Doors which are to show hard wood finish should be constructed as shown in Fig. 227, and pine doors, intended for a finely finished room, should be made in the same way. The stiles and rails are made by sawing 7/8 clear pine boards into strips as wide as the door is to be thick, less ½ inch, and carefully gluing them together, face to face, until the width of the stile or rail is obtained. The outer edge of the stiles is covered with a 7/8 strip of the finish wood. The core thus made is covered with a veneer of hard wood ¼ of an inch thick. The rails are tenoned into the stiles in the usual way, except that a ½-inch haunch is left the full width of the rail (less the groove for the panel tongue) which fits into the groove in the stile as shown by the isometric drawing E. The panels are not tongued into the stiles and rails, but a hard wood strip of the thickness of the panels is glued into them instead. Against this strip the panel mouldings are glued, thus leaving the panel loose and free to move. If the panels of solid pine doors were secured in this way there would be no chance for the panels to crack. When the door contains a single glass panel a strip should be glued into the stiles and rails as if for a panel, but the inner panel mould should be cut off flush with the top of the strip and a separate moulding, wide enough to cover both the strip and the panel mould, should be tacked in to hold the glass, as shown in Figs. 228 and 230.
If the panels are very wide they also should be veneered, the grain of the core running at right angles to that of the veneer. Fig. 229 shows a section through the stile and panel of the door shown in Fig. 224, and Fig. 230 represents a section on line A B, Fig. 226.
Fig. 231 shows a section through a door, made in two halves and glued together, the paneling on the opposite sides of the door being different.
When a door or wainscot is made to appear like one wide board or a number of boards glued together flush with each other, as in the door Fig. 225, a different method of veneering and building up must be employed. For such a door the frame is glued up in the usual way, and the flush panels are made by gluing a number of pieces of pine, ash or chestnut, 3 or 4 inches wide, together edgeways, taking care that the direction of the annual rings in each piece is reversed, as shown at B B in the horizontal section, Fig. 232, which shows the construction of the bottom portion of the door shown in Fig. 225. The edges of the strips are also doweled together, as shown in the section.
On the door thus formed are glued four veneers, each about 1/15 of an inch thick, two on each side, in such a way that the grain crosses; the grain of the core and the finish running in parallel directions: The inner or cross veneer is usually of oak.
The advantages of doweling, in place of hard wood strips set in grooves the whole length of the edge, were explained in Section 160.
If the door is to be ornamented by carving below the surface the core must be cut out after it is cross veneered, and a block of finish wood of the same color and grain as the veneer set in at the proper place to receive the carving, as shown at A, Tig. 232. If the carving is to be above the surface, as in Fig. 225, a piece of the finish wood is first sawed to the outline of the carving and then glued to the door, after which it is carved.
The above paragraphs and illustrations show how doors should be detailed and made, but it is impossible for the architect to be sure that they have been built as specified unless he can see them in process of construction at the shop. The contract for fine interior woodwork should therefore provide for a strict guarantee of the quality and durability of the work, and even then it is much better, both for the architect and his client, to let the work only to a firm having an established reputation for first-class work.