A further improvement is shown in the midden-closet as formerly constructed at Stamford (Fig. 433), where the seat is hinged, so that it can be thrown up and the house-ashes emptied on to the contents, as these assist in deodorizing the focal and other putrescent matters. TV midden is also very shallow, necessitating frequent cleansing.

Fig. 432   Plan and sections of Midden  closet In use in Burnley.

Fig. 432 - Plan and sections of Midden -closet In use in Burnley.

Fig 433   Plan and sections of Midden closet in used in stamford.

Fig 433 - Plan and sections of Midden closet in used in stamford.

The final type of midden-privy which will be given, is that which formerly used to be constructed at Manchester and is known as the Bevel Midden, from the shape given to the side of the midden to facilitate cleansing and emptying. The shape of the midden is undoubtedly an improvement, hut it is so large, that the removal of the contents cannot fail to be arduous and unpleasant.

Fig 434.   Plan and Sections of Mldden closet formerly used la Manchester.

Fig 434. - Plan and Sections of Mldden-closet formerly used la Manchester.

Thus, the midden or privy-pit became smaller and smaller, and its transition into the pail or receptacle closet was an easy step. This is now known as the "Tub", "Pan", or "Pail" Closet, and is largely used in one form or the other in many manufacturing centres. It is undoubtedly a great improvement on midden-closets, as, on account of the small size of the receptacle, the faeces are more frequently removed, and the labour and nuisance of such removal are greatly reduced. Each closet must have its own receptacle, and the front of vol. II the seat must be arranged to take out, so that the pail can be easily removed

Fig. 435.   Rochdale Excremrnt pail and Cover.

Fig. 435. - Rochdale Excremrnt-pail and Cover.

The pail and cover used at Rochdale are shown in Fig. 435, the pail being of wood, while the Birmingham pail and cover (Fig. 436) are of galvanized iron.

Manchester was one of the first cities to alter privies into pail-closets, and to add the ashes to the faecal matter as shown in Fig. 437. It will be observed that the building in this case is somewhat similar to a common privy, but that underneath the seat is an iron pail, circular in form, which contains the faeces, Ac, and the garbage and other matters which the woman is seen to be emptying into a series of screens or sifters, arranged in a shaft or long box outside the wall of the privy. The finer ashes are sifted out and fall into the pail under the seat, whilst the larger cinders fall down into the box below, from which they can be easily removed by means of a door, and re-burned or used in other ways. There are several modifications of this process, by which the fine ash is added to the contents of the pail, all being undoubtedly a great advance upon the old privy or midden.

Interception Or Dry Systems 40013Ftg. 436.   Birmingham Excrement pail and Cover.

Ftg. 436. - Birmingham Excrement-pail and Cover.

Not long after the introduction of the pail-system into this country, Mr.

Fig. 437. View of Manchester Privy with Cinder sifter.

Fig. 437.-View of Manchester Privy with Cinder-sifter.

Goux of Rochdale introduced an absorbent pail, in which the ashes are applied to the pail before it is sent out, the sides and bottom being lined with ashes pressed into shape by means of a mould. Fig. 438 illustrates this form of pail, and the mould used in forming the inside of it. In addition to ashes, the absorbing material contains dry street-sweepings and factory-waste, to which is added sulphate of lime; the mixture is pressed down, and when the pail is placed in the closet, the mould is withdrawn. It is claimed that the aheorbent material takes up the urine and other moisture, prevents decomposition, and facilitates the conversion of the excreta into a portable manure. The opponents of this special {mil say that there is nothing in these claims, and that the lining merely adds to the weight of the pail. There can be no doubt, however, that the attempt, whether successful or not, merits approbation.

Fig. 438.    Goux  Excrement pail and Mould.

Fig. 438. - "Goux" Excrement-pail and Mould.

The collection of the pails is in most cases effected by means of specially-constrocted closed wagons, which are sent round, generally at night, accompanied by men. who collect the full pails and substitute empty ones which have been previously cleansed and disinfected at the various depots. The wagons for this purpose are generally after the pattern shown in Fig. 439. The full pails are placed in the wagon, which is then taken to the depot.

Fig 439  Rochdale Night toll Van.

Fig 439 -Rochdale Night-toll Van.

The contents of the pails are variously treated. In some cases they are mixed with a sufficient quantity of dry ashes (house-refuse) to absorb the liquid, and are then placed in a stirring-mill, where offal or other animal refuse is added. Whilst this mixture is passing through the mill, about 5 per cent of gypsum (sulphate of lime) is added to fix the ammonia. The mixture thus prepared consists approximately of about 20 per cent of excreta and urine, 20 per cent of offal, Ac, 5 per cent of gypsum or sulphate of lime, and 55 per cent of fine ashes. This is then passed over a fine sieve or screen, which takes out all the coarse parts, and the residuum is put into bags and sold as manure, which is said to be worth about 15 shillings a ton.