This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
39. Although it has been deemed best to restrict this textbook to a consideration of the three Roman orders termed the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian, the simpler Tuscan Order is shown sufficiently in detail to enable the student to use it in the exercises as required. The simplicity of its mouldings and the comparatively few lines required to express its component parts seem especially to fit this order for the earlier required drawings. The general proportions of the Tuscan Order are shown in Fig. 6, while the details may be more carefully studied in the full page drawing, Plate II
40. The shaft of the column has at its lower extremity a projecting member called the listel, surmounted by a curved member called the cong6 or cove, which is itself a continuation of the outline of the column shaft. The listel rests directly upon the base and is three parts in height and the same in projection, therefore the surmounting conge' is in outline just a quarter of a circle.
PLATE II. (A reproduction at small size of Portfolio Plato II.)
41. The height of the base without the listel is 26 parts, divided between the plinth, which is 14 and the torus which is 12. Since a torus has the form of a semi-circle, its projection is one-half the height, that is to say six, which-with the projection of the listel-makes the total projection of the base beyond the lower part of the shaft nine parts.
42. The projection of the base determines the width of the die of the pedestal whose face corresponds to the face of the plinth above, and it is from this face that the projections of its cap and base are measured. These projections and moulding sections are shown at the left of the drawing in Plate II.
43. The shaft of the column is terminated below the capital by a moulding composed of a conge, a fillet, and a small torus which is called a bead; these mouldings taken together are termed the astragal.
44. The Tuscan capital is very simple, and is composed of three principal parts. Above the astragal occurs the necking, 8 parts in height and ending in a conge Then comes a fillet 2 parts high. Above this is the quarter-round 6.5 parts in height and of equal projection. The upper part of the capital is composed of the abacus, ending in a conge and fillet, the whole 9.5 parts high. The abacus is, like the plinth of the base, square in plan. The total projection of the upper edge of the abacus from the face of the necking is 10 parts.
45. The architrave is composed of a single face, terminated by a cove and a listel. The total height of the architrave is thirty parts, of which twenty-five are given to the face and cove, and five to the listel. The projection of the listel is four parts.
46. The frieze of the Tuscan Order is thirty-three parts in height, and is terminated at the top by a conge
47. The cornice is composed of three principal parts: the quarter-round, the corona and the cavetto. To each of these parts is also given a fillet or listel to finish or separate it from the adjacent mouldings. An alternative entablature is shown upon the same plate, lining with the one just described.
48. On this plate (II) are also shown the details of two imposts and an archivolt which may be employed in the decorated arcades of the Tuscan Order. The imposts are twenty-four parts in height, and the archivolt is thirty parts wide.