Some of the tools used in making the finer finishes for stonework are shown in Fig. 9. The crandall (a) consists of a wrought-iron bar, flattened at one end, with a slot, 3/8 in. wide and 3 in. long, in which ten double-headed points, made of 1/4" square steel about 9 in. long, are fastened by means of a key. It is used to finish the surface of sandstone after it has been worked with the tooth-axe or chisel. The patent hammer (b), made of several thin blades of steel, ground to an edge and held together with bolts, is used for finishing granite or hard limestone. The bush hammer from 4 to 8 in. long and 2 to 4 in. square, has its ends cut in pyramidal points. This hammer is used for finishing limestone and sandstone after the surface has been made nearly even.

Stone Finishes 302

Fig. 9.

At (d) Is shown the appearance of rock-faced or pitch-faced work. The face of the stone is left rough, just as it comes from the quarry, and the edges are pitched off to a line. Rock-faced finish is cheaper than any other kind, as but little work is required.

At (e) are shown two kinds of crandalled work; that on the left shows the appearance when the lines run all one way, while that on the right shows the lines crossing. This finish is very effective for the red Potsdam and Longmeadow sandstones.

At (f) is shown broached work, in which continuous grooves are formed over the surface.

At (g) is shown bush-hammered work, which leaves the surface full of points. This finish is very attractive on bluestone, limestone, and sandstones, but should not be used on softer kinds.

At (h) is shown pointed work; that on the left half of the stone being rough-pointed, while the right half fine-pointed. In the rough-pointed work, the point is used at intervals of one inch over the stone, while in the fine-pointed, the point is used at every half inch of the surface.

At (i) is shown the patent-hammered finish, generally used on granite, bluestone, and limestone. The stone is first dressed to a fairly smooth surface with the point, and then finished with the patent hammer. The fineness of the work is determined by the number of blades in the hammer. For U. 8. government work, 10 cuts per inch are generally specified, but 8 cuts per inch is good work.

At (j) is illustrated tooled work. For this finish, a chisel from 3 to 4 1/2 in. wide is used, and the lines are continued across the width of the stone to the draft lines.

At (k) is shown vermicutated work, so called from the worm-eaten appearance. Stones so cut are used in quoins and base courses. This dressing is very effective, but expensive.

At (I) is shown droved work, similar to tooled work, except that the lines are broken, owing to the smaller size of the chisel used. It is less expensive than tooled work.

When a smooth finish is desired, the surface of the stone is rubbed. This is best done before the stone becomes seasoned.