The building is to be full frame, all framed, braced, spiked and pinned in the best and strongest manner, perfectly true and plumb and in accordance with the framing drawings.

No woodwork is to be placed within 1 inch of the outside of any chimney and no nails are to be driven into any chimney. [See Section 147.]

The underside of sills and ends of girders to be painted two coats of linseed oil paint before they are set in place.

The sills are to be halved at the corners and spliced with a scarf joint. All sills 20 feet long and under to be in one piece.

The first floor joists are to be notched down (4) inches on the sill and mortised 2 inches more into it, bringing the bottom of the joists flush with the bottom of the sill [see Fig. 25] (or to be hung in Goetz or Duplex joist hangers). The joists to be sized so as to be perfectly level and in line on top, and to be framed flush with girders by tenon and tusk [as shown in Fig. 28.]

All to be well spiked to sill and girders.

Beams of second and third floors to be crowned } inch in 20 feet and sized I inch on girts and partition caps and well spiked.

[If the ceiling is not to be furred the beams should also be sized to a uniform width.]

The posts are to be tenoned into sill and girts into posts, and pinned. Braces to be 3x4 inches. tenoned and pinned into posts, sill or girt. Studding to be cut with 2-inch tenon at lower end and well spiked at upper end with 2od's. No studding to be spliced.

Studding each side of all openings to be doubled.

The plate to be made of two pieces of 2x4-inch scantling, breaking joint and securely spiked to posts and studding.

Double the floor joists under all partitions running the same way; the joists to be set 4 inches apart [see Section 65] and bridged every 2 feet with pieces of floor joist 4 inches long, securely spiked.

Frame around all openings with headers and trimmers of the sizes marked on plans. The headers to be tenoned and spiked to the trimmers, and the tail beams tenoned to the headers.

[If special construction, such as flitch plate headers or steel beams is required, it should be specified here.]

All headers over (8 feet) long are to be hung in (3/6x3-inch) stirrup irons or patent joist hangers.

Bridging. - Cross-bridge all floor beams with one row of bridging for spans of from 8 to 16 feet, and with two rows to all spans exceeding 16 feet (or where shown on framing plans) of (1x3-inch*) stock cut to fit and nailed with two 8d. nails at each end of each piece.

Piazza and Parch Floor. - Piazza and porch floors to be framed with a (4x10-inch) girder from each post or pier to the house, set so that the top of the girder will be (flush) with the top of sill, and pitching away from the house 1 inch in (6) feet. Each girder to be gained 1 inch into the whole depth of the sill and to be secured to the sill by a x2-inch flat iron tie, turned over inside of sill and spiked to sill and girder with three 2od. spikes. The outer end of girder to be supported on brick piers built by the mason (or on cedar posts 6 inches in diameter at the top, set 4 feet in the ground and tamped with sand and gravel).

♦For warehouse floors or 14-inch beams. 2X3-inch stock is generally used.

Between the girders are to be framed the (2x6-inch) floor joists, set 20 inches on centres parallel to the house and all (flush on top) with the girder.

Piazza and Porch Roof. - The roof of the front piazza to be hipped with (2x8-inch) hip rafters and (2x6-inch) jack rafters, with a pitch of (J inch) to the foot. Upper end of hip rafters and inner jack rafters to be well spiked to the wall.

The rafters to be supported by a (4x8-inch) plate, supported by 4x4-inch uprights over the posts, which are not to be put in place until the finish work is put up. Fur under the plate for the architrave and cornice with 2x4-inch studding, 20 inches on centres, toe nailed to underside of plate and with a 2x4-inch soffit at the bottom.

The wall end of plate to be firmly secured to the studding of the house.

The rear porch to have shed roofed with 2x6 rafters, 20 inches on centres and 4x6 plate.

Main Roof. - The main roof of the house is to be framed as shown on framing plan (or in the strongest manner) with valley rafters carried to ridge or hips and 2x10-inch ridge pole. All hips and ridges to be maintained perfectly straight. Rafters to be notched on the plate and spiked. (The overhang of rafters to be dressed three sides and sawed to the pattern shown on detail drawing.) Double the rafters at each side of dormer openings with 4x8-inch header, 8 feet above attic floor, (or cut in(2x8-inch) valley rafters to intersect with dormer roof).

Partitions to be carried up to support roof wherever practicable, and all to be thoroughly tied and made perfectly secure and strong.

Spike 2x4-inch collar beams to each pair of rafters, 8 feet 2 inches above attic floor joists.

Dormers. - Frame the dormers with 4x4-inch corner posts, 2X4-inch studding and plate, and 2x6-inch rafters. The studding to be notched 1 inch on the rafters and extended to the floor. [See Section 82.]