The bathroom fixtures, laundry tubs and kitchen sink, with the possible addition of a slop sink, make up the usual fixtures to be provided for in the ordinary dwelling house. In houses of larger size these may be duplicated to some extent, but the general methods of connection are the same as have already been described and need not be taken up again in detail.

Apartment Houses

These are usually made up of duplicate flats, one above the other, so that the plumbing fixtures may be the same for each. It is customary to place the bathrooms in the same position on each floor, so that a single soil pipe will care for all.

Apartment Houses 1000290

Fig. 82.


Here, as in the case just described, the bathrooms are placed one above another, so that a single soil pipe may care . for each series, and the problem then becomes that of duplicating the layout for an apartment house. In addition to the private baths there is a public lavatory or toilet-room, usually on the first floor or in the basement. This is fitted up with closets, urinals and bowls. The closet seats and urinals are placed side by side, with dividing partitions, and connect with a common soil pipe running back of them and having a good pitch. Each fixture should have its own trap. The flushing of the fixtures is often made automatic, so that pressing down the wooden rim of a closet seat will throw a lever which on being released will flush the closet. Urinals are commonly made to flush at regular intervals by some of the devices already shown. The lavatories are made up in long rows, as shown in Fig. 84.

Apartment Houses 1000291

Fig. 83.

Railroad Stations

The plumbing of a railroad station is similar to that of a hotel, although even greater care should be taken to make the fixtures self-cleansing, as the patrons are likely to include many of the lowest and most ignorant class of people. Special attention should be given to both the local ventilation of the fixtures and the general ventilation of the room.


The same general rules hold in the case of school buildings as in hotels and railroad stations. As the pupils are under the direct supervision of teachers and janitors it is not necessary to have the fixtures automatic to as great an extent as in the cases just described, and it is customary to flush the closets by means of tanks, and pull chains or rods, the same as in private dwellings. The urinals may be automatic or a small stream of water may be allowed to flow through them continuously during school hours. A good form for this class of work is shown in Fig. 85.

Apartment Houses 1000292

Fig. 84.

Shops And Factories

Some simple type of fixture which can be easily cared for is best in buildings of this kind.

Apartment Houses 1000293

Fig. 85.