101. Graining is that branch of the painter's art which consists of the imitation of the natural veining curl, etc. in the grain of various woods. It is accomplished, in part, with the same brushes used for house painting in general, but requires special implements for the finishing part called overgraining.

102. Graining: combs are tools, usually made of metal, as shown at (a) and (b) in Fig. 16, or of leather, as shown at (c), with which the straight and wavy grain of certain kinds of wood is imitated. The paint, of the proper color for the grain, is laid on the surface with a pound brush, and then immediately scraped with the graining comb, which removes the applied color in streaks, and leaves a fine, thread-like grain over the ground or body color, applied and allowed to dry before the graining was commenced. Graining combs usually come in sets of eight, and vary in width and coarseness of teeth, as shown at (a), (b), and (c) in Fig. 16, though single combs, such as shown in Fig. 17, may also be obtained. The veining horn, shown in Fig. 18, is used in the same manner as the comb, but only when the graining is to be in broad veins instead of a series of fine, parallel lines. The veining horn is made of a piece of celluloid or horn, and, after being covered with a piece of cloth, is drawn along the freshly painted surface, to remove the color and expose the body color or ground.

Tools Used In Graining And Decorating 229

Fig. 16 (a).

Tools Used In Graining And Decorating 230

Fig. 16 (b).

Tools Used In Graining And Decorating 231

Fig. 16 (c).

Tools Used In Graining And Decorating 232

Fig. 17.

103. Graining Brushes

Graining Brushes. Where the veins are few and far apart, the color used in graining is applied in streaks, instead of a solid coat, and for this purpose a number of brushes called shaders are used. Fig. 19 shows a large shader, which is nothing more than a camel's-hair or sable brush, and is used both to apply the graining color as described above, and to partially remove the over-graining tint where it is desired to produce the effect of veins, which are not as marked as those obtained with the veining horn.

103 Graining Brushes 233

Fig. 18.

103 Graining Brushes 234

Fig. 19.

A number of different sized camel's-hair brushes, called pencils, shown in Fig 20, are used to mark the grain in certain woods. These are usually mounted or bound in the small end of a goose quill, while in the large end a wooden handle is inserted, as shown at (a), Fig. 20. Pencils, as distinguished from brushes, are so called because their purpose is to draw lines or stripes instead of to spread the color over a considerable surface. They are always made of soft hair, such as sable or camel's hair, and are either pointed on the end as in Fig. 20, or cut off square as in Fig. 21, which shows an implement called a pencil over-grainer, and consists of a number of camel's-hair pencils, mounted on a broad wooden handle, and used to mark the parallel grain of various woods.

103 Graining Brushes 235

Fig. 20 (a).

103 Graining Brushes 236

Fig. 20 (b).

103 Graining Brushes 237

Fig. 20 (c;).

The oak over-grainer is shown in Fig. 22, and is used in the same manner as the pencil overgrainer, except that the hair of the brush is divided into a series of small tufts, by means of a graining comb, such as shown in Fig. 17. The comb is drawn through the hair of the brush after the latter has been charged with the color, and the bristles so parted are drawn over the surface to be grained, thereby producing the effect of an irregular-grained surface peculiar to oak, ash, and similar woods. The mottler, shown in Fig. 23, is used to produce that peculiar mottled appearance prevalent in several hard woods, and the dabber, Fig. 24, is required where a blending of one tint into another is desired. The dabber is cut off square on the end, as at (a), Fig. 24, or diagonally, as at {b). The mottler and dabber are usually-used dry and applied to the painted surface with short quick strokes, to remove and replace little particles of color, thereby producing the soft, mottled, or graded effect of one vein running into another. The dabber is sometimes called a blender.

103 Graining Brushes 238

Fig. 21.

103 Graining Brushes 239

Fig. 22.

103 Graining Brushes 240

Fig. 23.

103 Graining Brushes 241

Fig. 24 (a).

103 Graining Brushes 242

Fig. 24 (b).

The badger softener, shown in Fig. 25, is used after the overgraining is complete to soften the edge of the parallel veins and take away the appearance of a hard line or stripe, produced by the use of the pencil, overgrainer, veining horn, or comb.

The above are the principal tools used in general house painting, whether the work is exterior or interior, but the execution of fresco painting and other branches of interior decoration requires additional brushes and other implements to be considered when these subjects are discussed.

103 Graining Brushes 243

Fig. 25.