This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The building is to be full-frame, all framed, braced, spiked, and pinned in the best and strongest manner, perfectly true and plumb. Filling-in studs will be nailed, and door and window caps cut into studs. No woodwork shall come within one inch of a chimney; and framing must be arranged to avoid cutting for pipes, chimney, etc. Truss all openings over three feet wide.
Timber, except where otherwise specified, to be of spruce. All timber throughout the building to be full and square to the dimensions indicated, well seasoned, and free from large or loose knots, sap, shakes, or other imperfections impairing durability or strength.
Dimensions to be as follows:-
Sills, 6 by 8 inches.
Girders, 8 by 10 inches.
Posts, 4 by 8 inches.
Girts, 4 by 8 inches.
Ledger boards (used only in subordinate framing), 1 by 6-inch hard pine. Braces, 3 by 4 inches long. Studding, 2 by 4 inches, 16 inches on centers. Door and window studs, double, 2 by 4 inches. Door and window heads 3 by 4 inches. Partition caps, 2 by 4 inches, hard pine. Partition soles, 2 by 4 inches. Joists, first and second floors, 2 by 10 inches; attic, 2 by 8 inches
- 16 inches on centers. Plate, 2 by 4 inches, double, breaking joints. Rafters, 2 by 8 inches, 20 inches on centers. Valley rafters, 3 by 10 inches. Ridges, 2 by 8 inches. Piazza and porch girders, 4 by 8 inches. Piazza and porch sills, 4 by 8 inches. Piazza and porch floor beams, 2 by 8 inches, 20 inches on centers.
Double joists under all partitions not over partitions below running parallel with the joists, where supports to span are 10 feet or less; under all other, triple the joists.
All headers and trimmers 8 feet long or less are to be doubled; all longer, tripled.
Bridge all floors every eight feet with 1 by 3-inch pieces cut diagonally and double-nailed at each end.
All studs are to be 2 by 4 inches, 16 inches on centers, straight and plumb. Partitions directly over walls and girders in cellar, or with partition caps below, are to run down to rest on them. Strongly truss all partitions not supported from below. Spike studs at corners. Line sliding-door pockets with 1/2-inch matched sheathing.
Piazza joists to pitch 1 inch in 5 feet away from house.
To be framed in the strongest manner, with valley &8226; rafters carried to ridge or hips. All hips and ridges to be maintained perfectly straight. Rafters to be notched over the plate, and spiked. Double the rafters at each side of dormer openings; 4 by 8 inch header, 8 feet above top floor. Partitions to be carried up to support roof wherever practicable. All to be thoroughly tied, and made perfectly secure and strong. Collar beams, 2 by 6 inches, 8 feet 2 inches above attic floor.
Dormers to be framed with 4 by 4-inch corner posts, 2 by 4-inch studding and plate, and 2 by 6-inch rafters. Studding to be notched 1 inch on rafters and extend to the floor.
Cover all roofs and frame walls with good, sound spruce boards not over 10 inches wide; roof square-edged; walls matched and laid diagonally. Cover walls with "Neponset" black sheathing paper, or its equal.
Cover all walls with "clear" sawed cedar shingles, 5 1/2 inches to the weather.
Exterior finish not otherwise specified, to be worked from good cypress, clear of sap, shakes, and large or black knots, following elevation and detail drawings; and to be put up in a skilful manner, with close joints and with nails sunk for puttying. Joints exposed to the weather, to be matched and painted with thick white lead before putting the pieces together. The painter to prime finish before or immediately after putting up.
To have 2-inch plank treads on 2-inch carriages, 16 inches on centers; 2-inch plank sills, and trap-door frame, bolted to masonry. Case with 7/8-inch cypress, and make doors of narrow cypress, the doors to be well cleated. Make water-tight. To have heavy strap hinges and proper fastening. Single door at foot of stairs.
To be laid with 7/8-inch by 3-inch Georgia pine dressed one side, upper edge eased off; laid 7/8 inch apart, nailed with 8-penny nails. Finish with rounded nosing and 7/8-inch by 1-inch mouldings. Floors to pitch to throw off water.
To be constructed with 2 by 10-inch plank carriages, 16 inches on centers.
Treads of outside steps to be of 7/8-inch by 4-inch hard pine strips, with rounded nosings and coving under, returned at the ends. Risers 7/8-inch thick.
Ceiling of covered porch and piazza to be of 5/8-inch by 2 1/2-inch tongued, grooved, and beaded North Carolina pine.
To be built up of white pine, with turned shafts of diameter as shown for lower third and diminishing slightly above, with moulded caps and moulded bases.
At floor and at roof of porch and side piazza, and over dining-room bay, to be of 2 1/4-inch stock, 2 inches apart, turned.
Posts on porch and piazza roofs are to be built up with turned finials, and supported by pieces running up from plate or sill inside of posts.
Top rail to be built up and moulded; lower rail, 2 by 3 inches, solid, beveled.
Plank frames in stonework in basement, except where shown double-hung, are to be of 1 3/4 by 6-inch pine, with 7/8 by 1 3/4-inch moulded staff bead, and 2f-inch sill. Frames to be rebated on the outer edge for screens. Sash to be hung at the top, to swing in.