*Note: - There is a great difference between "quarter-inch scale" (i.e. 1/4 inch =1 foot) and " quarter scale," or one-quarter of full size (i.e., 3 inches = 1 foot).

Besides the contract drawings and subsequent detail drawings, other drawings are frequently called for, for winch allowances have been made in the contract, as for furniture, special finish, etc.

Various Stages In Building A House Continued 0600339

Fig. 26.

Representation of Materials. This may be either by blacking in, hatching, etc., or by use of colors. The former method (Fig. 26) is convenient for tracings to be blue-printed, as it saves coloring the prints.

On elevations, materials are shown as follows:


. white.


horizontal lines.




vertical lines.


sketched to scale.

Terra-cotta, etc...

abbreviations marked "T.C.", etc.

On plans and sections:


diagonal hatching, ruled lines.


. diagonal hatching, wavy lines.


. dotted.

Wood ..

. grain indicated, or black if small-scale.


hatched margin, dotted surface.


divisions to suggest material.


steel sections suggested.



Old work

. white.

If colors are preferred, the following may be used:

Brass and copper.



light red.


Payne's grey, mottled.


new blue.

Glass in elevations.a graded wash of India ink, indigo, new-blue with a little carmine.

Old work..

grey or black.


Payne's grey.

Sections..construction not determined, pink with red border line.

Shadow in elevation.

India ink with indigo or gallstone.



Steel and iron..

Prussian blue.

Stone ...

raw umber or new blue, or Payne's grey.


burnt umber.


light red with yellow.


yellow ochre.

Coloring may be carried further, following this scheme, always placing guide-squares in one corner of the drawing with the names of the materials represented.

Tracing and Blue-Printing. Drawings of which several copies are needed, may be traced on transparent paper or linen, or laid out directly on these materials. Thin bond paper is often used. Prints may be taken from these, either blue or brown prints, giving white lines on a blue or brown ground, or by first taking negatives, dark lines on a white ground.

Notes should be kept for the specifications while drawings are being made.

Letting the Contract. When the working drawings and specifications are finished, owner and architect decide on three or four builders, any one of whom would be satisfactory, who are asked to submit estimates. The builders are allowed time enough to go over the plans and specifications carefully so that they may know the actual value of the work; and bids are sent in to the architect's office to be opened on a certain day, when the owner meets the successful bidder and a contract is signed for building the house.

In France there is generally a separate contractor for each kind of work; in England a general contractor makes up his bid from quantities given him by a quantity-surveyor; in America usually the sub-bids are given to a general contractor who takes the responsibility for the whole work.

The work generally starts immediately on the signing of the contract, and is carried on continuously, with visits from the owner and from the architect, payments being made at regular intervals or on completion of certain parts of the work.

During the progress of building, the owner and architect select fixtures, wall papers, etc.