In brick buildings the outer ends of the joist are naturally supported by the brick walls, the usual method being to build the ends of the floor joists or other timbers into the wall about 4 inches and secure them every few feet by iron anchors. Another difference between the framing of a brick and wooden building is in the manner of supporting the joists over the outside door and window openings. In wooden buildings the joists are supported by the sill, girt or plate, but in brick buildings there is nothing corresponding to these. When the top of a window or door opening is 2 feet or more below the bottom of the joists there is sufficient room to turn a brick arch over the opening to support the joists, but when the top of the rough opening comes within 14 inches of the joists, as is usually the case with base-meht windows, the joists should either be framed into a header, as shown in Fig. 37, or a steel beam should be placed over the opening.
This is a point that must not be overlooked in laying out the framing plan. Another point of difference is that in brick buildings a floor joist must always be placed against the walls that are parallel with the joists to afford a nailing for the ends of the floor boards, laths or furring strips; in cheap wooden buildings the under floor ing is sometimes nailed to the girt and the joist omitted, but this is not good practice, as it gives no nailing for the upper flooring. In all other respects the laying out of the framing is the same as described for wooden buildings. Fig. 37 shows the framing plan of the first floor of a small brick building shown in Fig. 36, which in-eludes all the features usually met with in brick dwellings and tenement houses.
Fig. 37. - Framing Plan of Floor, Fig. 36.
In this case it was necessary to drop the girder 6 inches below the top of joists to give room for the boots on the hot air pipes. This is a point that should not be overlooked when laying out the framing of buildings that are to be heated by hot air.
For buildings other than dwellings heavier framing than that which has been described is often required, and, although the principles involved are the same, the details are often somewhat different. Many of these details are as applicable to wooden as to brick buildings, but as they do not as frequently occur in wooden buildings it seemed best to describe them here.