Plate XI



There are, of course, many other forms of overflow and waste, in combination or separately; the examples given are intended to serve as typical examples, and not as being the only available apparatus of good design. The chief points to be observed are to prevent the overflow becoming in any way a conductor of foul air into the bath-room, and to avoid, as far as possible, all chance of accumulation of soap-suds or dirty water about the overflow-pipe and waste-outlet. The trap on the waste-pipe should be made as small as possible consistently with quick discharge, in order to reduce the amount of stagnant water therein. Every part of the overflow arrangement should be easily and thoroughly cleansed.

The outlet (or "waste") pipe ought to be sufficiently large to discharge tin-contents of an ordinary bath (from 30 to 40 gallons) in about one minute and a half. For this purpose a pipe two inches in diameter is sufficient, provided the water-way is free and unobstructed. It frequently happens that the outlet is restricted by the grating in the bottom of the bath being made so as to give an area of free opening very much less than the ana of the waste-pipe. The grating (if grating there must be) should be carefully denned, so that the art of the openings is rather more than that of the waste-pipe, in order to compensate for friction.

The question of waste-discharge leads naturally to the subject of utilization of bath-wastes for drain-flushing. Though this is a matter which somewhat overlaps the subject of drainage, it may, perhaps, be pointed out here that, while the discharge of 30 or 40 gallons of water in a body is undoubtedly of value in scouring out the drains, its value will necessarily be increased or diminished as the size and arrangement of the pipes are well or ill considered. For this reason the foregoing conditions about free water-way in outlet gratings, and waste-pipes of sufficient and regular diameter, must be carefully observed.

Hitherto reference has been made only to the ordinary bath of everyday household form. The more elaborate forms of baths provided with different apparatus for the application of douche, spray, and shower are of course expensive, and suitable only for the houses of the well-to-do. Plate XI. shows a bath of this kind. The hood at the head of the bath is perforated at several points, and a system of pipes and valves supplies hot and cold water for shower-bath, wave, sitz, spray, and douche baths. These baths are usually made of first-quality enamelled copper, and are almost invariably cased with wood. They can be had at a much leas cost, formed of cast-iron, enamelled inside and out, in which case the casing is not required. Less elaborate baths can be obtained with hoods, containing the necessary perforations, etc, for shower and spray. For shower-bath purposes only, an apparatus, consisting of a small circular cistern, with a curtain-dnI fixed to the under side, and provided with B valve and cord for opening, can be applied to any ordinary bath at a comparatively small expense; or the cistern can be dispensed with, and the water led direct to a rose fixed to a bracket on the wall. In this case the curtain-rod will have to be fixed independently.

Fig. 264  Section and Plan of Combined Waste and Overflow inside Bala.

Fig. 264 -Section and Plan of Combined Waste and Overflow inside Bala.

From the most expensive type of bath we pass to the cheapest. A bath of some sort is a very desirable thing in all cottages, and in miners' houses it is a necessity. The cheapest form of bath for a cottage is a cast-iron taper bath, enamelled inside, of the cheapest quality. Such a bath can be had for about 2,even less, and the surface can be inez pensively renewed by the application of ordinary enamel paint This bah would require to be filled by hand, as the price does not include taps or valves, and in any case the provision of a hot-water circulation system could hardly be made in a cottage. If the bath is placed in the scullery, cold water may be run into it from the tap over the sink by means of an india-rubber pipe and hose union. Where space is limited, the bath may be provided with a wooden cover (hinged or loose), which serves as a table when the bath is not in use. Occasionally baths are sunk in the floor, and covered with a trap door; this arrangement saves space, but may render repairs more difficult Although not strictly speaking within the scope of this article, a few words may be said on the subject of gas-heated baths. In houses where there is no circulation of hot water from the kitchen boiler, and where gas is available, a "Geyser", or apparatus for heating bath-water by gas, is of great practical value. The chief precaution to l>c observed is that the products of combustion from the gas are carried off into the open air or into a flue, and that, if the supply of water fails or is cut off, the supply of gas is automatically shut off or reduced to a harmless quantity. In the "Lightning Geyser", patented by Messrs. Ewart & Son. both these conditions are fulfilled. The water enters the heating-- handier through a specially-contrived "dual' valve. When the water passes through this valve, it admits a full supply of gas to the burner; if from any cause the supply of water fails or is cut off. the supply of gas is instantly checked or shut off entirely. This Geyser is heated by a set of burners with ordinary luminous flames, and the products of combustion are carried off by a flue at the top of the apparatus, which can lie carried through the wall into the open air or into a flue, as may be desired.

It would be neither possible nor desirable in a work like the present to describe, with anything like fulness of detail, the principles and arrangements of Turkish baths; the subject, however, is one that should not be altogether ignored. Through the kindness of Mr. Thomas W. Cutler, F.R.I.B.A., we are enabled to give a plan of a private Turkish bath erected from his designs at Avery Hill, Eltham. The arrangement (Fig. 265) consists of a bath-room and lavatory, answering to the " Lavatorium " of the Romans, a "Tepidarium ", and a "Laconicum ". The heat is supplied by hot-water coils and pipes, and venti-lation is provided by means of shafts carried up through the roof, and communicating with the hollow space in the walls. This plan may be regarded as a sort of via media between the simplest form of hot-air bath, in which the whole process is carried on in one room, and the most elaborate suite of Tepidarium, Calidarium, and Laconicum, with shampooing-room, lavatory, and Frigidarium.

Fig. 265. Plan of Turkish Bath at Avery Hill.

Fig. 265.-Plan of Turkish Bath at Avery Hill.

A simple hot-air bath, in which all the essentials of the process can be practiced, may be arranged in one room; all that is required being a floor, walls, and eating that will retain the heat, a stove for raising the temperature to the required degree, and suitable appliances for washing. This may be regarded as the unit. to which the process of subdivision can be applied, until the complete scheme described above is reached.

The essential point in all hot-air baths, whether simple or elaborate, is a. system of ventilation and warming which provides for a constant renewal of the air. and f«»r keeping the air as dry as possible.