As its name implies, is for use upon a stand or tripod, and is really the most satisfactory form to use for most purposes in photographic practice. Fig. 2 gives a general view of the stand camera most frequently met with. Fig. 3 is an outline sketch, by means of which it will be possible to more readily describe the various parts.

The camera consists of a lens A, a focussing screen of ground glass, situated at the back of B (and shown in Fig. 5, C), with the intervening space enclosed by bellows, C, which are made of leather or some such material, pleated to allow for closing up into a small space, when the camera is not required for use, also to conveniently open and close during the racking out in the operation of focussing.

The Stand Camera /FirstStepsInPhotography 7

Fig. 3.

There is a large variety of cameras to be met with, more or less elaborately fitted. These fittings tend to bewilder the beginner, but there need be no fear if only the simplicity of the elementary form of camera, as the pin-hole camera previously described, is borne in mind.

The Body

The wooden framework with the elements of the camera - lens, focussing screen and bellows - is called the "Body." It is made up of the baseboard, D, at one end of which rises the frame of the back, B, carrying the focussing screen, and at the other the front, E, carrying the lens, A, and the shutter, H.

The Extensions

The baseboard, Fig. 4, A, has one or more movable portions, B, working upon it. These constitute what are known as "Double or Triple Extensions," and are worked by the rack and pinions, C C, to lengthen or shorten the bellows, which are securely attached to the front and back of the camera in such a manner that all light is completely shut out. The turn-table fitting, E, to which the tripod legs are attached, is also connected within the baseboard.

The Extensions /FirstStepsInPhotography 8

Fig. 4.

The Back

The back, Fig. 5, is the framework in which the focussing screen is fixed. There are two portions. The first, A, is attached to the woodwork, rising from the baseboard, and is held in position by means of the small catches, D D and EE (shown also in side-view, in Fig. 3, B). It is by altering the position of this frame that the focussing screen is arranged for upright or horizontal pictures; this is done by moving round the top catches, D D, lifting out the frame and turning it round. The second frame, B, carrying the ground-glass screen C, is connected with A by double hinges; these permit it to be swung back (as shown in Fig. 35) to allow the dark slide or plate-holder to be fitted into position before the exposure is made.

The Back /FirstStepsInPhotography 9

Fig. 5.

The Swing-Back

It is at all times a matter for careful consideration that all lines in the picture shall be rendered perpendicular; to ensure this the back must always be upright. If the situation require that the camera be tilted either up or down, the back must be brought to the upright by loosening the binding screw of the slotted slide struts, Fig. 3, F. This produces what is called a "Double Swing-Back," and is illustrated in Fig. 3, B1 and B2. In some cameras, the swing-back is arranged for by slotted brass plates and milled nuts and screws attached to the stationary and movable part of the back in place of the struts.

The Front

The Front, Fig. 6, is connected by hinges with the extending portion of the baseboard, and is composed of a wooden stage, A, into which slides a square flat piece of wood, B, to the back of which the bellows are fastened. The piece,B, is pierced with a circular hole, in front of which the shutter is attached, and to the shutter-case the flange, C, of the lens-mount is screwed.

The Front /FirstStepsInPhotography 10

Fig. 6.

Rise And Fall Front

The stage, A, is so arranged that B is held firmly in position by the binding screw on the slotted brass plate, D. If the screw is loosened, B can be raised or lowered through the length of the slot forming what is called a "Rise and Fall" Front.

A lateral or cross movement is obtained if B has a movable piece working in grooves on its front. The lens and shutter will then be attached to the extra piece.

The Plate-Holder Or Dark Slide

This is the piece of apparatus in which the plates are carried to protect them from the light, when brought from the dark-room to be used in the camera.

There are several forms of plate-holders. The "Book-form" holder is, however, the one in most common use. In this, as the two halves of which it is made up are hinged together, they will open and lie flat like a book, hence the name. Fig. 7 gives a full view of the open holder and Fig. 8 a side sectional view. There is accommodation for two plates, which are separated by blackened card or tin to prevent the light passing through one to the other. The half, B, has a well - indicated by the heavy lines - into which the plates and partition fit. The half, A, then closes down closely upon them. Each half has a sliding portion - shown by the dotted lines round A - to draw out when the holder is in position in the camera.

The Plate Holder Or Dark Slide /FirstStepsInPhotography 11

Fig. 7.

The Plate Holder Or Dark Slide /FirstStepsInPhotography 12

Fig. 8.

The other plate-holders do not open as the above. In these the sliding portion draws quite out; the plate is then put in through the open side and held in position by springs. The opening through which the slide is drawn is furnished with a spring "cut-off" to close up after the removal of the slide and to prevent the light from entering.

The Plate Holder Or Dark Slide /FirstStepsInPhotography 13

Fig. 9.

The Tripod Or Stand

The Tripod or Stand is the support for the camera. Each leg, Fig. 9, has two or more joints for conveniently folding up in a compact manner, when not in use. The bottom joint, C, slides out from the middle one, B, and is clamped by the T-screw, B1; this is a convenient arrangement, as C may be pulled out to any distance for varying the height of the camera. The top joint, A, swings out from the sides of B, and is held in an upright position by the metal cross-piece, A2; this pulls out from the side, and fits into two grooves at the top of B. The cross-piece, A1, also coming from an inlet, is to keep the top joint open.

Each leg is attached to the baseboard of the camera at the points, A3, by pulling the parts of A closer together at the top and springing them upon the pins, D D, Fig. 4, in the case of the turn-table head - the one most frequently met with - or to the ordinary head of the tripod. When the tripod has an ordinary head, it is fastened to the baseboard by means of a thumb-screw.

It is very necessary that the tripod when set up for use is quite rigid, as any shakiness will cause trouble and disappointment.