The manner in which inside finish is put up or fixed in place varies with the quality of work desired, and also greatly affects the appearance of the finish, particularly when finished in its natural color. In painted work and ordinary joiners' work the different parts of the finish are nailed to the wall or grounds and to the edge of the frames with finish nails, which are sunk beneath the surface of the wood for puttying. To conceal the nail holes as much as possible, for they cannot be entirely concealed by the putty even when the finish is painted, the nails should be driven in the quirks of the mouldings wherever practicable. Hard wood finish, if nailed, should be bored for the nails to prevent splitting of the wood.
In common work the contractor usually has the finish stuck in pieces of random lengths, 12 or 16 feet, and for the sake of economy is sometimes tempted to " splice " the architraves or casings with short pieces. The appearance of a spliced casing, however, is so bad that it is not considered admissible in good work. To provide ecifications should provide that " no splicing of the asings will be allowed." hard wood, even when puttied in the most skillful mar the appearance of the finish, so that in the best it is generally required that all the members of the door and window trim shall be glued together on the bench and put up with as few nails as possible.
Very frequently the finish is painted on the back and filled, varnished and rubbed before fixing in place. This not only hastens the completion of the building, but causes the finish to "stand" better, especially the painting on the back. There is also the advantage in having the work finished at the factory, that the wood can be kept perfectly dry and in a room that is free from dust, the varnishers putting on the first coat of shellac as soon as the woodworker has finished his part. In this class of work the side and head casings are joined together before putting up.
Where block or pilaster finish is used the corner blocks and plinths are secured to the casings by means of dowels, as shown in Fig. 348, glue being used in addition.
Mitred joints are always glued together, and should also have some additional fastening, such as dowels or a "spline." When the trim is composed of architrave and back band, the best construction for the joint is probably that shown in Fig. 249. This is also quite a common joint in the best Eastern work. After the pieces are mitred the edges forming the joint are grooved and a hard wood strip or spline inserted. The joint is then glued and driven together and two steel mitre brads are driven in from the back, making a very solid joint. When the trim is in one piece the spline should not extend to the outer edge, as it would injure the appearance. Ordinary dowels may also be used in a mitre joint, but they are not as satisfactory as the spline, or below the finished floor. In this class of work also no large pieces of solid wood are used, the work being made of several pieces glued up, to prevent warping or splitting.
There are several establishments in this country that will in this way make all of the woodwork for the interior of a building in any portion of the globe, ship it ready finished to the building and send men to put it up, which latter work requires but a very short time.
Such work as the above is necessarily expensive, but it is sure to stand well and give satisfaction, and should always be specified when the best work is desired.