This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
106. The carpenter's work in a frame building usually commences when the foundation is completed. First, a timber, called the sill (see a, Fig. 12), is laid upon the top of the foundation wall to receive the superstructure of wood. This sill varies from 6 in. X 8 in. to 8 in. X10 in. in regular framed buildings; and from 4 in. X 6 in. to 4 in. X 8 in. in balloon-framed buildings, and is laid about 1 inch from the outer face of the foundation wall. The corners of the sill are halved, as shown in Fig. 14, and when necessary to splice it in order to cover a longer run of wall than can be accomplished by one piece of timber, the beveled-splicing joint, shown in Fig. 15, is usually adopted.
The corner posts are then erected at the angles of the building, as shown at b, Fig. 12, and are usually composed of from 6"x8"'to8"xl0" timbers in regular frames and of from 4"x6" to 6"x10" timbers in balloon frames. The lower end of the corner post is generally mortised into the sill at the halved corner and its upper end is mortised to the plate h, Fig. 12, although in balloon-framed work the plate is sometimes merely spiked to the end of the corner posts, the internal angle being formed by spiking a stud to the face of the corner post.
107. The studs k, Fig. 12, are sometimes mortised into the sill a, into the girt, or intertie d, and into the plate h, although in modern work they are more frequently simply butt jointed in position, except in the case of double studs at the sides of openings; while in balloon-framed work they should always extend from the sill to the plate in one piece, if possible, or be spliced in the manner shown in Fig. 20, where the height is too great. To carry the floorbeams in the second or third story, a ledger board, or ribbon, shown at k, in Fig. 72, is notched into the studs, each beam being spiked to the adjacent stud. In regular frames the upper floorbeams rest upon the intertie, as shown at i, in Fig. 12.