This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
All cement required is to be Portland cement of such fineness that 90 per cent will pass through a 100-mesh sieve. The initial set shall be in not less than 30 minutes; and pats of neat cement about 3 inches in diameter and half an inch thick in center, worked off to a thin edge, exposed in air or immersed in water for seven days, after the cement has set sufficiently not to be disintegrated by water, shall show no discoloration, warping, checks, or signs of disintegration.
. sufficiently good quality for all masonry mortar except wearing surface of pavements, steps, etc. Should there not be enough thus obtained, that brought in must be as clean and sharp as that found in excavating.
The sand for all wearing surfaces (down at least 1/2 inch), such as walks, steps, and cellar and area floors, is to be crushed granite, ranging from the finest material to that which will pass a 30-mesh sieve.
The gravel stratum may be used for concrete aggregate, provided the sand and all stone too large to pass a 2-inch ring are screened out. The sand may be used with other sand on the site, and the stone screened out be broken to size required; the other material needed will be equal to that obtained on the site, and the Contractor will not dig holes below the finished grade lines to obtain material.
All common brick are to be run of the kiln, excluding all salmon brick which will take up during one hour's immersion in water as much as 18 per cent of their weight in water. As delivered, the hardest are to be kept in piles for use in backing exterior walls and flues; the softer are to be put in interior walls.
All facing brick are to be light color, of rough face texture, evenness of tone or burning will not be required; and the light and dark tones will be laid together, with no attempt to keep the same tones together; but no brick will be allowed which is soft enough to absorb over 12 per cent of its weight in water. The facing brick are to have full, square edges free from chipped corners.
All granite (the exterior wall below water table, and front steps and buttresses, are to be of granite) is to be of light color, free from black knots, and is to be finished 4-cut work. The joints are to be 3/8 inch wide, and tooled back full for 1 inch from exterior surface; and the stones may be as thin as economical dressing will permit.
From water table up to line of second story window-sills, all stone required is to be a light limestone or sandstone with a 4-bat-to-the-inch finish (consisting of 4 concave grooves to each inch, made either by hand or by machine), for all vertical surfaces. All other surfaces will be rubbed. The stone must be of an even texture, free from seams or streaks. Should any material used show in a rubbed block any grain from which the natural bed can be' determined, it is to be set so that it will rest on its natural bed; but if the stone is of such character as to show no such indications, it will be immaterial whether it rests on its natural bed.
The ashlar may be as thin as 4 inches, except where reveals or corners occur. At reveals the heads are to be the full depth; and no vertical joint in the face of the wall is to be nearer the reveal than 1 foot, while all caps and sills are to be the full depth.
Terra=cotta. Structural. The interior faces of all exterior brick walls are to be furred with 2-inch porous terra-cotta of such quality that a nail can be driven therein without splitting and be firmly held.
All flues are to be lined with hard-burned non-porous flue linings at least 3/4 inch thick.
Terra=cotta. Ornamental. (Cornice and Balustrade). All ornamental terra-cotta is to have a color similar to the lighter tones of brick, with a combed surface forming about 6 ribs to one inch. It is to be hard-burned, with capacity to absorb not over 4 per cent of its weight of water after immersion for one hour. All approximately horizontal surfaces are to be made rough, to key the cement coat which it is proposed to put above. . The finished pieces are to be straight and unwarped, and in lengths never less than 2 feet 10 inches for continuous members; in projecting members, all vertical joints must occur over bearings. All members with less than 2-feet face must be in one piece. The Contractor must furnish shop drawings for approval of jointing only; no outlines are to be modified thereby, and such changes in the jointings may be made, within the lines above laid down, as in the judgment of the Architect will better the construction or appearance of the work.