109. Superintendence

The superintendence of the work described in this chapter will ordinarily be a very simple matter, especially if the work has been explicitly specified and detailed.

In regard to the rough boarding, the only inspection needed will be as to the quality of the lumber and the nailing, and to see that it is put on as specified,i.e., close or open and horizontal or diagonally.

Each board should have two nails at every bearing, preferably ten-penny nails, although eight-penny nails are commonly used. The superintendent should also see that the boarding under tin roofs has all projecting edges eased off, and if there are any small knot holes that they are covered with pieces of galvanized iron ; large knot holes should not be permitted. (See Section 86.)

The frames should be examined as soon as they are delivered at the building, to see that they are made strictly in accordance with the details and that the lumber used is of the required quality and thickness. The particular points about the construction of the frames to be examined are those which are unusual in common work, such as the ploughing of the pulley stile into the outside casing and the rebating of the sill. The superintendent should also see that the back of the frames is painted before they are set, if this is specified (as it should be in good work). In brick buildings he should see that a piece of 2X4-inch studding is built into the wall under the window frames (see Section 93), and that the frames are set plumb and are well braced during the building of the wall. In brick and stone walls the frames are easily pushed in or out until they are walled in, and after the wall is up they cannot easily be corrected, consequently it is quite a common thing to see frames that are out of plumb (showing a narrower or wider reveal at the top than at the bottom). The pulley stiles should also be braced by a board set in between them to prevent the sides of the frames from being "sprung" toward each other by the brickwork.

In wooden buildings there is not much chance for the frames to move after they are once set and nailed, and it is only necessary to see that they are plumbed before nailing and that sheathing paper is put back of the outside casing when the casing is placed over the sheathing.

The plumbing and securing of the door frames in brick or stone walls should be carefully looked after, as it is even more important that these should be plumb and rigid than it is for the window frames

If a door frame is not plumb the door will not swing properly, and the slamming of the door soon loosens a frame that is not well anchored (see Section 107).

When the sashes are delivered they should be examined to see that they are of the specified thickness and that the glass is of the kind specified. Plate glass can easily be distinguished from other glass both by thickness and reflection, and, as there is practically but one quality, there is little chance of an inferior article being substituted. When sheet glass is specified it is not so easy to determine the quality, although single and double-strength glass can generally be readily distinguished, and first quality glass should be free from flaws and streaks. If one of the special brands of glass is specified there will be no difficulty in seeing that it is furnished, as each light (in the first quality) is labeled with the trade mark.

All sashes and outside frames should be primed or oiled as soon as possible after they are delivered at the building.