Doors are wooden framings, hung to frames or doorcases, or on hooks, in external positions, and to casings or linings, internally. No door should ever be less than 2 feet 9 inches in width, 6 feet 9 inches in height, and 1 1/2 inches in thickness.
Lodged Doors are the first and simplest form of door, consisting only of beaded or V-jointed match boarding, nailed to deal ledges, generally three inches in width. Fig. 617A represents the outside of a ledged door, and Fig. 618 the inside, XXX being the ledges, which are often chamfered on all arrises, as shown by the doubledine. A plan is given on Fig. 619, and an enlargement of the section at the ledge, Fig. 610.
Fig. 617. Section.
They are hung to the frames by iron hinges, called cross-garnets or T-hinges (from their shape), fixed at top and bottom to door and frame, and are fastened by Norfolk thumb latches, and locked by cased stock locks with a hollow box staple, X, fixed on the frame to take the bolt of the lock, as Fig. 621, In the North these are called Batten doors.
Fig. 617. Elevation.
Fig. 618. Elevation.
N.B. - If the door frame is not rebated out to the thickness of the boarding and ledges, blocks have to be fixed on to the frames to make the fixing on the frames the same level as the ledges of the door.
The Ledged. and Braced Door is a stage higher than the ledged door, being braced up, as the name implies; the only noticeable difference being at the back, where the braces - whereof the object is to keep the door from hanging down from its hinges - are seen. Fig. 623 gives an elevation of the back, from which the nature and difference of the door(as compared with the plain ledged door) can be understood. The fastenings, etc., are precisely similar to those used for ledged doors.
Section Fig. 620. 1"Scale.
Fig. 621. 1 1/2"Scale.
Fig. 622 1/4" Scale.
N.B. - It must be bome in mind that these braces, to effect their object, must incline upwards from the jamb to which the door is hung.
The Framed and Braced or Framed Ledged and Braced Door consists of a piece of framing, the size of the opening between the rebates of the door frame, with a middle or lock rail and braces (like the door last-named) in addition, to strengthen the framing; the whole being filled in with match boarding, as Fig. 623.
Before going into the detail of this kind of door it will be as well to impress upon the student that all continuous upright framings are called styles, and the cross or horizontal pieces rails.
The rails are tenoned and wedged into the styles in the usual way, as previously explained, the top rail tenon being as Fig. 624, and the lock and bottom rails (being the thickness of the boards less in thickness) have bare-faced tenons, as Fig. 537, but two tenons in height, on account of their depth as compared with the top rail.
All styles are generally 4 1/2 inches wide, lode and bottom rails 9 inches deep, and the top rail only 4 1/2 inches; therefore, in a door 2 inches thick, the styles and top rail are 4 1/2 inches x 2 inches, but the lock and bottom rails, to which the boarding between the styles and below the top rail is secured, are 9 inches x 1 inch, in cases where 1-inch boarding is used, and 1 1/4 inch with 3/4-inch boards - the two thicknesses, in each case, making up the 2 inches of the door.
Fig. 627. Section.
Fig. 628. Section.
The detailed section of the top rail, showing how the boards are secured to it, is as Fig. 625; that of the lock rail as Fig. 626; and the bottom rail, where the boards run through, as Fig. 62; but in cases where a flush bottom rail is used, the section is as Fig. 628.
Fig. 629 explains the joint at the styles.
The fastenings used are just the same as for the ledged doors, with the exception that sometimes "band-hinges" are used instead of "cross garnets," the hinges being bolted to the door front and hung on to plate hooks, as Fig. 630, screwed to the frames; or hook stones are substituted, doing away with the frames (vide Fig. 616).
To impart a lighter appearance to the framing of these doors, the styles, rails, and braces are often stop-chamfered on all edges, the elevation of the joint at the lock rail next the hanging style then appearing as Fig. 631.
Framed and Ledged Doora are similar in all respects to the last-named, with the only exception that, as their name implies, they have no braces.