This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
230. For this lesson you are expected to work only on the forehead. Try and make the proof of your work appear as near as possible like the figures on the right hand side of Illustration No. 13. You will observe in this illustration that we have four heads, two of a woman and two of a man. One of each of these faces is unretouched, the other has the forehead alone worked as far as we expect you to work in completing this lesson.
231. Before entering upon the practice work of this lesson there are many important details which require careful consideration. For example, the foreheads of children are very smooth and soft, while in the adult, especially men, they become more expressive. The forehead, divided, as it is, into distinct surfaces, portrays prominent features of the character. The wrinkles and lines on the forehead are regulated by the attachment of the skin to the lower part of the forehead. A round forehead is only admissible in the female; in men its appearance is too feminine and lacks strength. The amount of work permitted on this portion of the face depends largely on the age and sex of the subject. If the subject be a woman, the line should be almost entirely eliminated; if an elderly person, the wrinkles and lines may be softened, but by no means entirely removed. The forehead, especially of elderly subjects, should be worked with the utmost care.
232. To be successful, the modeler must work with
feeling, and when working over these character lines and wrinkles, should imagine, not that he is penciling over a smooth surface, but that the high-lights or prominences are actually raised. On such features, he must gradually work lighter, so as not to destroy the character of lines. It is the same with respect to the hollows or deep wrinkles. The worker should feel that he has to get down into the hollows, and, therefore, must work more heavily, filling up and smoothing over - evening up as it were - not entirely eliminating the shadows of the wrinkles, but blending them softly into the remaining portions. In other words, the modeler should imagine that he is working on the actual face of the subject and not merely on a flat presentment.
Texture Of The Skin. This effect is produced by what we term stippling. The grain of the natural skin must be imitated as nearly as possible. In the child this will require very fine stippling. The adult requires a coarser grain and a longer stroke of the pencil. You must be guided entirely by your subject. Do not pencil across the grain. Always work with the muscles, lines and grain of the flesh. It is a good idea to turn your negative on the retouching desk so that you can continually follow the grain.
How To Produce The Stippling Or Grain Effect. Some produce a stipple by merely using check marks, others by working in a circular motion, and still others by a cross line. There are still others who work in a zig-zag form, following the lines of the face and crossing them on large blotches and wrinkles. You should employ the method which you think will enable you to produce the required results. One rule must be observed - always follow the muscles, lines and grain of the flesh and no matter what method or stroke you employ, you will produce a stipple. After some practice the hand will guide the pencil exactly right, and you will produce the result and really not know how you accomplished it. Constant practice alone will make you a master of modeling.
235. It is well to turn your pencil quite frequently as the point flattens by constant use. Work very carefully and
Illustration No. 14. Retouching Examples - Profile View - First Stage
See Paragraph 238.
do not accomplish any more than this lesson calls for (the forehead only).