This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Before beginning a description of the framing, it will be well to consider the methods employed in joining pieces of timber together. The number of different kinds of connections is really very small, and the principles upon which they are based may be mastered very quickly.
Copyright, 1912, by American School of Correspondence.
All connections between pieces of timber may be classified as joints or as splices. By a "splice" we mean a connection between two pieces which extend in the same direction, as shown in Fig. 36, and each one of which is merely a continuation of the other. The only reason for the existence of such a connection is the fact that sticks of timber can be obtained only in limited lengths and must, therefore, very often be pieced. By a "joint" we mean any connection between two pieces which come together at an angle, as shown in Fig. 37, and which are, therefore, not continuous. Such a connection may be required in a great many places, and especially at the corners of a building.
The principal kinds of joints to be met with in carpentry are the "butt joint," the "mortise-and-tenon joint," the "gained joint," the "halved joint," the "tenon-and-tusk joint," and the "double-tenon joint."