In kitchens, back halls, stores, school rooms, etc., the walls are often wainscoted or "ceiled" with matched boards, which are generally beaded on the edge and sometimes in the middle of the board. For good work this "ceiling,"*
♦In some of the Eastern States called "sheathing." as it is called, should be worked out of 4-inch or 3-inch boards, showing about 3 ¼ inches or 2 ¼ inches on the face. The ceiling is blind nailed in the same way as matched flooring, being put up one piece at a time, and generally extends to the floor, without a base. The cap moulding is often rebated to fit over the top of the ceiling. When the walls are to be ceiled in this way grounds must be put on fig. 274.
the studding, if the ceiling is to be set outside the plaster, to receive the nails. If the ceiling is set flush with the plaster bridging must be cut in between the studding for the same purpose. When something handsomer than beaded wainscoting is desired, and paneled work can not be afforded, moulded ceiling or sheathing may be used. The ceiling can be moulded to any pattern, and, if desired, the alternate pieces may be of a different pattern. Fig. 274 shows a section of a moulded wainscot and also one with two patterns alternating ; the latter arrangement may be designed so as to somewhat resemble paneling. When wainscoting such as this is used with a base moulding it will not do to simply nail the base against the wainscoting, as this would leave spaces between the base and the sunk portions of the ceiling, which look very bad and soon fill up with dirt. The proper construction is to stop the ceiling on a beveled board about 1/8 inch thicker than the ceiling and set about \ inch above the top of the base, as shown in the section. Above the cap moulding it is a good idea to place a small moulding that may d to any ir-ities in the ing.
275 shows a I of stop-vainscoting, s is shown large buildings of a semi-public character the small pilaster looks very well and is much cheaper.
274, at the door openings where thin casing is used. In dwellings 5 better to make the projection of a sufficient to stop the mouldings wainscot, as in Fig. 271, but in l8l. Chair Rail. - In dining rooms, and sometimes in halls that are not wainscoted, a moulding 4 or 5 inches wide is often carried around the room at the right height to receive the top of a chair back (about 3 feet 2 inches to centre.) This moulding is called a chair rail. It may be worked from a single board or be built up of two or more members, but the designer should always consider how it will stop against the door and window trim.
In school rooms fitted with blackboards the top of the wainscot is usually fitted with a shelf to receive the chalk and erasers, of which two details are shown in Figs. 276 and 277. Fig. 276 also shows the manner in which slate blackboards should be fastened to the wall.
Picture Moulding. - It is now customary to specify a picture moulding to be put around all rooms in which pictures are likely to be hung, and mouldings for this purpose are carried in stock by the larger lumber dealers, the common pattern being shown at A, Fig. 278.
Fig. 278.- - Picture Moulding., Full Size.
In the better class of work the picture moulding is generally designed to correspond with the other finish, but should be of a section that the ordinary picture hooks will fit. At B and C, Fig. 278, two sections are given as suggestions to the draughtsman. The moulding should be of the same wood as the standing finish, unless it is to be made a part of the wall decoration.
Mouldings with Space for Wires. - In office buildings it is a good idea to make provision for running telephone or telegraph wires, bell wires, etc., within a moulding placed near the top of the room. Where the hall partitions contain windows with transoms over the doors, the heads of the door and window frames may be kept on a level and a moulding, similar to that shown in Fig. 279, run the whole length of the halls in place of a head casing, the side casings stopping under it.
Angle Beads. - When projecting angles have a plaster arris or edge it is customary to protect the angle by a turned bead, with a quarter cut out to fit over the plaster, as shown in Fig. 280. Angle beads are usually of the same wood as the standing finish, and from 1¼ to 1¾ inches in diameter and about 4 feet 6 inches long. Sometimes flat mouldings, similar to an O. G. stop, are nailed each side of the angle, as they afford better protection for the corner, but the turned bead is generally used in residences. Angle beads can hardly be considered as an ornament to a room, and the author much prefers the use of metal corner beads, which render the angle bead unnecessary.