All common hinges are made so that the two leaves cannot be separated, the pin being riveted in place, so that the door or shutter cannot be taken off without unscrewing the hinge. This would be a very grave objection in the hinges of full-size doors for houses, etc., and the necessity of being able to remove the door without unscrewing the hinge, as well as the question of appearance and safety, has led to the universal custom of hanging the doors in all finished buildings with hinges like those shown in Figs. 342 and 343, which permit of the door being taken off without removing the hinge. These hinges are called butts, as they are screwed to the butt edge of the door and the face of the jamb. When the door is closed the leaves of the hinge, and consequently the screws, are concealed, so that the hinge cannot be removed. Butts such as are shown in Fig. 342 are called loose-pin butts, and that shown in Fig. 343 is a loose-joint butt. Loose-joint butts are finished with and without tips, but loose-pin butts always have them. When hung with the latter butt the door is removed by withdrawing the pins and slipping the hinges apart. With the loose-joint butt all that is necessary is to swing the door so that it will clear the trim, and lift it from the hinge.
The use of these butts varies in different localities. In Boston loose-joint butts are used almost exclusively, while in Western cities only loose-pin butts are used, a loose-joint butt being scarcely ever seen.
Loose-pin butts possess two advantages: The first and most important one is that the bearing surface is increased to a maximum, and as the pin is distinct from the leaves it can be made of a metal that will stand more wear than that of the butts.
The smallest butts have two bearings and three "knuckles," and those 4 inches high and over have four bearings and five knuckles.
The loose-joint butt has only one bearing.
The second advantage possessed by the loose-pin butt, and probably the one which most influences its use, is that as either leaf can be fastened to the jamb, the butt can be used on either a right or a left-hand door, which often saves much inconvenience when hanging the door.
Fig. 342. - Loose-Pin Butt.
Fig. 343 - Loose-Joint Butt.
With loose-joint butts the part containing the pin must be screwed to the jamb, which necessitates making the butts in rights and lefts. To tell whether a door is right or left-handed is often confusing, but if the following simple rule be remembered no difficulty will be found. Rule: If the door swings from you to the right, it is right-handed; if it swings from you to the left, it is left-handed.
For locks the above rule applies only to doors that open in ; if the door opens outward, a left-hand reverse bevel latch will be required for a right-hand door, and vice versa. Reverse bevel latches, however, are usually required only for locks in which the key can be used from the outside only, as front door and vestibule locks, rim night latches, etc.
There is another point about the loose-pin butt which is sometimes an advantage and sometimes the reverse, viz.: that by slipping out the pins the door can generally be opened, even when locked. The doors should therefore be hung so that the pins will not be within the reach of burglars or thieves. With the loose-joint butt it is impossible to open the door, when locked, without breaking the lock or butts.
Where loose-joint butts are used great pains should be taken to hang the door so that both butts will bear evenly; in many instances it will be found that but one butt carries the weight of the door.
Material. - Butts are made of cast iron, malleable iron, wrought steel, bronze and brass. For the very best work solid bronze or brass butts or the Stanley bronze-plated steel butts should be used. The steel butts made by the Stanley Works are very heavily plated and finished so that they can not be detected (when on the door) from solid bronze metal, and the author believes are in all respects as desirable, if not more so (on account of greater strength), as solid bronze or brass butts for the inside doors of dry buildings. As butts are not subject to wear on their face, there is no danger of the plating wearing through.
Front doors, or doors hung in damp situations, should be hung with solid bronze or brass butts, or iron butts Bower-Barffed, or if these cannot be afforded, japanned butts answer very well.
The cheaper grades of butts are made of cast iron, either in the plain iron, japanned, lacquered or plated. A cast iron butt can not be considered as a first-class butt, no matter how expensively it may be finished, on account of the brittleness of the material. If a cheap butt must be used the japanned butt will generally be found to wear the best.