This section is from the "Architectural Iron And Steel, And Its Application In The Construction Of Buildings" book, by WM. H. Birkmire.. Also see Amazon: Architectural Iron And Steel, And Its Application In The Construction Of Buildings.
Where brick or stone walls are faced with stone ashler from 4 to 12 inches thick, and it is necessary to tie the outer surfaces to the body of the wall, ashler anchors are used. One end is let into the stone, the other end resting on and built in with the wall. Where an exceptionally large wall is lined with ashler, the anchors should be made heavier in proportion. This anchor forms a good tie for an air-space lining wall; that is, where a stone wall is built under sidewalk with an air space, then a brick wall from 4 to 8 inches thick; the anchors being built into the stone wall, projecting through the air space and tying the brick wall, and placed from 4 to 5 feet between centres in all directions.
The sizes commonly used are 3/16" X 3/4" X 12" long; 1/4" X 3/4" X 12" long; 1/4" X 1" X 14" long; 3/8" X 1 1/4" X 12" long; 1/2" X 1 1/2" X 16" long.
The side anchor B is for iron beams, to be bolted to the webs with two 3/4-inch-diameter bolts, and placed on all beams resting on walls. These following lengths are for beams with 8 inches bearing on a 16-inch wall and over: 3/8" X 1 1/2" X 16" long: 3/8" X 1 3/4" X 16" long; 3/8" X 2" X 16" long. For a 12-inch wall the anchor should be two angle knees bolted or riveted to web.
Side anchor A is used for wooden beams, and nailed to the side of about every fifth beam with two or three 5/16" nails. If the walls are less than 16 inches and more than 12 feet high, the anchors should be nailed to every fourth beam. The following lengths will do for any thickness of wall, as they can be nailed at any point near the end of beam: 1/4" X 1 1/4" X 12" long; 3/8" X 1 1/2" X 16" long; 3/8" X 1 1/4 X 16" long.
These anchors are used for tying the front, side and interior walls together when the side walls are carried up ahead of the front walls. They are placed about 4 feet apart in height, single for a 20-inch wall and less, and double for 24-inch wall and over. The hook end, being turned down or up 2 inches, is built in side walls, and the spear end projecting sufficiently to take the centre of front wall. Sizes are from two to three feet in length, of 1 1/2" X 3/8", 1 1/2" X 1/2", and 1 3/4" X 1/2" flat iron, with 3/4" diameter rod 12 inches long for a spear.
This anchor is made similar to the wall anchor, but used to tie a front or rear wall to the crossbeams which run parallel with front and rear walls, and sometimes made to extend over three or four beams, but generally only two.
The hook end rests on and is turned down over beam and nailed. The iron beam girders supporting the upper stories over a front, at second-story level, are connected to interior beams by these anchors; the end in wall and over girder is hooked over flange of outer beam, or middle one if girder is of three beams. Sizes commonly used: 1 1/4" X 3/8", 1 1/2" X 3/8", and 1 1/2" X 1/2", the length varying to suit the centres of beams.
When an old wall is to be lined with a small one from 8 to 16 inches thick, these anchors are used, being driven into the old work with the hook end projecting from 4 to 8 inches. The new wall is then tied with the old, and the hook is turned up. The anchors are made 1" X 3/8" X 8" long and 1 1/2 X 3/8" X 12" long.
Before the wooden shores and needles used in supporting a wall that has been undermined for the purpose of extending the foundation of an adjoining building deeper are removed, the new foundation and wall are rebuilt as near as possible to the old work, leaving an open joint. These anchors are then driven into this joint with a sledge-hammer, making both the new and the old wall perfectly tight and secure. The shoring can then be removed without any settlement of the old wall. The anchors are made of flat iron 1 1/2" X 3/8", 2" X 1/2", and flattened as shown in plate. The length varies with the thickness of wall.
Coping Anchors are used for stone coping. Where the coping is 4 to 6 inches thick, each end to be leaded into stone 2 1/2" to 3" from joint. If exposed to the action of the atmosphere, as is generally the case, they should be galvanized. Size, 1 1/4 X 1" X 6 1/2" long.
These anchors are extensively used in government work, and are made of a 3/4" diameter bar, bent to the form as shown, 8 inches at each letter. They do away with any bolts, and can be slipped through 13/16" holes in end of iron beams.
A is used for connecting iron beams together end to end, and is bolted with two 3/4" diameter bolts on each beam joined. Size, 1 1/2 X 3/8" by 12" long.
B is for wooden beams, and is used in the same manner as straps, with the exception that 5/16" diameter anchor nails are used instead of bolts, and it is made 1 1/4" X 1/4" X 20" long and 1 1/2" X 3/8" X 20" long.