If the old paint has been on a long time, it is liable to be permeated by minute cracks, which admit moisture to the surface of the wood and loosen the paint. If now we paint over this, the new paint, which shrinks in drying, tends to pull off the old paint, and of course the whole peels off in patches. If the old paint is in this state, it must be removed before the new paint is applied. This can be done by burning off. For this work a painter's torch is required, which is a lamp burning alcohol, gasoline, or kerosene, and is so constructed that a blast of flame can be directed against the- surface. This melts or softens the old paint, which is then immediately scraped off with a steel scraper. The paint is not literally burned, but is softened by heat so that it can be scraped off. In some cases it is sufficient to remove as much as possible with a steel brush; this is a brush like a scrubbing brush, with steel wires instead of bristles, and, when vigorously used, will take off the loose paint.

Old paint, however, is not always in this condition. If it adheres well, it may be cleaned with an ordinary scrubbing brush and water, and when it is quite dry, the new paint may be applied. Sometimes the paint seems in good condition, only it has faded and lost its luster; and in such cases a coat of boiled oil, or raw oil with dryer, is all that is needed.

It is well to paint the trim - that is, the window-casings, doorcasings, corner-pieces, and the like - before painting the body of the house; then the paint can be applied to the flat surfaces more neatly than is otherwise likely to be done. Paint should be applied in thin coats, well brushed on; it is not unusual to see paint come off from re-entrant angles while it is still good on flat surfaces, because it was difficult to brush the paint properly in those places. There is a great difference in durability between a thin paint flowed on with a large, flat brush, and one of proper consistency well brushed out with a brush of medium size. In all painting on wood, it is desirable to brush it on with the grain of the wood; and by painting only a few boards at once, we may avoid laps by painting the whole length. Rough surfaces hold paint better, and more of it, than smooth. A gallon of paint will cover, one coat (on a painted or well-primed surface), about 600 square feet, not flowed on, but well brushed out in a thin film. The priming coat will not cover more than 300 or 400 square feet to the gallon. In measuring the outside of a house for surface, make no deductions for doors and windows; if the trim is to be painted a different color, from one-sixth to one-third of the paint will be required of that color. Paint should be stirred frequently while using. A coat of dry paint is from 1/500 to 1/1,000 of an inch in thickness.