Tongued angles are used for internal angles of dadoes, skirtings, grounds, casings, etc., as Fig. 541.

Mitred angles are made by simply cutting half a right angle alternately off the two pieces, to be joined by nails at an external angle, as fig. 542. Mitred and tongued angles, a combination of the two last, are as Fig. 543, and are only used in best work, at the external angles of dadoes, pilasters, etc.

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Fig. 540.

Beaded and tongued angles, illustrated by Fig. 544, are angles or joints of an ornamental as well as necessary character.

Return-beaded angles are suitable for alt external mitres where wear and tear would soon fetch the arrises off in soft woods. Fig.. 545 shows one on wood framing, casings, etc., and Fig.. 546 one as fixed to angles to plastering on wood, brick, or stone watts, to which they are fixed by plug, as will be explained hereinafter, this being called a staff bead.

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Fig. 546.

Where the two pieces of framing to be joined are of different widths or thicknesses the "mitred angle" is made as Fig.. 547.

Another form, of very good construction, is as Fig. 548.

Keyed mitred joints are not often used; but it is as well that the student should know what they are. Fig. 549 is a view of the angle of one, X X, being hardwood-slips let into the mitres.

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Fig. 549.

Fig. 550.

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Fig. 551.

Moused joints are as Fig. 550, by which the whole thickness of the cross-framing is let into the other about half an inch.

Glued and blocked joints are really butt or lapped joints secured by blocks glued to each piece of wood in the internal angle (Fig. 551).

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Fig. 552.

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Fig. 552a.

Dovetails, the most common of the intricate and strong joints, are used for cisterns, square casings, or curbs to skylights, and the comers of drawers and other fittings. There are three kinds: the common, as Fig. 552; the lap, as Fig. 552a; and the secret or mitred, the most troublesome of the three, as Fig.. 552b. It will be seen that they consist of wedge-shaped alternate cuttings out of each piece, the projections of the one fitting the holes on the other.

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Fig. 552b.

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Fig. 553.

Cross-tonguing is the method of joining two or more boards longitudinally, a loose tongue being glued and let into a groove on each board, as Fig. 553. This loose1 tongue is sometimes called a slip feather, and is made of wood across the grain. Long (the opposite to cross) tongues have the grain of the wood in the direction of their length. Clamping is the method by which the ends of several boards are fastened together, as shown on the left-hand of Fig. 554; while the right-hand side of the same Fig.ure illustrates mitre-clamping, by which the cross-grain end of the ordinary clamping is obscured.

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Keying (Fig. 555) is a means of securing several boards together by a flush key, let in at the back in lieu of a projecting ledge, where the latter would be inconvenient on account of a level face being required on each side. This is often used in the North for wide door casings.

Fig. 554.

Keyed joints are also used to connect circular with straight or two pieces of circular wood, such as door frames, etc. A shallow mortise is cut out of each part, and a hardwood key (in the form of the letter I) connects the two together, as Fig. 556, X X being wedges to tighten up the joint.

Fig. 557 illustrates Fox wedging a means by which tenons are secured into shallow mortises, where wedges cannot be driven in from the other side.

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Fig. 555.

Scribing is the cutting, out of the face of one moulding, a hole of the contour of another to form a joint. It is chiefly used in joints of sash-bars, internal angles of moulded skirtings, etc., and really is a moulded mortise cut into another moulding to receive a moulded tenon of the same section as the mortise, but in a converse form. For instance, in Fig. 558, it will be noticed that on A a moulded mortise or notching is cut out, with the ovolo hollow, as it were; and on B, which we will call the tenon, the cutting has the ovolo convex or projecting to fit and fill up the hollow on A.

A scribed housing is a housing made to the contour of the moulding it is going to receive (Fig. 559).

Other kinds of joints, principally used for flooring, will be found fully illustrated and explained in Chapter VIII (Wood Floors. Naked Floors And Floor-Boards).

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Fig. 556.

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Fig. 557.