This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol3: Stair Building, Ornamental Ironwork, Roofing, Sheet-Metal Work, Electric-Light Wiring And Bellwork", by The Colliery Engineer Co.. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
66. A window guard should be primarily a protective device, and secondarily an ornament or decoration. As a rule, especially in private-residence work, the design of these very necessary appendages is not given a proper amount of attention, but they are certainly as deserving of mature consideration as any other ironwork of the structure. They may be made to form the divisions of the window opening in place of the bars of the sash, and to produce the desired effect of window subdivision, at the same time leaving the glass in any required size. It is not necessary that a window guard shall be flat, nor set out of sight when looking towards the window from the street, but may be a roomy addition to the window sill, where in summer flowers may be placed to blossom in the sun and protected from high winds or careless hands. Small openings for ventilation or light may be rendered pleasing by simple and effective guards, such as those shown in (a), (b), and (c) in Fig. 92, cut out of single pieces of iron. The guard shown in Fig. 92 (d) is a clever piece of forging, and illustrates what simple and yet refined design may be executed in this class of work. The upper and lower parts of the bars a are made by bending the iron into long open loops as shown, the ends being carried through the rails b, a ring forged between the two interior ends, and the scrolls c forged to the bars and ring; the clip, or clasp, d encircles both ring and scroll, and binds them together. The design shown in Fig. 92 (e) is very old in style, and is made to set over the jambs of the opening, the rails a and bars b being provided with return ends which are let into the stonework about 6 inches from the edge of the window. The rings c forming the grille in this design are carried about a quarter-turn past the full circle, and the iron is twisted and flattened out in the center to form a leaf scroll d, which, with the rings and bars, is held in place by the flat clips c. The bars are drawn out and cut in three prongs at the top to form a cresting, the center one being twisted, and the other two bent down to give ample protection to the top of the opening. The design shown in Fig. 92 (f) is constructed for use either on the wooden window frame or on the face of the wall surrounding the window. The bars a forming the large square mesh are welded together, and extend beyond the mesh a distance equal to its width, and are then bent back 4 inches and welded to the frame b; intermediate pieces c are set between them, and a border is thus formed. The angles of the mesh are filled with scrolls as shown, which are held in place with flat clips d.
67. The guard shown in Fig. 92 (g) is an example of how effectively iron may be employed in decorating an otherwise: plain opening, and transforming it into one of the attractive features of a house front. This guard is intended to cover a small window opening, which would almost escape observation without it, and certainly add nothing to the design of the building, though necessary for lighting the interior. The guard in Fig. 92 (g) is made up entirely of different sizes of bar iron. The principal features are the manner in which the bars a are divided just above the circles b which are riveted to them, the divided portions being wrought into scrolls, which are welded to the spikes c, and are further bound by the strap clips d. The tops of the bars are finished with spike points, passing through a band e and through the bars forming the top, and are welded together. The guard is attached to the opening by the ends of the bands e and f bent to form lugs which are leaded into holes cut for them in the stone jambs. In the guard shown in Fig. 93, the horizontal bands a not only greatly increase the protection, but by the ornamental studs or rosettes on their faces add much to the decorative effect. These studs b are riveted on over each twisted bar. The edges of the bands are turned over, forming a border or flange, strengthening and giving them a finish. The twisted bars terminate at the lower band, and the plain bars are carried down, all meeting in a point where they are welded together and covered at the junction with a leaf ornament c. The twisted bars are pointed at the top, and the plain ones finished with a scroll. The entire lower portion of the guard is filled with a scroll grille, and a dado of scrolls is filled in between the bars above the lower band. The guard is secured to the stone with expansion bolts let into the stonework back of the ornamental bolt plates d.
68. The design shown in Fig. 94 has many points in its favor from both a structural and an ornamental standpoint. It is constructed almost entirely of forged bar iron, with just sufficient leafwork to relieve the monotony of single lines. The design is so open that the interference with light, ventilation, or outlook is inconsiderable; but at the same time it is strong, secure, and amply adapted to its prime purpose as a guard.
The presence of the leafwork in the upper part gives it an appearance of lightness and delicacy, but observation will show that behind these leaves heavy wrought bars give the strength which the purpose of the device requires.