but reversed, the convexity being in this case uppermost.
The curves composing the two last-mentioned mouldings may be either quadrants, as in the figures struck from the centres marked, or the moulding may be varied according to taste, by using flatter curves.
The Scotia is a moulding chiefly used for bases and constructed thus: -
In Fig. 128 trisect a b in c and d; from centre c, with radius c a, describe the circle, a e d, a quarter of which forms the upper part of the moulding ; draw c e at right angles to a b, cutting the circle in e; from centre, e, with radius, e f, describe the curve, f b, forming the lower portion of the moulding.
When mouldings are formed by a combination of parts of well-known form, they are distinguished by names expressing the combination of those parts.
Thus the moulding at A in Fig. 129 is known as "Quirk Ovolo and Fillet" being made up of these three parts, q 0 f.
Scale, 2 inches=1 foot
The moulding at B in Fig. 129 is a "Quirk Ovolo and Bead" In Fig. 130 the moulding at C is a "Quirk Ogee;" that at D is a "Quirk Ogee and Quirked Read."
The above are only a few of the commonest classical mouldings, besides which there is an infinite variety belonging to Gothic and other styles of architecture, and new ones are constantly being designed. At one time they were all formed by hand ; and it was therefore important to know how to construct the various forms, but they are now nearly always made by machinery.
They are used in order to give a massive appearance and heavy decoration without increasing the thickness of the framing.
Plate III. illustrates on a scale of half full size the application of mouldings to various constructions in joinery. Figs. 132 to 136 are from an eighteenth century building, and Figs. 13 7 to 139 modified from the moulding books of Messrs. Elliott of Newbury.