This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Outside doors are usually made heavier and thicker than inside doors, and, therefore, the frames for them must be different from the frames for inside doors even in frame buildings, and in buildings of brick or stone they are necessarily different from the inside door frames on account of being set in the masonry walls, while the inside door frames are usually set in wood walls. The interior partitions of large buildings, however, are frequently made of terra cotta blocks or of plaster on wire lath, but the door frames which may be used in these cases are essentially the same as those used for openings in stud walls.
The jambs and head of the frame, if in a building of wood construction, are usually made of plank from 1 3/4 inches to 2 1/2 inches thick. As the doors to private houses generally open inward, the frames must be rabbeted on the inside edge to receive the door, and should also be rabbeted on the outer edge to receive a screen door in summer. The inner edge of the frame is set flush with the plaster line in the inside so as to receive an architrave, the same as in the case of a window frame.
Fig. 340. Section of Outside Door Frame.
Fig. 341. Another Outside Door Frame Construction.
Fig. 340 shows an outside door frame for a wood building. A A are the studs which form the rough opening, the section being taken horizontally through the door jamb. B is the outside boarding and C is the lathing and plastering which is carried on the inside of the studding.
It will be seen that the frame E extends in width from the outside of the boarding to the inside of the plaster, and receives on its outer edge the outside casing F, and on its inner edge the inside architrave G. D is a ground for the plastering, and H is the door itself, fitting into a rabbet cut in the frame, about 1/2 inch deep and the thickness of the door. K is the screen door for which a rabbet is cut in the outside edge of the frame.
A similar arrangement is shown in Fig. 341. There is no rabbet cut in the frame shown in this figure, the screen door being designed to hang on the edge of the outside casing, as indicated, the casing being made thicker in order to receive the door. This figure is lettered the same as Fig. 340.
The section taken vertically through the head of the door frame would be the same as the section through the jamb, but the section taken through the sill would be different. Fig. 342 shows such a section. Here, A is the sill which forms a part of the rough framing of the building, and rests on the foundation walls, receiving the joists which are shown in the figure at B. L is the line of the outside boarding, C is the under flooring, and D is the finished flooring. On top of the under flooring is placed the door sill E, which is cut out of plank about 1 3/4 to 2 1/2 inches thick, with a wash on the outside like a window sill, and with the top placed about 3/4 inch above the finished floor so as to allow the door F to swing inward over any rug or carpet which may be laid on this floor. The sill is a little wider than the distance from the inside of the inside architrave, to the outside of the outside casing. The line H is the line of the porch floor, if there is any perch, or there may be a step with the face as indicated by the line K. G represents a screen door.
Fig. 342. Section through Sill of Door Frame.
Fig. 343. Another Type of Construction for a Door Sill.
Fig. 343 shows another type of door sill which is more simple in construction and less expensive than that shown in Fig. 342.
East End of Living Room.
West End of Living Room.
RESIDENCE FOR MRS. THOS. G. GAGE, ROGERS PARK, CHICAGO. ILL.
John B. Fischer, Architect, Chicago For Plans and Exteriors, See Page 234.
Instead of being shaped to receive the door, as is the sill shown in Fig. 342, it is cut square, with a slight wash only, and on top of it is placed a saddle under the door. In Fig. 343 A is the rough sill of the framework resting on the foundation walls; BB are blocks to receive the ends of the flooring C on top of which is the finished flooring D. The top of the sill E is flush with the top of this finished flooring, and the saddle M covers the joint between the two, being beveled as shown at both sides. F is the door, and at G is the outside screen door. As before, H is the level of the veranda, if there is one, and K is the face of the riser of a step which may be placed under the sill on the outside. L is the line of the outside boarding. Inside Door Frames. Inside door frames are in some respects similar to the outside door frames described above, but as they are intended for the lighter interior doors, they are not made so heavy as are the outside frames. Fig. 344 shows a section taken horizontally through the jamb of an interior door frame, the same section also serving for a section through the head of the frame taken vertically since the two sections will be the same. In this figure, A A are the studs in the partition at the side of the door opening, and forming the rough framing for the opening. BB are the grounds for the plaster C to stop against, and these grounds, of course, go all around the door opening, on both sides, and across the top. D is the finished door jamb, the head being exactly the same in section. The jambs are usually made 1 1/8 inches thick, but sometimes only 7/8 inch. F is the door itself, shown 1 3/4 inches thick, although closet doors are frequently made of less thickness than this, and some heavy doors might be thicker. At one side of the frame the door is hinged, the hinge being fastened partly to the edge of the door, and partly to the frame, but at the other side of the frame there must be something provided to form a stop for the door. There are several methods of applying the "stop," one of which is shown at E in the figure. It is fastened to the jamb, but is in the form of a separate piece. The stop is carried all around the door opening, and is usually set back from the edge of the jamb on both sides by an amount equal to the thickness of the door, so that the door can be hung at either edge of the jambs, or at either side of the partition. The final finish of the door opening is the "architrave" or "casing," which is shown at GG. This must be at least wide enough to extend from the edge of the jamb over onto the plaster so as to cover the joint entirely. Another method of making the door frame is shown in Fig. 345. Here, the frame is rabbeted to form a place for the door, and there is no need of a stop. Such a frame is usually made thicker than the one shown in Fig. 344, and is rabbeted to a depth of 1/2 inch, and the thickness of the door. The principal objection to this method is that at the head of the door, which is rabbeted the same as is the jamb, the part of the frame which shows above the door itself is greater on one side of the door than it is on the other. Therefore, unless all the doors in a room open into that room, or all of them out from the room, they will not line with each other at the head. For this reason it is better, to use some form of frame with a separate stop planted onto it, or a frame rabbeted on both sides.
Fig. 344. Horizontal Section through Jamb of Interior Door Frame.
The lettering in Fig. 345 is the same as in Fig. 344, and need not be explained again.
The only finish about a door frame with the exception of the door itself, is the architrave or the trim as it is sometimes called. It is also called casing. This is shown at G in Fig. 344. It may be made of any design desired, and as wide as desired, it being only necessary that it shall cover the plaster ground B, and project over onto the plaster C. The architrave is usually worked out of 7/8-inch stuff, but may be made thicker as necessary. Its thickness is determined by the thickness of the base or skirting in the room, which base or skirting has to stop against the architrave at each side of the door opening.
Fig. 345. Another Door Frame Construction.
Fig. 34C. Door Trim Construction Showing Back Band.
In Fig. 346, at A, is shown what is known as a "back band." It goes behind the architrave, as shown, and is used when for any reason it is necessary to have the architrave set out from the face of the plaster. Its purpose is to cover up the joint between the architrave and the plaster surface. Of course it may be molded as desired. It is usually made 5/8 inch thick and as wide as necessary. In Fig. 346 B is the architrave, C the plaster ground, D the lathing and plastering, EE the studding in the wall, F the door, G the jamb, and H the stop. It will be seen that the stop H is set into the jamb G. This makes a good, solid construction, but it is not often done on account of the trouble and expense involved.